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Books > Professional & Technical > Civil engineering, surveying & building > Building construction & materials > Fire protection & safety

Assessment of Factors Affecting Fire Performance of Mattresses - A Review (Paperback): Nist Assessment of Factors Affecting Fire Performance of Mattresses - A Review (Paperback)
Nist
R276 Discovery Miles 2 760 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

An in-depth analysis of U.S. residential fire statistics shows that although the total number of fires and deaths due to mattress fires has dropped as a result of several regulatory approaches, the number of deaths per 1000 mattress/bedding fires has increased over past 3 decades. To address the increasing number of deaths due to mattress fires, the open flame mattress flammability regulation (16 CFR 1633) was recently introduced in the U.S. The 16 CFR 1633 prescribes performance standards rather than design standards; this allows manufacturers the flexibility to meet the needs of the consumer without sacrificing fire safety. This flammability regulation for residential mattress has generated much interest in understanding the burning behavior of mattresses as well as in developing new materials for mattress construction. To comply with this regulation, it is essential to understand mattress construction, fire performance testing, factors affecting mattress flammability, and compliance solutions. This report reviews the impact of current mattress flammability standards, examines factors affecting mattress flammability, and reviews full-scale and bench-scale test methods that are being developed for mattresses. The soft materials used in the mattress set, including cushioning materials, fire blocking materials, and tickings, act both individually and collectively to affect the fire performance. The performance of fire barrier materials designed to protect the inner cushioning material from heat and flame is largely dependent on the choice of cushioning material and ticking. When used with an incompatible combination of filling material and ticking, a fire barrier may fail to protect thermal degradation and subsequent burning of filling material. Some of the challenges in designing mattresses have been identified and reported here.

The Process of Verification and Validation of Building Fire Evacuation Models (Paperback): Nist The Process of Verification and Validation of Building Fire Evacuation Models (Paperback)
Nist
R326 Discovery Miles 3 260 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

To date, there is no International standard on the methods and tests to assess the verification and validation (V&V) of building fire evacuation models, i.e., model testers adopt inconsistent procedures or tests designed for other model uses. For instance, the tests presented within the MSC/Circ.1238 Guidelines for evacuation analysis for new and existing passenger ships provided by the International Maritime Organization are often employed for the V&V of models outside their original context of use (building fires instead of maritime applications). This document discusses the main issues associated with the definition of a standard procedure for the V&V of building fire evacuation models. A review of the current procedures, tests (e.g. the MSC/Circ.1238 Guidelines), and methods available in the literature to assess the V&V of building evacuation models is provided. The capabilities of building evacuation models are evaluated studying their five main core components, namely 1) Pre-evacuation time, 2) Movement and Navigation, 3) Exit usage, 4) Route availability and 5) Flow constraints. A set of tests and recommendations about the verification of building evacuation models is proposed. Suggestions on simple qualitative validation tests are provided together with examples of experimental data-sets suitable for the analysis of different core components. The uncertainties associated with evacuation modelling are discussed. In particular, a method for the analysis of behavioural uncertainty (uncertainty due to the use of distributions or stochastic variables to simulate human behaviour in evacuation modelling) is presented. The method consists of a set of convergence criteria based on functional analysis. The last part of this document presents a discussion on the definition of the acceptance criteria for a standard V&V protocol.

Smoke Component Yields from Bench-scale Fire Tests - 2. ISO 19700 Controlled Equivalence Ratio Tube Furnace (Paperback): Nist Smoke Component Yields from Bench-scale Fire Tests - 2. ISO 19700 Controlled Equivalence Ratio Tube Furnace (Paperback)
Nist
R275 Discovery Miles 2 750 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

