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This is a comparative study of colonial policy towards the recruitment, control and institutionalization of African labour forces from the mid 1930s, when the labour question was first posed, to the late 1950s, when decolonization was well under way. The work explores colonial conceptions of the African worker and shows how African trade union and political leaders used the new language of social change to claim equality and a share of power. This helped to persuade European officials that the modern Africa they imagined was unaffordable. Britain and France could not reshape African society. As they left the continent, the question was how they had affected the ways in which Africans could reorganize society themselves.
Wars always generate stories and everybody loves a story. Rob Milne has compiled this selection of Anglo-Boer War stories from all over South Africa and recounts them in a book that saddens, mystifies, but most of all entertains. There's the devotion of the English fiancee who for 60 years sent a sprig of heather to the Chrissiesmeer Post Office for her beloved's grave; the tale of the lone Boer sniper who held off the entire Guards Brigade for more than a day after the battle of Bergendal; the story of the soldier who, caught illegally bayoneting a sheep, looked severely at the prostrate beast and remarked, "That'll teach you to try and bite a British soldier!" Read about Sergeant Woodward's two graves in Heidelberg, and the ghosts of the British officers that still haunt the Elands river valley. During the past 12 years since the publication of the first edition of this book, Milne has relentlessly followed up on his stories and sometimes the stories have followed him ... with unexpected results! There's a photo of the ghosts of the Bergendal farm girl and her British soldier lover who appeared in broad daylight on the battlefield while Milne was investigating the story in 2011. There's the unnamed Welshman who found the long-lost British paymaster's gold 60 years after the military train was ambushed and looted near Greylingstad. Learn the truth of how Churchill and his fellow officers received the daily war news in Morse code while they were prisoners of war in the State Model School in Pretoria; why Prime Minister Botha was sued after the war for stealing the 'Kruger Millions' when entrusted to his care as Commandant-General during the retreat to the Mozambican border. And there's the love story, 'The Legend of the Flowers', about Martha, a Boer girl, and a British soldier, George, which unfolded in Ventersdorp and how Martha involved the author in her story from beyond the grave. A unique and delightfully refreshing read.
Because it was present at the creation of the Liberian state, the Episcopal Church was fully involved with national development. This study places the Church's work in the context of the Liberian society, documenting the complexities of the interactions involving black settlers, foreign missionaries
An important discussion of Islam as a political force in the creation of the first Nigerian Republic and as a political / social catalyst to Biafran (Southern coastal Christian) attempts at secession. Detailed studies of Northern Islamic elites and political formations.
This comprehensive volume presents information about the civil wars which have taken place in Africa over the years of the independence era since 1945.
In this collection of compelling essays, scholars critically examine the history, culture, and social policies that surround the African Diaspora and explore how these have shaped the experiences of African-Americans today. The essays address a wide range of related topics that include historical perspectives on black clergy, the historical significance of black poetry and literature, the place of black studies in the academy, racism on campuses, and issues concerning social work. In seeking to promote dialogue between scholars of various disciplines, this volume fosters a non-hegemonic perspective that is critical for investigating and understanding contemporary African-American culture.
The experience of the South African War sharpened the desire to commemorate for a number of reasons. An increasingly literate public, a burgeoning populist press, an army reinforced by waves of volunteers and, to contemporaries at least, a shockingly high death toll embedded the war firmly in the national consciousness. In addition, with the fallen buried far from home those left behind required other forms of commemoration. For these reasons, the South African War was an important moment of transition in commemorative practice and foreshadowed the rituals of remembrance that engulfed Britain in the aftermath of the Great War. This work provides the first comprehensive survey of the memorialisation process in Britain in the aftermath of the South African War. The approach goes beyond the simple deconstruction of memorial iconography and, instead, looks at the often tortuous and lengthy gestation of remembrance sites, from the formation of committees to the raising of finance and debates over form. In the process both Edwardian Britain's sense of self and the contested memory of the conflict in South Africa are thrown into relief. In the concluding sections of the book the focus falls on other forms of remembrance sites, namely the multi-volume histories produced by the War Office and The Times, and the seminal television documentaries of Kenneth Griffith. Once again the approach goes beyond simple textual deconstruction to place the sources firmly in their wider context by exploring both production and reception. By uncovering the themes and myths that underpinned these interpretations of the war, shifting patterns in how the war was represented and conceived are revealed. An Open Access edition of this work is available on the OAPEN Library.
