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This report presents the methodology for and results from a series of room-scale fire tests to produce data on the yields of toxic products in both pre-flashover and post-flashover fires. The combustibles examined were: a sofa made of upholstered cushions on a steel frame, particleboard bookcases with a laminated finish, polyvinyl chloride sheet, and household electric cable. They were burned in a room with a long adjacent corridor. The yields of CO2, CO, HCl, HCN, and carbonaceous soot were determined. Other toxicants (e.g., NO2, formaldehyde and acrolein) were not found; concentrations below the detection limits were shown to be of limited toxicological importance relative to the detected toxicants. The toxicant yields from sofa cushion fires in a closed room were similar to those from pre-flashover fires of the same cushions in a room with the door open. The uncertainties in the post-flashover data are smaller due to the higher species concentrations and the more fully established upper layer from which the fire effluent was sampled. The uncertainty values are comparable to those estimated for the fractional effective dose calculations used to determine the time available for escape from a fire. The uncertainty in the yield data from the sofa, bookcase, and cable tests is sufficiently small to determine whether a bench-scale apparatus is producing results that are similar to or different from the real-scale results here. The use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was shown to be a useful tool for obtaining concentration data of toxicants. However, its operation and interpretation is far from routine. The losses of CO, HCN, and HCl as they flowed down the corridor were found to be dependent on the combustible. The downstream to upstream concentration ratios varied from unity for some fuels to a factor of five smaller for others. The CO yield from two of the combustibles was significantly lower than the expected value of 0.2, which should be used in hazard and risk analyses. The accuracy of the results is verified, and a hypothesis is offered for the lower CO yield values.
Tests were conducted to assess the performance of various residential smoke alarms to kitchen fires and nuisance alarm cooking scenarios. A test structure representing a kitchen, living room and hallway was constructed to conduct the tests. Eight different residential smoke alarms types, two photoelectric models, two ionization models, two dual sensor models, and two multi-sensor, intelligent models were used in this study. The data gathered provided insight into the susceptibility of alarm activation from exposures to typical cooking events and alarm times for actual kitchen fires. The effects on the type of alarm, and its distance from the cooking activity or fire were examined. Combustible materials typically found on a counter top can spread flames to overhead cabinets, and a single empty 0.6 m wide 1.0 m tall cabinet can produce a peak heat release rate nearly sufficient to flashover a small room. A protective metal barrier on the bottom and side facing the range tended to limit the spread of flames to the cabinet and reduce the heat release rate. All smoke alarms responded before hazardous conditions developed. The I1 alarm tended to respond first at a given location. Results show smoke alarms placed at the furthest location may provide less than 120 s of available safe egress time, which suggests a more central alarm location closer to the kitchen for this configuration. Ten cooking activities were examined to determine an alarm s propensity to activate to cooking aerosols. In most cases, the propensity to nuisance alarm decreased as the distance from the cooking source increased. Alarms that rely on sensitive ionization chambers (here I1 and D2) experience more nuisance alarm activations across all cooking activities and locations. All alarms except I1 and D2 experienced about the same nuisance alarm frequency across all cooking activities for locations outside the kitchen.
New technologies and research are redefining the state-of-the-art in building evacuation. The time is right to rethink the entire infrastructure of egress from buildings in light new opportunities to address the economic and life-safety issues. Approximately 40 experts from a variety of disciplinary background assembled in Warrenton, VA from April 1-3, 2008 in order to consider building evacuation, starting with a blank sheet of paper. Structured around the principles of Value-Focused Thinking (a text authored by workshop moderator Ralph Keeney), the participants were encouraged to consider values, objectives, alternatives, and metrics. This process combined the benefits of free-thinking brainstorming with a formalism which encouraged evaluation of the potential for new ideas. By the conclusion of the third day, over 400 ideas had been developed, along with metrics for future evaluation of the ideas.
This report summarizes the measurement results and recommended procedures for responding to building plumbing system contamination incidents and restoring the water system to safe operation. The recommendations are based on analysis of the results of a measurement and modelling research project investigated contamination and decontamination issues related to building plumbing systems.