A standard procedure is needed for obtaining smoke toxic potency data for use in fire hazard and risk analyses. Room fire testing of finished products is impractical, directing attention to the use of apparatus that can obtain the needed data quickly and at affordable cost. This report presents examination of the second of a series bench-scale fire tests to produce data on the yields of toxic products in both pre-flashover and post-flashover flaming fires. The apparatus is the ISO/TS 19700 controlled equivalence ratio tube furnace. This apparatus uses a mechanical feed mechanism to supply solid fuel into a tube furnace at a pre-determined rate, so that the global equivalence ratio can be adjusted. The test specimens were cut from finished products that were also burned in room-scale tests: a sofa made of upholstered cushions on a steel frame, particleboard bookcases with a laminated finish, and household electric cable. Initially, the standard test procedure was followed for two fire stages, well ventilated flaming and post- flashover. Subsequent variation in the procedure included dicing the specimen, further decreasing the equivalence ratio (well ventilated flaming) or increasing it (post-flashover), increasing the mass loading while maintaining the equivalence ratio, and increasing the fuel feed rate while maintaining the equivalence ratio. The yields of CO2 CO, HCl, and HCN were determined. The yields of other toxicants (NO, NO2, formaldehyde, and acrolein) were below the detection limits, but volume fractions at the detection limits were shown to be of limited toxicological importance relative to the detected toxicants. In general, the largest effects were seen between the two fire stages. The other variations within the fire stage had minor effects on gas yields. Under post-flashover conditions, the sum of the CO2 and CO yields frequently accounted for half or less of the carbon originally in the specimen. As a result, the gaseous combustion products cannot be used to estimate the mass burning rate. Under post flashover conditions, the CO yield for the sofa approached the value of 0.2 found in real-scale postflashover fire tests. However, for the bookcase and cable it did not. Yields of HCl from the cables generally approached their notional yields under well- ventilated conditions, and HCN was most readily detected from the sofa under post-flashover conditions at toxicologically significant concentrations.

Modeling and Measuring the Effects of Portable Gasoline Powered Generator Exhaust on Indoor Carbon Monoxide Level (Paperback):... Modeling and Measuring the Effects of Portable Gasoline Powered Generator Exhaust on Indoor Carbon Monoxide Level (Paperback)
Nist
R363 Discovery Miles 3 630 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is concerned about the hazard of acute residential carbon monoxide (CO) exposures from portable gasoline powered generators that can result in death or serious and/or lasting adverse health effects in exposed individuals. As an initial approach to characterizing these hazards, CPSC measured the emissions from generators by testing them in a small test chamber (Brown 2006). CPSC subsequently contracted with the University of Alabama (UA) to develop and construct low CO-emission prototype generators using off-the-shelf technologies installed on commercially-available portable generators. Under an interagency agreement with CPSC, NIST conducted a series of tests to characterize the indoor time course profiles of CO concentrations resulting from portable generators operating in the attached garage of a home under various use and environmental conditions, to evaluate the performance of low CO-emission prototype generators, and to provide model validation data. The data was also used as input to a simulation analysis conducted to examine the potential performance of the low CO-emission prototypes under a wider range of operating conditions.

Test Methods for Quantifying the Propensity of Cigarettes to Ignite Soft Furnishings. Volume 2. (Paperback): Nist Test Methods for Quantifying the Propensity of Cigarettes to Ignite Soft Furnishings. Volume 2. (Paperback)
Nist
R366 Discovery Miles 3 660 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

Research funded under the Fire Safe Cigarette Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-352) has led to the development of two test methods for measuring the ignition propensity of cigarettes. The Mock-Up Ignition Test Method uses substrated physically similar to upholstered furniture and mattresses: a layer of fabric over padding. The measure of cigarette performance is ignition or non-ignition of the substrate. The Cigarette Extinction Test Method replaces the fabric/padding assembly with multiple layers of common filter paper. The measure of performance is full-length burning or self-extinguishment of the cigarette. Routine measurement of the relative ignition propensity of cigarettes is feasible using either of the two methods. Improved cigarette performance under both methods has been linked with reduced real-world ignition behavior; and it is reasonable to assume that this, in turn, implies a significant real-world benefit. Both methods have been subjected to interlaboratory study. The resulting reproducibilities were comparable to each other and comparable to those in other fire test methods currently being used to regulate materials which may be involved in unwanted fires. Using the two methods, some current commercial cigarettes are shown to have reduced ignition propensities relative to the current best-selling cigarettes. *] This is one of six volumes in the Final Report, Fire Safe Cigarette Act of 1990. VOLUME 1. Overview: Practicability of Developing a Performance Standard to Reduce Cigarette Ignition Propensity by Jones-Smith, J., et al. VOLUME 3. Modeling the Ignition of Soft Furnishings by a Cigarette by Mitler, H. E., et al. VOLUME 4. Cigarette Fire Incident Study by Harwood, B., et al. VOLUME 5. Toxicity Testing Plan by Lee, B. C., et al. VOLUME 6. Societal Costs of Cigarette Fires by Ray, D. R., et al.

