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On June 29, 1998, at Stock Island, Key West, Florida, a Dion Oil Company (Dion) driver was on top of a straight-truck cargo tank checking the contents of its compartments and preparing to transfer cargo from a semitrailer cargo tank when explosive vapors ignited within the straight-truck cargo tank. The ignition caused an explosion that threw the driver from the top of the truck. The fire and a series of at least three explosions injured the driver and destroyed the straight truck, a tractor, the front of the semitrailer, and a second nearby straight-truck cargo tank. As a result of its investigation of the accident, the National Transportation Safety Board identified three major safety issues and makes recommendations to the Federal Highway Administration, Dion, the Florida State Fire Marshal, the Florida Department of Transportation, the Florida Department of Agriculture, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the National Fire Prevention Association, the National Association of State Fire Marshals, and the International Association of Fire Chiefs.
This important new manual goes beyond the published NFPA standards on installation of standpipe systems to include the rules in the International Building Code, municipal fire codes, the National Fire Code of Canada, and information on inspection, testing, and maintenance of standpipe systems. Also covered are the interactions between standpipe and sprinkler systems, since these important fire protection systems are so frequently installed together. Illustrated with design examples and practical applications to reinforce the learning experience, this is the go-to reference for engineers, architects, design technicians, building inspectors, fire inspectors, and anyone that inspects, tests or maintains fire protection systems. Fire marshals and plan review authorities that have the responsibility for reviewing and accepting plans and hydraulic calculations for standpipe systems are also an important audience, as are firefighters who actually use standpipe systems. As a member of the committees responsible for some of these documents, Isman also covers the rules of these standards and codes as they are written, but also provides valuable insight as to the intent behind the rules. A noted author and lecturer, Professor Isman was an engineer with the National Fire Sprinkler Association (NFSA), is an elected Fellow of the Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE), and currently Clinical Professor in the Department of Fire Protection Engineering at University of Maryland.
A busy fire officer handles numerous tasks: administration, budgets, political interaction, medical response, fire prevention, inspections, ect. This book brings the chief fire officer back to his job's focus: Fighting fires and responding to emergencies. Contents Command presence Life-and-death decision making Locating a fire Size-up of a fire Command and control at a fire Hoseline placement Preventing a fire spread Changing strategy Ventilation Terrorism Fireground communications Demobilization Fireground dangers Products of combustion Managing fireground risks and dangers Epilogue Answers to study questions.
Each new print copy of Fire Protection Hydraulics and Water Supply, Third Edition also includes Navigate 2 Advantage Access that unlocks a complete eBook, Study Center, homework and Assessment Center, and a dashboard that reports actionable data. Experience Navigate 2 today at www.jblnavigate.com/2. Fire service pump operators must have an understanding of the many laws of science that govern the study of hydraulics and water supply in order to be able to handle the complex hydraulic problems that may arise in real world scenarios. The third edition of Fire Protection Hydraulics and Water Supply effectively teaches hydraulics by systematically addressing the underlying science in a way that makes challenging subject matter easier to understand and retain. Readers will be introduced to the basic properties of water and laws of hydraulics and friction loss before learning to apply formulas to calculate flow, friction loss, nozzle reaction, and more. Additionally, readers will progress to learn about: Complex principles of pump operation, including conditions such as end thrust and radial hydraulic balance, the application of Newton's first law of motion as it applies to a kinetic energy pump, and the concept of Enthalpy Various laws of physics, including Pascal's Principle, Bernoulli's Principle, and Newton's third law of motion as it applies to the concept of nozzle reaction. New and improved formulas for calculating gallons per minute, nozzle reaction, and more. Additionally, each chapter now includes: Fireground Fact boxes that provide real world context or additional information on important topics. Case studies that emphasize a law or principle presented in the text Updated key terms, formulas, and end-of-chapter resources.