The objective of this study was to compare the levels of hazard created by room fires in a dormitory building with and without automatic fire sprinklers in the room of fire origin. This report describes a series of experiments where fires were initiated in a dormitory sleeping room. The description of the experimental conditions includes: the geometry and construction of the building, the fuel load in the sleeping rooms, and the location of the instrumentation used to measure gas temperature, oxygen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations and heat flux. Smoke alarm activation and sprinkler activation times are also reported. Five experiments were conducted. In two of the experiments, the door between the sleeping room (room of fire origin) and the corridor was closed. In the other three experiments the door from the sleeping room (room of fire origin) remained open to the corridor. In each case, door closed or door open, one of the experiments was sprinklered. The results from the experiments comparing the sprinklered and non-sprinklered sleeping room are presented. The results from these experiments demonstrate the potential life safety benefits of smoke alarms, compartmentation, and automatic fire sprinkler systems in college dormitories and similar occupancies. These experiments were conducted by NIST in cooperation with the University of Arkansas and the Fayetteville Fire Department.
This report documents a set of 9 full scale ISO 9705 room under-ventilated compartment fire experiments for the purpose of guiding the development of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) computer fire model - Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). The gas species composition and temperature throughout the interior of the compartment was mapped during quasi-steady burning conditions using movable measurement probes. In conjunction with the gas species and temperature measurements, global heat release rate, global burning mass rate, and local heat flux measurements were taken. The tests yielded detailed maps. From the data collected, the mixture fraction (with and without soot included in the calculations), local equivalence ratio, carbon monoxide and soot yields, fractional carbon monoxide and soot ratios, and combustion efficiency for each test were determined. Results from ethanol (a low sooting fuel) and heptane (a mildly sooting fuel) are presented. The results collected in this set of experiments were also compared and contrasted to the results of similar tests done in the previous report in this series of testing, NIST Technical Note 1603: Experimental Study of the Effects of Fuel Type, Fuel Distribution, and Vent Size on Full-Scale Underventilated Compartment Fires in an ISO 9705 Room.
One of the most important aspects of effective firefighter response to an emergency event is awareness of the location of the firefighters involved, especially in cases with limited visibility due to darkness, heavy smoke, or unfamiliar and changing environments. Location and tracking systems (LTS ) have been developed and are being refined to aid firefighting operations or the rescue of firefighters in distress. In this National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) technical note, LTS technologies are examined with the goal of establishing structural and electromagnetic scenarios that are representative of situations in which firefighters are most in need of this technology. Firefighter injury and fatality data are studied to determine the building and occupancy types that are associated with the highest risk of injuries. Current radio frequency (RF) regulations are explored to provide guidance on the electromagnetic landscape in which LTS are expected to operate on the fire ground. The potential effects of RF attenuation, RF multipath, and RF interference, which impact the ability of LTS to operate and communicate with incident command posts, are also discussed. Notional building and electromagnetic scenarios are presented to support the development of future test methods and standards that will appropriately challenge and evaluate LTS performance. These scenarios are also useful for fire departments and local jurisdictions in determining which types of firefighter LTS may be most effective in the types of structures and occupancies in their community.
The purpose of this report is to update calculations, originally performed in 1993, that predict the downwind extent of smoke particulate from hypothetical in situ burns of spilled crude oil in Alaska. The reason for the update is that the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) have changed since 1993. These standards formed the basis for establishing, safe distances for separating potential burning sites from populated areas in Alaska."
The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) initiated a program to determine the effects of emissions from problem drywall on residential electrical, gas distribution, and fire safety components. As part of this program, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) generated data to help determine whether there has been degradation in the activation performance of automatic residential fire sprinklers exposed to those emissions, as manifested by changes to sprinkler activation time. NIST tested three sets of sprinklers in the sensitivity test oven (plunge test apparatus), according to the oven heat test section of UL 199 / UL 1626. Set 1 (bulb type) residential sprinklers were provided by CPSC staff and described as having been installed in homes with problem drywall; Set 2 sprinklers (bulb and fusible types) were purchased new by NIST and tested as received; and Set 3 comprised new sprinklers, of the same models as Set 2, after they had been subjected to an accelerated aging protocol, the Battelle Class IV corrosivity environment. Sprinklers from all three sets were installed and tested in the UL 199 / UL 1626 plunge test apparatus.
