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This newly reissued debut book in the Rutgers University Press Classics imprint is the story of the search for a rocket propellant which could be trusted to take man into space. This search was a hazardous enterprise carried out by rival labs who worked against the known laws of nature, with no guarantee of success or safety. Acclaimed scientist and sci-fi author John D. Clark writes with irreverent and eyewitness immediacy about the development of the explosive fuels strong enough to negate the relentless restraints of gravity. The resulting volume is as much a memoir as a work of history, sharing a behind-the-scenes view of an enterprise which eventually took men to the moon, missiles to the planets, and satellites to outer space. A classic work in the history of science, and described as "a good book on rocket stuff...that's a really fun one" by Tesla and SpaceX founder Elon Musk, readers will want to get their hands on this influential classic, available for the first time in decades.
Simultaneous Multi-Pollutants Removal in Flue Gas by Ozone mainly introduces the multi-pollution control technology in flue gas by ozone oxidation. Based on the authors' recent research works, the book will provide readers with the updated fundamental research findings, comprised of the detail kinetic mechanisms between ozone and gas components in flue gas integrated with experimental and kinetic modeling work. The demonstration case of the multi-pollutant removal technology by ozone is also presented. The book is suitable for the researchers working in the areas of energy and environmental protection, and pollutant control technology. Zhihua Wang is a Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization of Zhejiang University; Kefa Cen is the Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering, and the director of Institute for Thermal Power Engineering of Zhejiang University; Junhu Zhou is a Qiushi Scholar Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization of Zhejiang University; Jianren Fan is the Cheung Kong Scholar Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization of Zhejiang University.
Bridging the gap between the well-known technological description of gasification and the underlying theoretical understanding, this book covers the latest numerical and semi-empirical models describing interphase phenomena in high-temperature conversion processes. Consequently, it focuses on the description of gas-particle reaction systems by state-of-the-art computational models in an integrated, unified form. Special attention is paid to understanding and modeling the interaction between individual coal particles and a surrounding hot gas, including heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reactions inside the particle on the particle interface and near the interface between the solid and gas phases. While serving the needs of engineers involved in industrial research, development and design in the field of gasification technologies, this book's in-depth coverage makes it equally ideal for young and established researchers in the fields of thermal sciences and chemical engineering with a focus on heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions.
This book is an introduction to oil and gas designed to be both accessible to absolute beginners who know nothing about the subject, and at the same time interesting to people who work in one area (such as drilling or seismic exploration) and would like to know about other areas (such as production offshore, or how oil and gas were formed, or what can go wrong).It begins by discussing oil and gas in the broader context of human society, and goes on to examine what they consist of, how and where they were formed, how we find them, how we drill for them and how we measure them. It describes production onshore and offshore, and examines in detail some instructive mishaps, including some that are well known, such as Deepwater Horizon and Piper Alpha, and other lesser known incidents. It looks at recent developments, such as shale oil, and concludes with some speculation about the future. It includes many references for readers who would like to read further. Mathematical content is minimal.
Campbell's Atlas of Oil and Gas Depletion, Second Edition, is the product of a half-century of critical analysis and updating of data on the status of oil and gas depletion by country, region and the world as a whole. Separate analyses of conventional and non-conventional oil and gas, which are depleting at different rates and costs, show when these critical energy sources peak and decline. The Atlas also summarizes the history and political circumstances of each country to assess the impact on oil and gas production and reserves. It contrasts the First Half of the Oil Age, which saw the rapid expansion of the world economy, allowing the population to grow six-fold, with the Second Half, which will witness a general contraction as these easy, high-density energy supplies dwindle. The transition threatens to be a time of great economic, financial and political tensions. The Atlas, which has been compiled and updated by prominent geologist, former oil company executive, and oil analyst Colin Campbell since the 1960s, addresses the need for a reliable and comprehensive database on a subject essential to governments, industry, academia, and the population as a whole as we attempt to adapt to these critically changing circumstances.
What happens when fossil fuels run out? How do communities and cultures survive? Central Appalachia and South Wales were built to extract coal, and faced with coal's decline, both regions have experienced economic depression, labor unrest, and out-migration. After Coal focuses on coalfield residents who chose not to leave, but instead remained in their communities and worked to build a diverse and sustainable economy. It tells the story of four decades of exchange between two mining communities on opposite sides of the Atlantic, and profiles individuals and organizations that are undertaking the critical work of regeneration. The stories in this book are told through interviews and photographs collected during the making of After Coal, a documentary film produced by the Center for Appalachian Studies at Appalachian State University and directed by Tom Hansell. Considering resonances between Appalachia and Wales in the realms of labor, environment, and movements for social justice, the book approaches the transition from coal as an opportunity for marginalized people around the world to work toward safer and more egalitarian futures.