Environmental concerns and advances in architectural technologies have lead to a greater number of green buildings or buildings with green, eco-friendly elements. However, from a practical standpoint, there is no incident reporting system in the world that tracks data on fire incidents in green buildings. Fire safety objectives are not explicitly considered in most green rating schemes, and green design features have been associated with photovoltaic panels and roof materials, lightweight timber frame buildings, and combustible insulation materials. Fire Safety Challenges of Green Buildings is the result of an extensive global literature review that sought to identify issues related to green building elements or features and ways to ensure those issues are tracked for future improvement. The book identifies actual incidents of fires in green buildings or involving green building elements, points out issues with green building elements that would increase fire risk, clarifies reports and studies that address ways to reduce fire risk in green design elements, and compares research studies that explicitly incorporate fire safety into green building design. The authors also pinpoint gaps and specific research needs associated with understanding and addressing fire risk and hazards with green building design. Using their data, the authors developed a set of matrices relating these green attributes and potential fire hazards. With these comprehensive tools, potential mitigation strategies for addressing the relative increase in fire risk or hazard associated with the green building elements and features have been identified. Fire Safety Challenges of Green Buildings is intended for practitioners as a tool for analyzing building safety issues in green architecture and developing methods for tracking data related to green design elements and their potential hazards. Researchers working in a related field will also find the book valuable.
Understanding hydraulics and pump operations doesn't have to be difficult, and it is of key importance to the science of fire engineering. Putting all the pieces together correctly so that the right stream is brought to the fire is essential to effective fireground operations. In the second edition of Fire Service Hydraulics and Pump Operations, Author Paul Spurgeon, engineer/pump operator with the Denver Fire Department, breaks down the sometimes difficult-to-understand formulas of hydraulics and pumps into easily learned steps, taking care to explain the hows and whys of each formula discussed. Using an in-the-street, practical approach, Spurgeon teaches readers how to develop proper fire streams as well as how they relate to overall fireground strategies. He covers hydraulics and pumps extensively-from the properties of water to its supply to pumping to sprinkler systems and foams. So readers can put what they've learned into practice, Spurgeon provides both end-of-chapter tests and practice sets at the end of the book, complete with answers so that readers can check their knowledge. The second edition includes numerous updates and additions, including the Rule of Thumb chapter that illustrates how to perform these complex calculations while under stress on the fireground. This text meets the learning objectives for FESHE Fire Protection Hydraulics and Water Supply course work. Features and Benefits: Summary of chapter formulas End-of-chapter tests with answers Practice sets with answers to further test your understanding
This book provides detailed analysis methods and design guidelines for fire resistance, a vital consideration for offshore processing and production platforms. Recent advancements in the selection of various geometric structural forms for deep-water oil exploration and production require a detailed understanding of the design of offshore structures under special loads. Focusing on a relatively new aspect of offshore engineering, the book offers essential teaching material, illustrating and explaining the concepts discussed through many tutorials. It creates a basis for designing new courses for students of ocean engineering and naval architecture, civil engineering, and applied mechanics at both undergraduate and graduate levels. As such, its content can be used for self-study or as a text in structured courses and professional development programs.
"Antifreeze Solutions in Home Fire Sprinkler Systems "examines the usage of antifreeze solutions in residential sprinklers, and analyzes their effectiveness in controlling a fire condition and aiding in containment. The book also investigates the possibility of a large-scale ignition occurring from solutions of varying mixtures, and proposes the optimal ones for reducing flammability.
"Antifreeze Solutions in Home Fire Sprinkler Systems "is designed for practitioners as a reference guide for handling antifreeze solutions in residential sprinkler systems. Researchers working in a related field will also find the book valuable."
Automatic fire detection and alarm systems are effective and reliable means of detecting fires and signalling an alarm to occupants. This guide introduces these systems, explains how they are developed and managed, and the regulatory requirements.