The purpose of this document is to provide the foundation for the development of a guidance document on emergency communication message content and dissemination strategies. The document answers three major questions regarding emergency communication systems: 1) What technology exists or is proposed for use in emergency notification? 2) What approaches are currently being used to disseminate messages? 3) How does the public respond to different types of information and information sources? The document begins with a discussion of the technology that exists or is proposed for use in emergency notification, along with the positive and negative aspects of each system. The ways in which social media tools can be used to provide warnings in emergencies are included. Second, the document discusses the various types of emergencies for which warnings are needed, the range of protective actions that are taken by building occupants in emergencies, and the nature of the information required based upon the emergency type. The emergency communication systems installed in two different college campuses are described as examples of approaches used to disseminate warnings during emergencies. Finally, a comprehensive literature review is presented on how the public responds to various types of information and information sources both in emergency and non-emergency conditions. A summary list of the relevant findings from each literature source is assembled in Appendix A to identify the most effective ways to create or disseminate messages to achieve optimal occupant response. Detailed annotations for each source are presented in Appendix B.
A series of experiments are described in which helium was released at constant rates into a 1.5 m 1.5 m 0.75 m enclosure designed as a -scale model of a two car garage. The purpose was to provide reference data sets for testing and validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and to experimentally characterize the effects of a number of variables on the mixing behavior within an enclosure and the exchange of helium with the surroundings. Helium was used as a surrogate for hydrogen, and the total volume released was scaled as the amount that could be released by a typical hydrogen-fueled automobile with a full fuel tank. Temporal profiles of helium were measured at seven vertical locations within the enclosure during and following one hour and four hour releases. Idealized vents in one wall sized to provide air exchange rates typical of actual garages were used. The effects of vent size, number, and location were investigated using three different vent combinations. The dependence on leak location was considered by releasing helium from three different points within the enclosure. A number of tabulated quantitative measures are used to characterize the experiments. The complete experimental measurement results for each condition are available on the internet as described in Appendix A (http: //www.nist.gov/el/fire_protection/buildings/upload/HeliumDispersionDataSets.zip.
This report describes the results of calculations using the NIST Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) performed to provide insight on the thermal conditions that may have occurred during a wind-driven fire in a one-story ranch house on April 12, 2009 in Houston, Texas. The FDS simulations represented the building geometry, material thermal properties, and fire behavior based on information gathered from multiple sources. The simulation results are provided in this report. The FDS simulation that best represents the witnessed fire conditions indicate that fire spread throughout the attic and first floor developed a wind-driven flow with temperatures in excess of 260 C (500 F) between the den and front door. The critical event in this fire was the creation of a wind-driven flow path between a large span of failed windows on the upwind side of the structure, and the open front door on the downwind side of the structure. Floor-to-ceiling temperatures rapidly increased in the flow path, in which members were performing interior operations. In a simulation without wind, the flow path was not created after the large span of windows failed, and the thermal environment surrounding the location of interior operations improved.
Sixteen reference commercial buildings were defined by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and created as EnergyPlus input files. They were developed for use in assessing new technologies and supporting the development of energy codes. Infiltration rates were inputs to the models, rather than calculated based on established building airflow theory. In order to support more physically-based airflow calculations, as well as contaminant transport analysis, models of the 16 reference buildings were created in the multizone airflow and contaminant program CONTAM. A number of key inputs had to be defined for the CONTAM models, including changes to the interior zoning to account for more realistic airflows. Annual airflow and contaminant simulations were performed in CONTAM for six of the buildings. As expected, the assumed infiltration rates in EnergyPlus did not realistically reflect impacts of indoor-outdoor weather conditions. In contrast, there were clear relationships between the air change rates calculated by CONTAM and weather. The infiltration rates assumed in EnergyPlus were also generally lower than those calculated by CONTAM. Contaminant analyses were also performed for occupant-generated carbon dioxide and volatile organic compounds from indoor sources, as well as for outdoor particulate matter and ozone.