Completely revised and updated, the third edition of this bestseller discusses the concept and ongoing development of using methanol as a transportation fuel, energy storage medium, and as a raw material to replace oil. The contents have also been expanded by 15% with new chapters on energy storage, methanol from biomass and waste products, as well as on carbon dioxide recycling. Written by Nobel laureate George Olah, this is an inspiring read for anyone concerned with the major challenge posed by tomorrow?s energy and environmental problems.
In the late 1890s, at the dawn of the automobile era, steam, gasoline, and electric cars all competed to become the dominant automotive technology. By the early 1900s, the battle was over and internal combustion had won. Was the electric car ever a viable competitor? What characteristics of late nineteenth-century American society led to the choice of internal combustion over its steam and electric competitors? And might not other factors, under slightly differing initial conditions, have led to the adoption of one of the other motive powers as the technological standard for the American automobile? David A. Kirsch examines the relationship of technology, society, and environment to choice, policy, and outcome in the history of American transportation. He takes the history of the Electric Vehicle Company as a starting point for a vision of an ""alternative" automotive system in which gasoline and electric vehicles would have each been used to supply different kinds of transport services. Kirsch examines both the support-and lack thereof-for electric vehicles by the electric utility industry. Turning to the history of the electric truck, he explores the demise of the idea that different forms of transportation technology might coexist, each in its own distinct sphere of service. A main argument throughout Kirsch's book is that technological superiority cannot be determined devoid of social context. In the case of the automobile, technological superiority ultimately was located in the hearts and minds of engineers, consumers and drivers; it was not programmed inexorably into the chemical bonds of a gallon of refined petroleum. Finally, Kirsch connects the historic choice of internal combustion over electricity to current debates about the social and environmental impacts of the automobile, the introduction of new hybrid vehicles, and the continuing evolution of the American transportation system.
Coal, gas and oil have been capitalism's main fuels since the industrial revolution. And yet, of all the fossil fuels ever consumed, more than half were burned in the last 50 years. Most alarming of all, fossil fuel consumption has grown fastest in the last three decades, since scientists confirmed that it is the main cause of potentially devastating global warming. In Burning Up, Simon Pirani recounts the history of fossil fuels' relentless rise since the mid twentieth century. Dispelling explanations foregrounding Western consumerism, and arguments that population growth is the main problem, Pirani shows how fossil fuels are consumed through technological, social and economic systems, and that these systems must change. This is a major contribution to understanding the greatest crisis of our time.
"Riveting and comprehensive...a smart, deeply researched primer on the subject."--The New York Times Book Review Windfall is the boldest profile of the world's energy resources since Daniel Yergin's The Quest, asserting that the new energy abundance--due to oil and gas resources once deemed too expensive--is transforming the geo-political order and is boosting American power. As a new administration focuses on driving American energy production, O'Sullivan's "refreshing and illuminating" (Foreign Policy) Windfall describes how new energy realities have profoundly affected the world of international relations and security. New technologies led to oversupplied oil markets and an emerging natural gas glut. This did more than drive down prices--it changed the structure of markets and altered the way many countries wield power and influence. America's new energy prowess has global implications. It transforms politics in Russia, Europe, China, and the Middle East. O'Sullivan considers the landscape, offering insights and presenting consequences for each region's domestic stability as energy abundance upends traditional partnerships, creating opportunities for cooperation. The advantages of this new abundance are greater than its downside for the US: it strengthens American hard and soft power. This is "a powerful argument for how America should capitalise on the 'New Energy Abundance'" (The Financial Times) and an explanation of how new energy realities create a strategic environment to America's advantage.
The ongoing discussion about reaching the "peak-oil point" (maximal delivery rate with conventional methods) emphasizes a fundamental change of the frame conditions of oil-based basic products. The alternative with the largest potential is the use of coal. Coal gasification is the production of coal gas (a mixture of mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from coal adding agents like steam/water and oxygen, which can be used in a number of industrial processes (e.g. hydroformulation and Fischer-Tropsch process). Many different kinds of coal do naturally occur, and due to shrinking natural resources, there has been a substantial gain of interest in poor, ash-rich coal. Beside the quality of coal, there is a number of other parameters influencing the efficiency of coal gasification, such as temperature, pressure, and reactor type. Although several books dealing with the subject of gasification have recently been published, few are strictly focussed on coal as feedstock. This monograph provides the reader with the necessary chemical background on coal gasification. Several types of coal (baseline coal and ash-rich coal) are compared systematically, pointing out the technological efforts achieved so far to overcome this challenge. Using a new, innovative order scheme to evaluate the gasification process at a glance (the ternary diagram), the complex network of chemistry, engineering, and economic needs can be overviewed in a highly efficient way. This book is a must-have for Chemical and Process Engineers, Engineering Students, as well as Scientists in the Chemical Industry.
This book aims at illustrating several examples of different membrane compositions ranging from inorganic, polymeric, metallic, metal organic framework, and composite which have been successfully deployed to separate industrially relevant gas mixtures including hydrogen, nitrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, olefins/parafins among others. Each book chapter highlights some of the current and key fundamental and technological challenges for these membranes that must be overcome in order to envision its application at industrial level.
