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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been conducting research to characterize and understand thermal imaging cameras (TIC) performance. NIST's findings and recommendations are described.
Beginning in 1769, Norwich inhabitants began fire protection with the use of water buckets and a hand-actuated piston pump named the Torrent. In the early 1800s, the need for an organized fire service paved the way for the first fire companies of the downtown area. A period of rapid growth followed, and the Norwich Fire Department absorbed the Greeneville Fire Department under one title and one chief. Today the career firefighters of the Norwich Fire Department continue to build upon its rich and historic tradition of service to the City Consolidated District. Norwich Firefighting is a pictorial tribute to this honorable department.
Although the number of Christmas tree fires is low, these fires carry a higher level of hazard than other fires that occur in a residential structure. This study, supported by the U. S. Fire Administration, has the following three objectives: 1) characterize the heat release rate of dry Fraser fir trees 2) demonstrate the ignition resistance of a tree with a high moisture content and 3) examine the impact of a residential sprinkler on the heat release rate of a dry tree that is on fire in a compartment.
This report describes a thermally-induced electrical failure (THIEF) model's ability to predict the behavior of power, instrument, and control cables during a fire. The model is intended to be incorporated as a subroutine for deterministic fire models, and it is of comparable accuracy and simplicity to the activation algorithms for various other fire protection devices (e.g., sprinklers, heat and smoke detectors). THIEF model predictions are compared to experimental measurements of instrumented cables in a variety of configurations, and the results indicate that the model is an appropriate analysis tool for nuclear power plant applications. This work was performed as part of the CAROLFIRE (Cable Response to Live Fire) program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The experiments for CAROLFIRE were conducted at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Details of the CAROLFIRE experimental program are contained in Volumes 1 and 2 of this three-volume series.
During the early part of the 20th century, five separate volunteer fire companies independently organized to protect separate sections of Raritan Township, currently known as Edison. The township was divided by fire districts, each containing elected fire commissioners with political and economic power. In 1926, the first career firefighter was hired, and since then, over 250 career firefighters have taken the oath. Edison Firefighting features images, memorabilia, and photographs from the early days of bucket brigades and horse-drawn carriages to current personnel and apparatus. Significant fires, explosions, and rescues that Edison firefighters confronted throughout the years are revealed within this fascinating book.
Chief Dewey Whetsell is a thirty-four year veteran with the forty-member Cordova (Alaska) Volunteer Fire Department providing structural, marine fire protection, underwater rescue/recovery, and Search and Rescue operations. He is a recipient of Alaska's highest fire service award. Chief Whetsell is past-president of the Alaska Fire Chiefs association and certified Level IV instructor. He authored the 160-hour Senior Fire Officer's Course covering NFPA-1021, among numerous other courses. At the invitation of the Alaska Departmetn of Emergency Services, Chief Whetsell represented the City of Cordova during the 1989 Exxon-Valdex oil spill and eventually was responsible for impementation of the Incident Command System in spill response plans by major oil companies shipping oil in Alaska waters.
This integrated reader and multi-skills workbook is designed to teach, review, and expand students' reading skills, study skills, vocabulary, and grammar. A major focus of "Forces of Nature, Wildfires" is on writing skills, and each unit contains one free-writing activity and one major writing task. Grammar is reviewed in writing activities and in Language in Use sections. Each reading passage is supported by pre-reading activities, including a vocabulary preview and post-reading activities. Vocabulary is recycled throughout the exercises in the book. Many speaking and pair work activities round out this skills review text. The "Forces of Nature "workbooks combine high-interest readings with skills development activities. Each of the five workbooks features a different skills focus--reading, vocabulary, grammar, study skills, and multi-skill review with writing activities. Each content-based workbook also focuses on a different force of nature--earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes and floods, blizzards, and wildfires. These events were selected because they allow students to develop an understanding of natural events that threaten property, ways of life, and lives. Because information about preparing for a disaster is sometimes unavailable or not at a level that is understandable to some of today's students, tips for surviving each "force of nature "are presented at the end of each workbook.
Find out about how Phase Change Materials (latent heat technology) are being used in building applications. PCMs can smooth daily temperature fluctuations and prevent overheating in buildings. They can also be used as part of low energy ventilation and cooling systems. Phase Change Materials (PCMs), or latent heat storage materials for building applications, are an emerging technology in the UK. They offer a solution for improving the thermal performance and comfort of low thermal mass buildings currently being constructed using modern materials and techniques and also when renovating existing building stock.