The objective of this report is to support the development of descriptive statistics and associated measures of uncertainty for characterizing, tracking, and better understanding the root causes of the U.S. fire burden by identifying the relevant costs and losses associated with fire, i.e., information needed to make cost-effective decisions for reducing the economic impact fires have on society, and identifying sources of data that would allow future statistical analysis, while highlighting areas where future research is needed. This data will be used to develop performance metrics, enabling future comparisons between the use of new fire mitigation technologies and their impact on the U.S. fire burde
A review is presented of the state of the art of smoke production measurement, prediction of smoke impact as part of computer-based fire modeling, and measurement and prediction of the impact of smoke through deposition of soot on and corrosion of electrical equipment. The literature review on smoke corrosivity testing and damage due to smoke deposition emphasizes (despite extensive research on smoke corrositity) the lack of validated and widely applicable prescriptive or performance based methods to assure electrical equipment survivability given exposure to fire smoke. Circuit bridging via current leakage through deposited smoke was identified as an important mechanism of electronic and electrical equipment failure during NPP fires. In the near term, assessment of potential damage can reasonably be based on the airborne smoke exposure concentration and, perhaps, the exposure duration. Hence, models that can predict the airborne smoke concentration would be sufficient to suit short-term analysis needs. In the longer term, it would be desirable to develop models that could estimate the deposition behavior of smoke, as well and specifically correlate the combination of deposited and airborne smoke to component damage.
This report documents the stress-strain behavior of a collection of structural steels recovered from the collapse of the World Trade Center. These steels, combined with literature data form the basis of a model for the stress-strain behavior of structural steels in general. The model accounts for the lost of strength, the decrease in work hardening and the increase in the strain-rate sensitivity with increasing temperature. For general structural steels, it takes the measured yield strength as its only input parameter. The new model predicts the stress-strain behavior of the steels slightly better than the existing Eurocode 3 stress-strain model.
As part of the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) technical staff program to determine the effects of emissions from imported drywall on residential electrical, gas distribution, and fire safety components, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has generated data to aid assessment of whether there has been a loss of functionality of fire smoke detectors exposed to those emissions. NIST tested four sets of smoke detectors in the Fire Emulator/Detector Evaluator (FEDE) and the UL 217 test apparatus. Set 1 (ionization only) detectors were provided by CPSC staff and described as having been installed in homes with imported drywall; Set 2 (ionization only) detectors (same models as Set 1 but different batches) were described as coming from contemporaneous homes without the presence of imported drywall; Set 3 smoke detectors were purchased new by NIST and tested as received; and Set 4 comprised detectors from Set 3 that had been subjected to an accelerated aging protocol to simulate 10-year exposure to the effluent from imported drywall. Detectors from Set 1 and Set 2 activated within UL 217 sensitivity test parameters. Tests using the FEDE found differences in sensitivity between Sets 1 and 2 and between the ionization detectors in Sets 3 and 4 that were numerically small compared to the allowable performance range. An even smaller improvement in sensitivity was found for photoelectric smoke detectors between Sets 3 and 4. Two of the Set 1 smoke detectors sensed the presence of smoke, but would not send the signal to activate interconnected alarms. Two other Set 1 smoke detectors failed to operate under AC power, but operated properly under the required 9V battery back-up. It could not be determined whether the observations of Set 1 detector performance could be attributed to exposure to the emissions from imported drywall or to other factors.