This essential handbook and ready reference offers a detailed
overview of the existing and currently researched technologies
available for the control of mercury in coal-derived gas streams
and that are viable for meeting the strict standards set by
environmental protection agencies.
Petroleum refining is one of the most important yet challenging industries, and continues to be a major contributor in the production of transportation fuels and chemicals. Current economic, regulatory and environmental concerns place significant pressure on refiners to upgrade and optimize the refining process. At the same time, new product demands are urging refiners to explore alternative processing units and feedstocks.
This textbook represents a pioneering and comprehensive introduction to this complex subject, using many of the tools and techniques currently employed in modern refinery process simulation.
Adopting a systematic and practical approach, the authors include the theory, case studies and hands-on workshops, explaining how to work with real data. As a result, senior-level undergraduate and graduate students, as well as industrial engineers learn how to develop and use the latest computer models for the predictive modeling and optimization of integrated refinery processes.
Additional material is available online providing relevant spreadsheets and simulation files for all the models and examples presented in the book.
Gas Treating: Absorption Theory and Practice provides an introduction to the treatment of natural gas, synthesis gas and flue gas, addressing why it is necessary and the challenges involved. The book concentrates in particular on the absorption desorption process and mass transfer coupled with chemical reaction. Following a general introduction to gas treatment, the chemistry of CO2, H2S and amine systems is described, and selected topics from physical chemistry with relevance to gas treating are presented. Thereafter the absorption process is discussed in detail, column hardware is explained and the traditional mass transfer model mechanisms are presented together with mass transfer correlations. This is followed by the central point of the text in which mass transfer is combined with chemical reaction, highlighting the associated possibilities and problems. Experimental techniques, data analysis and modelling are covered, and the book concludes with a discussion on various process elements which are important in the absorption desorption process, but are often neglected in its treatment. These include heat exchange, solution management, process flowsheet variations, choice of materials and degradation of absorbents. The text is rounded off with an overview of the current state of research in this field and a discussion of real-world applications. This book is a practical introduction to gas treating for practicing process engineers and chemical engineers working on purification technologies and gas treatment, in particular, those working on CO2 abatement processes, as well as post-graduate students in process engineering, chemical engineering and chemistry.
This newly reissued debut book in the Rutgers University Press Classics Imprint is the story of the search for a rocket propellant which could be trusted to take man into space. This search was a hazardous enterprise carried out by rival labs who worked against the known laws of nature, with no guarantee of success or safety. Acclaimed scientist and sci-fi author John Drury Clark writes with irreverent and eyewitness immediacy about the development of the explosive fuels strong enough to negate the relentless restraints of gravity. The resulting volume is as much a memoir as a work of history, sharing a behind-the-scenes view of an enterprise which eventually took men to the moon, missiles to the planets, and satellites to outer space. A classic work in the history of science, and described as "a good book on rocket stuff...that's a really fun one" by SpaceX founder Elon Musk, readers will want to get their hands on this influential classic, available for the first time in decades.
Full coverage of the expander machines used to extract power from waste fluid gas in the chemical process and refining industries
"Expanders for Chemical Process" describes the engineering analyses required to design and build expanders for particular applications. In an ever-increasing push toward energy conservation, sustainability, green manufacturing, and green chemistry, chemical plants are recovering waste fluid gas energy using expanders. This book explains how to harvest this energy to power other machines. In each case, there are unique conditions that require specialized design and applications. This timely guide offers complete details on expanders. Written by recognized world experts and engineers with experience in the design, application, operation, and troubleshooting of expanders Evaluates existing designs for various applications and considers design modifications and enhancements Covers materials of construction, flowpath configuration, rotor and blade designs, pressure casings, and auxiliaries such as bearings, seals, and cooling Discusses troubleshooting large, expensive equipment Describes the operating facilities in which expanders are applied
To meet human energy needs, the use of fossil fuels is set to continue well into the second half of the 21st century. In order to avoid irreversible climate change, carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) must be integrated into industrial processes. Mineral carbonation (MC) is increasingly seen as an effective technology solution for CCS of CO2. With the potential to sequester billions of tonnes per year, remarkable developments in mineral carbonation technology are taking place, particularly in USA, Australia and the European Union.This book brings together some of the world's leading experts in the field of sequestration to provide a critical assessment of progress to date. Chapters cover the resources available for MC, and also give a critical analysis of the technologies developed for sequestering carbon from industrial and power plants, including the use of the resultant carbonated product. The studies conclude with evaluation of key technical and economic obstacles which need to be addressed for future research, development and application. CO2 Sequestration by Ex-Situ Mineral Carbonation is essential reading for engineers, chemists and materials scientists in graduate or research positions, and those interested in sustainability, the environment and ecology.
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