Learn the Essentials of Creating Beautiful, Fire-Resistant Properties With wildfires getting more frequent and ferocious, approximately 120 million US citizens live with the threat of being overrun. Are you one of them? If so, Firescaping helps you create a safer environment. This unique form of landscaping design keeps your property healthy, clean, and clear. Land management expert Douglas Kent shares decades of experience working in many of the nation's most flammable areas. Get the information needed to determine your property's degree of fire risk. Learn effective design strategies for your home and landscape, as well as key characteristics that make your property more accessible to firefighters. With checklists, simple instructions, and tips that truly work, this practical, hands-on guide is a valuable resource for homeowners, business owners, landscape professionals, and fire protection agencies. If you live in an area at risk, this book can help to prepare you and give you peace of mind.
Fire and combustion presents a significant engineering challenge to
mechanical, civil and dedicated fire engineers, as well as
specialists in the process and chemical, safety, buildings and
structural fields. We are reminded of the tragic outcomes of
'untenable' fire disasters such as at King's Cross underground
station or Switzerland's St Gotthard tunnel. In these and many
other cases, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is at the forefront
of active research into unravelling the probable causes of fires
and helping to design structures and systems to ensure that they
are less likely in the future.
Extensively using experimental and numerical illustrations, Combustion Phenomena: "Selected Mechanisms of Flame Formation, Propagation, and Extinction" provides a comprehensive survey of the fundamental processes of flame formation, propagation, and extinction.
Taking you through the stages of combustion, leading experts visually display, mathematically explain, and clearly theorize on important physical topics of combustion. After a historical introduction to the field, they discuss combustion chemistry, flammability limits, and spark ignition. They also study counterflow twin-flame configuration, flame in a vortex core, the propagation characteristics of edge flames, instabilities, and tulip flames. In addition, the book describes flame extinction in narrow channels, global quenching of premixed flames by turbulence, counterflow premixed flame extinction limits, the interaction of flames with fluids in rotating vessels, and turbulent flames. The final chapter explores diffusion flames as well as combustion in spark- and compression-ignition engines. It also examines the transition from deflagration to detonation, along with the detonation wave structure.
With a CD-ROM of images that beautifully illustrate a range of combustion phenomena, this book facilitates a practical understanding of the processes occurring in the conception, spread, and extinguishment of a flame. It will help you on your way to finding solutions to real issues encountered in transportation, power generation, industrial processes, chemical engineering, and fire and explosion hazards.
This book offers a timely report on methods for risk assessment procedures for dams, with a special emphasis on dams with small storage dimensions. It starts by introducing all important definitions relating to dams, dam safety, such as the most common failure modes, and risks. In turn, it describes in detail the most important evaluation procedures for various failure modes such as piping, flood, earthquake and stability are described in this chapter. Consequence assessment procedures, together with the different steps of the risk evaluation process, are analyzed, providing a guide on how to identify the appropriate failure mode for the examined dam and setting up the appropriate safety plan. The book introduces the most common methods for predicting peak breach discharge, analyzing some relevant case studies. Upon comparing the findings obtained with the different methods, the book concludes with some general suggestions and ideas for future developments. This book fills an important gap between theoretical works and real-life problems being investigating in practical research studies on dam safety and risk management. It provides readers with the necessary knowledge on risk analysis and shows how to apply this in practice to carry out dam safety studies. It offers practical guidelines to set up risk assessment procedures for different failure modes and predicting failure parameters such as failure time, peak breach discharge and breach width.
This proceedings volume includes articles presented during the Advanced Research Workshop on Soft Target Protection. The book presents important topics related to the protection of vulnerable objects and spaces, called Soft Targets. The chapters published in this book are thematically assigned to the blocks as follows: Theoretical aspect of soft target protection; Blast resistance of soft targets; Counter terrorism; Technical and technological solutions for soft target protection; Scheme and organizational measures; Blast protection and Forces for soft target protection. In this book, the reader will find a wealth of information about the theoretical background for designing protection of soft targets, as well as the specifics of protecting objects in armed conflict areas. New methods and procedures applicable to the soft target protection are described.