The amazing life of Pieter Krueler (1885-1986) provides a window into a full century of conflict such as one man rarely experiences. Four-War Boer traces Krueler's highly colourful life from the Second Boer War, where he first served as a 14-year-old scout, through his service in World War I with the German army in East Africa, to the Spanish Civil War to World War II, this time with the Allies, and on into the latter part of the 20th century, when he served as a mercenary during the 1960s Congo Crisis. Later, by this time in his eighties, he became a civilian trainer for the original Selous Scouts of Rhodesia, and later still a trainer for South African commandos. This biography of a most remarkable man and warrior is based on six years of historical research through hard-to-find secondary and published primary sources as well as extensive interviews with Krueler himself. Interviews with German officers and others who knew and worked with Krueler amply document the biography, adding first-person testimony and giving the work the immediacy of a memoir. Following the Boer defeat by the British, sided with the Germans during the East African Campaign. He also operated in the Belgian Congo where he led native African soldiers on extremely dangerous missions. After WWI, Krueler's distrust of both the rising Fascist and Communist movements in Europe led him to volunteer as a mercenary during the Spanish Civil War, where he worked with the Pyrenees Basque movement. In World War II, he worked as a reserve officer instructor, and later as a coast watcher to guard the coast of South Africa from German incursion. Krueler later served as a mercenary with Michael Hoare during the 1960s Congo Crisis, before serving South Africa to train commandos. A chapter of this book is devoted to the formation of Rhodesia's highly elite Selous Scouts, along with highlights of several previously classified missions. This material includes a wealth of fascinating new information, and breaks the great secrecy surrounding Rhodesian and South African special operations, as unveiled through the experience of a man who was a founding father of counterinsurgency in Africa.
This collections of essays by leading British and South African scholars, looking at the Boer War, focuses on three aspects: how the British Military functioned; the role of the Boers, Afrikaners and Zulus; and the media presentation of the war to the public.
Battles of the Anglo-Boer War series provides an accessible guide to some of the major campaigns, battles and battlefields of this historic conflict in KwaZulu-Natal. The books are written for the general reader as well as for historians seeking fresh insights into the events leading up to, during and after the battles. The text is supported by contemporary accounts and photographs, some of which have never previously been published. Maps show in detail the routes and dispositions of the opposing forces for each battle. This comprehensive and accessible box set includes the 8 battle titles and a field guide: The Battle of Talana; The Battle of Elandslaagte; The Battle of Modder Spruit and Tchrengula; The Battle of Colenso; The Battle of Spioenkop; The Battle of Vaalkrans; The Siege of Ladysmith; The Relief of Ladysmith; A Guide to the Anglo-Boer War Sites of KwaZulu-Natal.
This work investigates the social, economic and political impact of the European colonial wars in Africa on both the victors and the vanquished. It examines the role of both the imperial powers and the African people who joined with or resisted them. Examining the experiences of Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, Portugal and Italy, it offers a comprehensive study of the military processes of conquest.;Adopting both indigenous and imperial perspectives, the author, explores how the historical memory of conquest and resistance has shaped the evolution of a modern African identity. It is aimed at students of imperial, commonwealth and military history, as well as African history.
An account of a people's response to genocide and what it tells us about humanity. It chronicles what has happened in Rwanda since 1994, when the government called on the Hutu majority to murder the Tutsi minority. Some 800,000 people were exterminated in a hundred days. A Tutsi pastor, in a letter to his church president, a Hutu, used the chilling phrase that gives the book its title.
An impressive mythology envelops Thabo Mbeki, Nelson Mandela's successor to the South African presidency. But key questions arise: Does he have an ideology? If so, what informs it, and how does it translate into practice? Has Mbeki managed to capture and articulate a clear vision and a sense of collective values? Does he offer the leadership that South Africa needs? The contributors to this work explore whether there is a central strand of thinking that informs Mbeki's politics and policy-making, and examine how Mbeki builds, fortifies and interacts with his core base and most important constituencies. They argue that it is important to understand Mbeki in order to grasp how the South African government operates post-1999. The book assumes that Mbeki will remain the dominant political figure in South Africa until 2009 and that his presidency will permanently mould the destiny of South Africa's political system and culture.
In 1940 a group of artists, sculptors, film makers, theatre
designers and set painters came together to form the Camouflage
Unit. Led by Major Geoffrey Barkas and including among their number
the internationally renowned stage magician Jasper Maskelyne, the
unit's projects became a crucial battlefield weapon. At the siege
of Tobruk the unit made a vital desalination plant appear to have
been destroyed by enemy bombers; from then on they used their
storytelling skills to weave intricate webs of deception, making
things appear that weren't actually there, and things that were,
disappear, to deceive the enemy. Their stage was the enormous, flat
and almost featureless Western Desert.