For the last forty years, NIST has led the world in fire metrology through research conducted at the Large Fire Laboratory, which is being expanded to enable experiments on real-scale structures under combined structural and fire loads. The combined capabilities of large fire testing and structural fire testing will be comprised in the National Fire Research Laboratory (NFRL), which is expected to be completed in 2013. Measurements of temperature, displacement, and strain at hundreds of points on a structural system in the fire zone are needed to validate analytical tools for fire conditions. However, the ability to measure the performance of structures during realistic fire exposures is severely limited due to a significant gap in measurement science. At present, temperatures are measured with thermocouples and strains are measured with high temperature strain gages. Each of these sensors requires a separate line for data collection during the experiment. Further, high temperature strain gages are unreliable and often do not perform as expected during fire tests. Significant improvements to structural measurement in fire conditions are needed to advance the validation of analytical tools and performance based design methodologies. Candidate methods for temperature, displacement, and strain measurements that could meet these performance requirements were reviewed. A demonstration test that employed a natural gas burner in the Large Fire Facility evaluated the potential of digital image correlation and high temperature strain gages to measure thermally induced strains.The technology review and the outcome of the demonstration test indicate that digital image correlation and fiber optic methods have great promise for temperature, displacement, and strain measurement. A four-stage development plan is proposed to overcome these challenges.
The dispersion and loss of helium inside a single-car residential garage attached to a single-family house was experimentally characterized by recording time-resolved helium concentrations at multiple locations in the garage and at a single location in the house during and following helium releases near the floor of the garage. Helium served as a surrogate for hydrogen for safety reasons, and helium release rates were adjusted to provide the same constant volume flow rate as that required to release 5 kg of hydrogen over a four hour period. Supporting measurements included compartment leakage, temperature, and atmospheric wind conditions. Helium was released upwards either as momentum- or buoyancydominated flows. Experiments were performed with the garage empty or with one of two conventional mid-sized automobiles parked over the release location. Six tests with the garage naturally ventilated and six tests employing forced ventilation with a fan are described. A variety of parameters were used to characterize the mixing behavior. Conclusions emphasized include: a) the role of Froude number on helium mixing behavior, b) the development of upper and lower helium concentration layers in the garage during a release, c) the measurable, but limited, effects of atmospheric wind on the results, d) the relatively efficient transfer of helium from the garage into the house during the releases, e) the ability of a vehicle to trap a high helium concentration in the engine compartment and, particularly, the undercarriage during a helium release and the relatively rapid drop in these levels to those of the surrounding garage at the end of the release, f) the relatively slow buildup of helium in the passenger compartment and trunk of a vehicle during a helium release and subsequent slow decay following cessation of the flow, g) the effectiveness of active ventilation in reducing helium concentrations in the garage to levels below those corresponding to flammable concentrations of hydrogen, and h) the trapping of helium/air mixtures corresponding to highly flammable hydrogen mixtures inside the vehicles even when active garage ventilation was employed.
A standard procedure is needed for obtaining smoke toxic potency data for use in fire hazard and risk analyses. Room fire testing of finished products is impractical, directing attention to the use of apparatus that can obtain the needed data quickly and at affordable cost. This report presents examination of the fourth of a series bench-scale fire tests to produce data on the yields of toxic products in both pre-flashover and post-flashover flaming fires. The apparatus is the ISO 5660-1 / ASTM E 1354 cone calorimeter, modified to have an enclosure and a gas delivery system allowing variable oxygen concentration. The test specimens was cut from finished products that were also burned in room-scale tests: a sofa made of upholstered cushions on a steel frame, particleboard bookcases with a laminated finish, and household electric cable. Initially, the standard test procedure was followed. Subsequent variation in the procedure included reducing the supplied oxygen volume fraction to 0.18, 0.16, and 0.14, reducing the incident heat flux to 25 kW/m2, and reducing the gas flow rate by half. The yields of CO2 CO, HCl, and HCN were determined. The yields of other toxicants (NO, NO2, formaldehyde, and acrolein) were below the detection limits, but volume fractions at the detection limits were shown to be of limited toxicological importance relative to the detected toxicants. In general, performing the tests at the reduced oxygen volume fraction led to small increases on the toxic gas yields. The exceptions were an increase in the CO yield for the bookcase at 0.14 oxygen volume fraction. Reducing the incident heat flux had little effect on the toxic gas yields, other than increasing variability. Reducing the gas flow rate reduced the limits of detection by half, but also resulted in reduced gas yields at lower oxygen volume fractions. In none of the procedure variations did the CO yield approach the value of 0.2 found in real-scale post flashover fire tests.