The Fireward Society of Dorchester and Milton was founded in 1793 to protect citizens on both sides of the Neponset River. In 1830, both towns recognized Fountain Engine No. 1 as their main source of fire protection in Milton Village and Lower Mills. Later the Hydrant Engine Company was formed in East Milton, reflecting the population growth in this area. When Milton officials recognized that their fire department could not keep up with the growing town, a chemical engine was purchased and installed in a new firehouse built in the center of Milton in 1881. Soon the town acquired a steam engine and installed it in an even larger station. Thus began the gradual development of a professional, full-time fire department in Milton.
Closed-circuit breathing devices recycle exhaled air after scrubbing carbon dioxide and adding make-up oxygen from a tank of pure oxygen. Use of this equipment allows first responders to work for up to four hours without swapping out cylinders and scrubbing canisters. Firefighting situations in which these devices would be useful include tunnels, mines, ships, high-rise buildings, and environments contaminated with biological or chemical toxins. A risk perceived by firefighters entering environments containing open flame and high radiant heat is the possibility of fire ignition in the vicinity of the respirator caused by the outward leakage of oxygen around the facepiece. This paper presents the results of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of oxygen dissipation into the environment surrounding a respirator facepiece.
The International Consortium for Fire Safety, Health, and the Environment (ICFSHE), with funding provided by the Outdoor Power Equipment Institute, awarded a contract to the SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP) for a "Scientific Evaluation of the Risk Associated with Heightened Environmental Requirements on Outdoor Power Equipment." As part of this study ICFSHE requested that the Building and Fire Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (BFRL/NIST) provide experimental support to SP. A work statement was adopted that involved characterizing the ignition of typical outdoor fuels by ignition sources representative of those expected for outdoor power equipment exhaust systems. This report summarizes the findings of the BFRL/NIST investigation. One series of experiments was designed to simulate the ignition behaviors of fuels that come into direct contact with a heated surface.
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Successful fire service leaders know that a fire department that
isnt moving forward is dying or, at least, in danger of dying. In
this second edition, author Mark Wallace succinctly points out that
if you dont know where youre going, any road will take you there.
Fire departments that know where they are going, know the
environment in which they must operate, and have identified how to
get there have the best chance of achieving their goals and
desires. These concepts form the foundation of strategic planning.
They challenge fire chiefs to escape from the typical operational
thinking, to begin strategic thinking, and ultimately to manage
their organizations strategically.
Organized into three sections, it begins with the phenomena of fire followed by the principles of design by which one develops a defense against fire disaster in buildings. Lastly, it deals with the hardware of fire control, communication and extinguishment. A thorough analysis of building code criteria regarding fire safety is included. Each chapter features study aids along with questions and answers.
Kessinger Publishing is the place to find hundreds of thousands of rare and hard-to-find books with something of interest for everyone!
Around the world, prescriptive building codes and fire safety
standards are increasingly being replaced or supplemented by
performance-based standards. This book discusses the implications
in the industry to provide increased design flexibility, lower
costs, improved safety, and even enhanced global trade.
None of the many publications on the reaction of plastics to fire provides a comprehensive review of the fundamentals as well as of the relevant regulations and test methods. The Plastics Flammability Handbook, first published in 1983, has filled this gap. The last decade saw a breakthrough in the internationalization of fire testing and classification, particularly in building, electrical engineering, and transportation. At the same time, the perception of how to assess the main parameters governing a fire and the role of combustible materials like plastics were redefined and led to new approaches, particularly in the fields of smoke development and toxicity of fire effluents. All these developments required a comprehensive revision of the handbook and are summarized in this 3rd updated and completely revised edition.
This paper reports an experimental technique that is developed for instantaneous planar measurement of droplet size and velocity for dilute sprays in general and sprinkler sprays in particular. This particle tracking technique relies on photographic measurements of two-color fluorescence or fluorescence and Mie scattering from droplets to determine their size and velocity. Measurements were made in a plane that passes through the vertical axis of symmetry of an axis-symmetric sprinkler spray. Drop velocities and drop sizes down to 200 m were measured from the digitized double-exposed photographs of sprinkler sprays. The directional ambiguity was resolved by color differentiation. A combination of fluorescence and Mie scattering was investigated for a 250 mm x 350 mm measurement area, while two-color fluorescence was investigated for 460 mm x 540 mm measurement area. Dye selection and concentrations were determined by testing the fluorescence output of various water tracer dyes. Collection optics and laser powers were varied to optimize the color differentiation and maximize the resolution for drop size measurements.
The book supplements "Guidelines for Chemical Process Quantitative Risk Analysis" by providing the failure rate data needed to perform a chemical process quantitative risk analysis.
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