When confronted with a fire protection problem, building management is often desperately short on information and know-how in this critical component of protection for their own facility. It is not that the material is hard to grasp, but that there is so much of it that makes the task seem so daunting. Touching on the many subfields of fire protection engineering, Fire Protection for Commercial Facilities deconstructs the issues of fire prevention and life safety into easily digested information. Written in a conversational tone that makes the concepts easy to understand, this book presents systems and practices that can increase a facility's ability to avoid fires, limit the development and spread of fires, and effectively control fires. It provides guidance for decision making regarding what can be effectively controlled in-house, and what should be contracted out to relieve the workload burden of the in-house staff. The information offered augments a broad range of expertise common to building or plant engineers, keeping them abreast of the divergent subfields of fire prevention. Every facility manager dreams of the day when absolutely nothing goes wrong, the week where no new unforeseen problems occur. A fire protection problem is just one of the many emergencies that might spoil this dream. Delineating current and time-tested fire protection practices, this book explores the wide array of fire protection engineering applications encountered during typical facility operations so that facilities managers can be well-versed, informed, and better able to handle fire-related incidents.
This book covers fire and extinguishing theory and reliability theory and how to validate any survey within the field of engineering. It's based on a year's study of historical literature, using critical review and document analysis. It covers how data is collected, analyzed, and presented. It discusses reliability theory, calculation, and uncertainty analysis, and after validating proposes a new methodology and approach using general scientific value and examples. Features Includes an in-depth study on relevant sprinkler reliability studies based for the first time on critical review and document analysis Presents a scientific validating analysis of studies based on how a survey should be conducted Critiques the fact that reliability of a sprinkler system as its ability to function as designed, has never been subject to surveys Suggestions for new survey methodology that can be used for the field of engineering, including all active and passive fire protection measures Discusses extinguishing theory, general design of extinguishing systems, different systems and the reliability of them all "Reliability Data on Fire Sprinkler Systems" will be of interest to Reliability Engineers, Systems, Architecture and Engineers, Design, Maintenance, Mechanical and, Civil Engineers, as well as those working in the field of fire protection and building and fire codes.
This book presents the comprehensive results of experimental and numerical investigations of glass facade breakage behavior under fire conditions. First of all, full-scale frame and point-supported glass facades, incorporating single, double and coated glazing, were tested under pool fire conductions. The results determined the effects of different glass frames, types of glass, and thermal shocks on breakage behavior. Small-scale tests, using the Material Testing System (MTS) 810, Netzsch Dilatometer and FE-SEM, were also performed at different temperatures to determine the basic mechanical properties of glazing. In addition, a three-dimensional dynamic model was developed to predict stress distribution, crack initiation and propagation, and has since been employed to identify the breakage mechanisms of different types of glass facade. The numerical results showed very good agreement with the experimental results and verified the model's ability to accurately predict breakage. Lastly, a theoretical model based on incident heat flux was developed to predict the breakage time and heat transfer in glazing, which served to reveal the nature of interactions between fire and glass.
This book examines key issues in improving the efficiency of small and medium power boiler units by adding control systems for the fuel combustion process. The original models, algorithms, software and hardware of the system developed for controlling the fuel combustion process are presented. In turn, the book presents a methodology for assessing the influence of climatic factors on the combustion process, and proposes new methods for measuring the thermophysical characteristics, which require taking into account the concentration of oxygen in the air. The system developed here was implemented on a boiler of the NIISTU-5 type, which is widely used for heat power engineering in Ukraine and other Eastern European countries. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable asset for researchers and engineers, as well as lecturers and graduate students at higher education institutions dealing with heat engineering equipment.
This book comprises selected proceedings of the Fourth International Conference in Ocean Engineering (ICOE2018), focusing on emerging opportunities and challenges in the field of ocean engineering and offshore structures. It includes state-of-the-art content from leading international experts, making it a valuable resource for researchers and practicing engineers alike.
This book considers the results of the theoretical and practical works dealing with forest fire detection from space. This first part of the book addresses the results of forest fire detection on the territory of Tomsk region for period of 1998-2008 with application of AVHRR/NOAA satellite system. The second part of the book presents the methodic foundations of RTM approach to the multispectral monitoring of the earth's surface. The third part describes the software for implementation of the RTM approach and the results of its practical application.
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