A standard procedure is needed for obtaining smoke toxic potency data for use in fire hazard and risk analyses. Room fire testing of finished products is impractical, directing attention to the use of apparatus that can obtain the needed data quickly and at affordable cost. In this work we compare yields of toxic gases generated by four bench scale apparatus to previously conducted room-scale fires. The bench scale apparatus are the radiant apparatus in NFPA 269 and ASTM E 1678, the smoke density chamber in ISO 5659-2, a controlled-atmosphere version of the cone calorimeter (ASTM E 1354), and the tube furnace in ISO/TS 19700. In the bench scale experiments, the test specimens were cut from finished products that were also burned in the room-scale tests: a sofa made of upholstered cushions on a steel frame, particleboard bookcases with a laminated finish, and household electric cable. The yields of CO2 CO, HCl, and HCN were determined. The yields of other toxicants (NO, NO2, formaldehyde, and acrolein) were below the detection limits, but volume fractions at the detection limits were shown to be of limited toxicological importance relative to the detected toxicants. The bench scale and room scale yields are compared, and the bench scale apparatus are assessed for the degree to which they accurately predict room scale yields. The results of this study provide a better basis for obtaining toxic potency input data for fire modeling than currently exists.
A standard procedure is needed for obtaining smoke toxic potency data for use in fire hazard and risk analyses. Room fire testing of finished products is impractical, directing attention to the use of apparatus that can obtain the needed data quickly and at affordable cost. This report examines the first of a series bench-scale fire tests to produce data on the yields of toxic products in both pre-flashover and post-flashover flaming fires. The apparatus is the radiant furnace in NFPA 269 and ASTM E 1678. Test specimens were cut from finished products that were also burned in room-scale tests: a sofa made of upholstered cushions on a steel frame, particleboard bookcases with a laminated finish, and household electric power cable. Initially, the standard test procedure was followed, with a variation to reduce the contribution to the effluent of post- flaming pyrolysis. Subsequent variations in the procedure included cutting the test specimen into small pieces and performing the tests at a reduced oxygen volume fraction of 0.17. The yields of CO2 CO, HCl, and HCN were determined. The yields of other toxicants (NO, NO2, formaldehyde, and acrolein) were below the detection limits, but volume fractions at the detection limits were shown to be of limited toxicological importance relative to the detected toxicants. In general, dicing the test specimen and performing the tests at the reduced oxygen volume fraction had little effect on the toxic gas yields, within the experimental uncertainties. The exceptions were an increase in the CO yield for diced specimens at reduced oxygen, a decrease in the HCN yield from the intact sofa and cable specimens at reduced oxygen, and an increase in the HCN yield from dicing the cable specimens. In none of the procedure variations did the CO yield approach the value of 0.2 found in real-scale post flashover fire tests.
An in-depth analysis of U.S. residential fire statistics shows that although the total number of fires and deaths due to mattress fires has dropped as a result of several regulatory approaches, the number of deaths per 1000 mattress/bedding fires has increased over past 3 decades. To address the increasing number of deaths due to mattress fires, the open flame mattress flammability regulation (16 CFR 1633) was recently introduced in the U.S. The 16 CFR 1633 prescribes performance standards rather than design standards; this allows manufacturers the flexibility to meet the needs of the consumer without sacrificing fire safety. This flammability regulation for residential mattress has generated much interest in understanding the burning behavior of mattresses as well as in developing new materials for mattress construction. To comply with this regulation, it is essential to understand mattress construction, fire performance testing, factors affecting mattress flammability, and compliance solutions. This report reviews the impact of current mattress flammability standards, examines factors affecting mattress flammability, and reviews full-scale and bench-scale test methods that are being developed for mattresses. The soft materials used in the mattress set, including cushioning materials, fire blocking materials, and tickings, act both individually and collectively to affect the fire performance. The performance of fire barrier materials designed to protect the inner cushioning material from heat and flame is largely dependent on the choice of cushioning material and ticking. When used with an incompatible combination of filling material and ticking, a fire barrier may fail to protect thermal degradation and subsequent burning of filling material. Some of the challenges in designing mattresses have been identified and reported here.
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