street smart firefighting - the common sense guide to firefighter safety and survival (Paperback): Robert C Bingham street smart firefighting - the common sense guide to firefighter safety and survival (Paperback)
Robert C Bingham
R496 Discovery Miles 4 960 Ships in 7 - 11 working days
Wildland Fire Incident Management Guide (2014) (Paperback): National Wildfire Coordinating Group Wildland Fire Incident Management Guide (2014) (Paperback)
National Wildfire Coordinating Group
R405 Discovery Miles 4 050 Ships in 7 - 11 working days
Human Exposure and Environmental Impact (Paperback): Nist Human Exposure and Environmental Impact (Paperback)
Nist
R321 Discovery Miles 3 210 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

Although these agents are typically employed in unoccupied sections of an aircraft, the possibility of human exposure still exists during handling, storage, and transport. Thus, it is important to know if the accidental release of the 12 agents in areas of typical occupancy would result in differing threats to life safety. At least two topics are important in assessing the impact of a potential release of an agent: 1) how does the agent distribute in an occupied space upon an accidental release, and 2) how does this release affect personnel who may be exposed? For the former, a series of tests was conducted to study the release of four of the twelve agents in a sealed compartment to measure the airborne concentration of agent that results from complete venting of containers of typical size into spaces of typical volume. These tests were augmented with field modeling to extend the range of the test results to other compartment geometries. For the latter, published toxicological results for chronic or acute exposure are summarized. It is important to note that in these tests, no humans were exposed.

Fire Hazard Comparison of Fire-Retarded and Non-Fire-Retarded Products (NBS SP 749) (Paperback): Nist Fire Hazard Comparison of Fire-Retarded and Non-Fire-Retarded Products (NBS SP 749) (Paperback)
Nist
R351 Discovery Miles 3 510 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

A test program was conducted for the Fire Retardant Chemicals Association to quantify the effects of fire retardant chemicals on total fire hazard. Five different types of products, each made from a different type of plastic were used. The products were made up in analogous fire-retardant (FR) and non-retarded variants (NFR).

Suppression of Engine Nacelle Fires (NIST SP 890) (Paperback): Nist Suppression of Engine Nacelle Fires (NIST SP 890) (Paperback)
Nist
R373 Discovery Miles 3 730 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

A series of experimental measurements were conducted and simple models were developed in an effort to provide an improved understanding of the influence of various parameters on the processes controlling flame stability in engine nacelle applications. The knowledge gained is compiled into usable tools which may assist suppression system designers determine the mass and rate of agent injection required for engine nacelle fire suppression. The Section is broken into several subsections. In Section 9.2, a description of the range of parameters which characterize engine nacelles is provided. The historical development of current halon 1301 fire protection systems is described. In Section 9.3, the results of four distinct experiments are discussed. First, the suppression effectiveness of candidate replacement agents (CF3I, C2HF5, and C3HF7) are tested on a turbulent jet spray flame. Second, suppression of a baffle stabilized pool fire is described. Third, measurements on the impact of the replacement agents on the ignition temperature of fuel/air/agent mixtures is discussed. Finally, measurements determining the flammability limits of propane/air/C2HF5 mixtures are discussed. The importance of agent entrainment into the recirculation/combustion zone of obstacle stabilized flames is emphasized. In Section 9.4, computational modeling of gaseous agent injection into a mock engine nacelle is described. The calculations are compared to measurements conducted in a wind tunnel. In Section 9.5, a simple algebraic model is developed which gives guidance on agent concentration requirements for flame suppression in generic nacelle configurations. Key findings and recommendations are compiled in Section 9.6. References are listed in Section 9.8.

FASTLite - Engineering Tools for Estimating Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (NIST SP 899) (Paperback): Nist FASTLite - Engineering Tools for Estimating Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (NIST SP 899) (Paperback)
Nist
R328 Discovery Miles 3 280 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

FASTLite is a collection of procedures which builds on the core routines of FIREFORM and the computer model CFAST to provide engineering calculations of fire phenomena for the building designer, code official, fire protection engineer and fire safety related practitioner. This manual provides documentation and examples for using FASTLite. It describes how to install the software on a computer and provides a guide for the use of FASTLite using an example.