The Anglo-Zulu War was a defining episode in British imperial history, and it is still a subject of intense interest. The Zulu victory at Isandlwana, the heroic British defense of Rorke's Drift and the eventual British triumph are among the most closely researched events of the colonial era. returncharacterreturncharacterIn this historical companion, Ian Knight, one of the foremost authorities on the war and the Zulu kingdom, provides an essential reference guide to a short, bloody campaign that had an enduring impact on the history of Britain and southern Africa. He gives succinct summaries of the issues, events, armies and individuals involved. returncharacterreturncharacterHis work is an invaluable resource for anyone who is interested in the history of the period, in the operations of the British army in southern Africa, and in the Zulu kingdom.
Boyhood in 'seventies Soweto, innocence and light-hearted charm, and many insights into growing up in a South African township at a time when family was more important than politics. On being metin the street or at school, the inevitable question was: "Whose laetie - brother - are you?" Chimeloane describes growing up in a loving family, and with the affection and support of his best friend Levi. Next to universal boyhood exploits - shooting rats with "ketis", learning karate, stoning street lamps and running down mine dumps - more sinister experiences had to be endured: dodging stones and avoiding "enemies" when you had to cross territories, running the gauntlet of dogs, bullies and thugs. And inexorably, the 1976 uprising also left its mark. Yet the world Chimeloane sketches so endearingly also contained endless wonder: the Valiant Regal taxi which produced money from its back seat, the magic of "seeing bioscope" and emulating the "starrings", a world where you shared sweets with your "chomis" and stuck up for each other in the face of threats. Readable and affordable, this book should appeal to a broad market as well as to readers with a more serious social interest. Its release also coincides with the 25th anniversary of the Soweto Uprising, which is documented in one chapter of the book
The war in South Africa (1899-1902) marked a turning point in British military history, after the war many aspects of British policy-making and military organisation were scrutinised. The first part of this book focuses on these issues as they have been represented by scholars in the light of recent works. The bias towards work on the failures of the British is here redressed with the inclusion of studies of the roles of the Boers, Afrikaaners and Zulus by four South African historians. The social and cultural dimensions of the war as viewed from the South African perspective is also analyzed. The final section of the book concentrates on how the conflict was presented to the public back in Britain, explaining how manipulation of the media helped to centre the Boer War within British history.
Between 1899 and 1902 the Dutch public was captivated by the war raging in South Africa between the Boer republics and the British Empire. Dutch popular opinion was on the side of the Boers: these descendants of the seventeenth-century Dutch settlers were perceived as kinsmen, the most tangible result of which was a flood of propaganda material intended as a counterweight to the British coverage of the war. The author creates a fascinating account of the Dutch pro-Boer movement from its origins in the 1880s to its persistent continuation well into the twentieth century. Kuitenbrouwer offers fascinating insights into the rise of organisations that tried to improve the ties between the Netherlands and South Africa and in that capacity became important links in the international network that distributed propaganda for the Boers. He also demonstrates the persistence of that stereotypes of the Boers and the British in Dutch propaganda materials had lasting effects on nation building both in the Netherlands and South Africa of the period.
When war broke out in 1914, Australia had only been an independent nation for thirteen years and New Zealand for seven and both were eager to establish themselves on the international stage through fighting for the Commonwealth. The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps formed as part of The Mediterranean Expeditionary Force in 1914 under the leadership of General William Birdwood, an officer of the British Indian army, and quickly became known as the Anzacs. In 1915, the Anzacs formed part of the expedition set out to capture the Gallipoli peninsula, with the objective of opening the Dardanelles to the Allied navies and eventually capturing Constantinople. Landing on 25 April, the Anzacs were met with fierce resistance from the Ottoman Turkish defenders, leading to a stalemate which lasted for eight months. The Anzacs launched an offensive in August, which resulted in 2,277 casualties, and seven Victoria Crosses being awarded to Australian soldiers. By the end of 1915 the Allied forces were evacuated from the peninsula. More than 8,000 Australian soldiers died in the campaign. This Casemate Short History describes the heroic deeds of the Anzacs during WWI, discovering the stories behind the legend of the Anzac soldier, whilst also charting the Anzacs brief reestablishment during WWII and the Vietnam War. Despite Gallipoli being a military disaster, today 25 April is widely celebrated as Anzac Day in Australia, marking the anniversary of the first military action fought by the Anzacs. The actions of the army at Gallipoli continue to inspire thousands of Australians to visit the Turkish peninsula each year.
Today AIDS dominates the headlines, but a century ago it was fears of syphilis epidemics. This book looks at how the spread of syphilis was linked to socio-economic transformation as land dispossession, migrancy and urbanization disrupted social networks--factors similarly important in the AIDS crisis. Medical explanations of syphilis and state medical policy were also shaped by contemporary beliefs about race. Doctors drew on ideas from social darwinism, eugenics, and social anthropology to explain the incidence of syphilis among poor whites and Africans, and to define "normal" abnormal sexual behavior for racial groups.
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