Emergency Incident Media Coverage - Instructor Curriculum (CD-ROM): Robert S. Fleming Emergency Incident Media Coverage - Instructor Curriculum (CD-ROM)
Robert S. Fleming
R2,615 R2,234 Discovery Miles 22 340 Save R381 (15%) Ships in 7 - 11 working days

This instructor package for Emergency Incident Media Coverage gives the class administrator all of the tools necessary to ensure a successful class presentation. This instructor package includes: - Instructions for using the instructor package - Instructor guide lesson plans for each chapter that walk the instructor through effective classroom sessions - Supplemental lesson plans - Job aids - Emergency incident scenarios to use as course exercises - Powerpoint presentations that correlate with the Instructor Lesson Plan guides - End-of-session quizzes and answer keys - End-of-session answer keys Author Robert Fleming provides a chapter-by-chapter illustration of the key points important to effectively administer a course in emergency incident media coverage.

Limits to the Effectiveness of Metal-Containing Fire Suppressants. Final Technical Report (NISTIR 7177) (Paperback): Gregory T... Limits to the Effectiveness of Metal-Containing Fire Suppressants. Final Technical Report (NISTIR 7177) (Paperback)
Gregory T Lintreis
R234 Discovery Miles 2 340 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

This report reviews the literature on metal inhibition of flames and identifies metal species with potential as fire suppressant additives. To provide a basis for discussion, the detailed mechanism of inhibition of iron is reviewed, and the reasons for its loss of effectiveness are described. The demonstrated flame inhibiting properties of other metals is then discussed, followed by a description of the potential loss of effectiveness for these other metals. The production ban on the widely used and effective halon fire suppressants due to their ozone depletion potential, has motivated an extensive search for replacements. Metal containing compounds have attracted attention- especially for unoccupied spaces-because of their extraordinary effectiveness in some configurations. For example, Fe(CO)5 has been found to be up to eighty times more effective than CF3Br at reducing the overall reaction rate in premixed methane-air flames, when added at low concentration. Unfortunately, it has also been found to produce condensed-phase particles which reduce its effectiveness for co-flow diffusion flames. Hence, it is of interest to identify other metal compounds which may be strong flame inhibitors and then to assess their potential for loss of effectiveness through condensation. To achieve this goal, the present report provides background on current understanding of metal inhibition of flames, identifying metals with fire suppression potential. The inhibition mechanism of the iron is described, and the followed by a description of the reasons why it losses its effectiveness in some flame systems. The equivalent flame inhibiting species of other metal agents is then discussed, and evidence for any potential loss of effectiveness for these other metals is assembled and discussed.

Exposure and Fire Hazard Assessment of Nanoparticles in Fire Safe Consumer Products - Interagency Agreement Final Report... Exposure and Fire Hazard Assessment of Nanoparticles in Fire Safe Consumer Products - Interagency Agreement Final Report (Paperback)
Nist
R277 Discovery Miles 2 770 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

An innovative technology was evaluated to generate fire and health safe soft furnishings. Nanoparticle-based thin coatings on a polyurethane foam and nonwoven barrier fabric were applied using Layerby- layer (Lbl) assembly. This is the first report of using Lbl on a complex three dimensional substrate, to improve the fire resistance of foam and barrier fabrics, and with sodium montmorillonite clay (MMT), carbon nanofibers (CNF) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The Lbl process was tailored for each nanoparticle in order to fabricate durable coatings that completely covered the entire substrate surface. The CNF and MWCNT coatings on foam were thinner and contained fewer nanoparticles, but resulted in the greatest reduction in peak heat release rate (flammability). The reduction in foam flammability due to the nanoparticle \Lbl coatings is as high as 1138% greater than 17 other commercial fire retardants commonly used in foam. This technology has strong commercial viability for foam due to easy and flexibility of the Lbl process and the significant reduction in foam flammability caused by the coatings. However, Lbl does not work for nonwoven barrier fabrics as the structure was unable to remain intact during the fabrication process. In order to enable other agencies to access the potential health risk of using this nanoparticle-based technology for reducing the flammability of soft consumer products, this project developed the methodology to promote, collect, and quantify nanoparticles released from these substrates. In general, the release of nanoparticles was an order of magnitude higher from simulated chewing than simulated wear and tear, highest from the barrier fabric, and lowest for MMT. The release was between 0.50 mass fraction % to 0.0003 mass fraction % of the total nanoparticle loading on the substrate.

Characterization and Identification of Super-Effective Thermal Fire Extinguishing Agents. Final Report. NGP Project 4C/1/890... Characterization and Identification of Super-Effective Thermal Fire Extinguishing Agents. Final Report. NGP Project 4C/1/890 (Paperback)
Nist
R360 Discovery Miles 3 600 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

The use of halon 1301 for fire fighting is being phased out due to its deleterious effects on stratospheric ozone. This report summarizes the findings of a three year study designed to characterize and identify super-effective thermal fire-fighting agents as possible replacements for these widely used compounds. Four distinct aspects related to the effectiveness of potential thermal agents have been considered. First, existing thermodynamic databases maintained by NIST have been searched in order to identify chemical compounds which are predicted to extract large amounts of heat from a combustion zone. Second, two liquids that were identified as being particularly interesting during the database search were tested experimentally for their extinguishing effectiveness. Third, detailed chemical-kinetic modeling and experimental studies of extinguishing volume fractions in simple flame systems were employed to improve the understanding of the effects of thermal agents on diffusion flames. Fourth, empirical heat transfer correlations for spray cooling of a surface were used to estimate the efficiencies of surface cooling by thermal agents. The database searches used two primary sources -- the Design Institute for Physical Properties database containing 1458 compounds from 83 family types and a smaller database, REFPROP, containing 43 compounds which is tailored to refrigerant applications. Additional substances were included that are not well represented in these databases. Compounds having high 1) heats of vaporization, 2) liquid-phase heat capacities, and 3) total heat absorption due to phase changes (if applicable), heating of a liquid (if applicable), and the heating of the gas phase to combustion temperatures were identified. The results are reported in tables of compounds ordered in terms of their ability to extract heat. The following recommendations are made based on the findings of the study: 1. The effectiveness of HFE7100 as a fire-extinguishing agent should be tested on full-scale simulations of aircraft fires. 2. Additional studies of the effectiveness of fire extinguishing agents released as liquids should be performed with a focus on confirming and understanding their enhanced performance relative to that expected based on simple heat extraction. 3. Experiments should be designed and performed with a goal of better understanding the interactions of liquid agent droplets with heated and reacting surfaces. Such an understanding is needed to better predict the effectiveness of liquid agents and could lead to improved approaches for delivering such agents to a fire.

Yarnell Hill Fire Serious Accident Investigation Report (Paperback): United States Governm Us Forest Service Yarnell Hill Fire Serious Accident Investigation Report (Paperback)
United States Governm Us Forest Service
R312 Discovery Miles 3 120 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

Nineteen hotshot firefighters died on the Yarnell Hill Fire in central Arizona on June 30, 2013 after deploying fire shelters. They were members of the Granite Mountain Interagency Hotshot Crew (IHC), hosted by the Prescott Fire Department. This report has two parts. Part One includes the fact-based Narrative of the incident and offers the Team's Analysis, Conclusions, and Recommendations. Part Two, the Discussion section, is meant to prompt discussion and facilitate learning. It explores multiples concepts and perspectives, in order to support the broader community seeking to make sense of the accident and to improve safety and resilience. Appendices provide technical details and other supplemental information.

Search and Rescue Operations in California During Flooding - Technical Rescue Incident Report (Paperback): Us Fire... Search and Rescue Operations in California During Flooding - Technical Rescue Incident Report (Paperback)
Us Fire Administration, Federal Emergency Management Agency
R339 Discovery Miles 3 390 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

This report is part of a series of reports on technical rescue incidents across the United States. The investigation report provides detailed information about the magnitude and nature of the incident; how the response to the incident was carried out and managed; the impact of the incident on emergency responders and the emergency response systems in the community; and the lessons learned.

Search and Rescue Operations Following the Northridge Earthquake - Technical Rescue Incident Report (Paperback): Us Fire... Search and Rescue Operations Following the Northridge Earthquake - Technical Rescue Incident Report (Paperback)
Us Fire Administration, Federal Emergency Management Agency
R291 Discovery Miles 2 910 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

This report is part of a series of reports on technical rescue incidents across the United States. The investigation report provides detailed information about the magnitude and nature of the incident; how the response to the incident was carried out and managed; the impact of the incident on emergency responders and the emergency response systems in the community; and the lessons learned.

Public Fire Education Planning for Rural Communities - A Five-Step Process (Paperback): Us Fire Administration, Federal... Public Fire Education Planning for Rural Communities - A Five-Step Process (Paperback)
Us Fire Administration, Federal Emergency Management Agency
R360 Discovery Miles 3 600 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

This planning guide will introduce you to a simple, easy-to-use planning process to develop a fire safety program for your community. Since the planning process is based on the experiences of other rural communities, we know all the steps work. Examples throughout the guide will help you apply each step to your community. These examples, along with the other information, make using the steps straightforward. All of the information in this planning guide is based on the U S Fire Administration's (USFA's) booklet Public Fire Education Planning: A Five-Step Process.

Safe Operation of Fire Tankers (Paperback): Us Fire Administration, Federal Emergency Management Agency Safe Operation of Fire Tankers (Paperback)
Us Fire Administration, Federal Emergency Management Agency
R426 Discovery Miles 4 260 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

The purposes of this report include: 1- documenting all fatal crashes involving fire department tankers since 1990; 2- analyzing the causes and common factors associated with these crashes; 3- highlighting pertinent case histories that show examples of the problem; 4- providing information on reducing the frequency of these crashes and minimizing their severity/impact when unavoidable crashes occur; and 5- providing example procedures and checklists to assist departments in reducing the likelihood of tanker crashes.

Field Operations Guide (Paperback): Us Fire Administration, National Fire Academy, Federal Emergency Field Operations Guide (Paperback)
Us Fire Administration, National Fire Academy, Federal Emergency
R469 Discovery Miles 4 690 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

The content of the Field Operations Guide (FOG) is intended to provide guidance for the application of the Incident Command System (ICS) to any planned or unplanned event. Position descriptions, checklists, and diagrams are provided to facilitate that guidance. The information contained in this document is intended to enhance the user's experience, training, and knowledge in the application of the Incident Command System.

Profile of the Urban Fire Problem in the United States (Paperback): Us Fire Administration, National Fire Data Center, Federal... Profile of the Urban Fire Problem in the United States (Paperback)
Us Fire Administration, National Fire Data Center, Federal Emergency Management Agency
R291 Discovery Miles 2 910 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

This report characterizes that nature of the fire problem in urban areas of the United States.

Santana Row Development Fire, San Jose, California (Paperback): Us Fire Administration, National Fire Data Center, Department... Santana Row Development Fire, San Jose, California (Paperback)
Us Fire Administration, National Fire Data Center, Department of Homeland Security
R316 Discovery Miles 3 160 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

This body of work provides detailed information on the nature of the Santana Row Development Fire in San Jose, California on August 19, 2002. This information will assist policymakers who must decide on allocations of resources between fire and other pressing problems, and within the fire service to improve codes and code enforcement, training, public fire education, building technology, and other related areas.

Special Report - Prevention of Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Failures (Paperback): Us Fire Administration, National Fire... Special Report - Prevention of Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Failures (Paperback)
Us Fire Administration, National Fire Data Center, Department of Homeland Security Fema
R314 Discovery Miles 3 140 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) are one of the most important items of personal protective equipment used by firefighters and rescue personnel. SCBA allow firefighters to enter hazardous environments to perform essential interior operations including offensive fire attack, victim search, rescue and removal, ventilation, and overhaul. They are also used at non-fire incidents involving hazardous materials and confined spaces where there is a threat of toxic fumes or an oxygen-deficient atmosphere. There have been several well-documented incidents during the past 10 years where SCBA failure may have been a contributing factor in the deaths or injuries of firefighters . These incidents, coupled with a recognition of the importance of self-contained breathing apparatus to firefighter safety, prompted the United States Fire Administration to undertake this study to address any operations trends associated with SCBA failure incidents, and to identify potential problems requiring correction or further study.

Special Report - Scrap and Shredded Tire Fires (Paperback): United States Fire Administration, National Fire Data Center,... Special Report - Scrap and Shredded Tire Fires (Paperback)
United States Fire Administration, National Fire Data Center, Department of Homeland Security
R341 Discovery Miles 3 410 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

This special report examines seven case studies of tire fires that have been typical of those in the United States. The case studies were selected because they occurred in varied circumstances and locations. However, they reveal a common pattern of challenges in tire fire prevention and extinguishment.

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