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The devastating war that raged upon the South African veldt between 1899 and 1902 the first of the 20th century wars was small in comparison with the World Wars. Yet it remains a war with many revealing facets with regard to military, political, and social issues. The conflict between the British Empire and the Boer settlers was in many ways a precursor to what was to come. It saw vast changes in the organization, tactics, and weapons used by the British army; it had far-reaching effects on the white political structure in the country; and it stimulated Afrikaner nationalism, which may partly explain the introduction of apartheid. The Historical Dictionary of the Anglo-Boer War presents the history of this war, which is also known as "the South African War," "the Boer War," and "the Transvaal War." This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and over 600 cross-referenced dictionary entries covering a wide range of military, social, cultural, and political topics. Whether reading about black involvement in the war or repatriation and compensation after the war, this reference presents the latest in research on this important conflict."
As the South African War reached its grueling end in 1902, colonial interests at the highest levels of the British Empire hand-picked teachers from across the Commonwealth to teach the thousands of Boer children living in concentration camps. Highly educated, hard working, and often opinionated, E. Maud Graham joined the Canadian contingent of forty teachers. Her eyewitness account reveals the complexity of relations and tensions at a controversial period in the histories of both Britain and South Africa. Graham presents a lively historical travel memoir, and the editors have provided rich political and historical context to her narrative in the Introduction and generous annotations. This is a rare primary source for experts in Colonial Studies, Women's Studies, and Canadian, South African, and British Imperial History. Readers with an interest in the South African War will be intrigued by Graham's observations on South African society at the end of the Victorian era.
The Anglo-Zulu War was a defining episode in British imperial history, and it is still a subject of intense interest. The Zulu victory at Isandlwana, the heroic British defense of Rorke's Drift and the eventual British triumph are among the most closely researched events of the colonial era. returncharacterreturncharacterIn this historical companion, Ian Knight, one of the foremost authorities on the war and the Zulu kingdom, provides an essential reference guide to a short, bloody campaign that had an enduring impact on the history of Britain and southern Africa. He gives succinct summaries of the issues, events, armies and individuals involved. returncharacterreturncharacterHis work is an invaluable resource for anyone who is interested in the history of the period, in the operations of the British army in southern Africa, and in the Zulu kingdom.
This critique of the ANC and the liberation struggle in South Africa challenges conventional public perceptions of the organization and its rise to power. It maintains that the ANC failed to stay in touch with the South African masses and made fundamental compromises to gain political power.
Charles Henry Tweddell (1869-1921) was one of several thousand Canadian soldiers who fought with British forces in the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902). A methodical diarist, Tweddell recounts his year of service from the time he left Quebec City until his return. Tweddell's diary captures the sounds, sights, and stench of war, its friendships and rivalries, its routine and boredom, its death, disease, and injury. Readers are taken into the battlefield and the British military's disastrous medical services and facilities, and his month-long sight-seeing sick leave in London. Tweddell's diary suggests the allure of late nineteenth-century warfare, an appeal that drew many Boer War veterans, Tweddell included, to volunteer for service in the Great War that followed. Carman Miller's introduction presents a concise analysis of the Boer War's origins and its appeal to Canadian volunteers, and places the diarist within Quebec City's distinct society of overlapping religious, ethnic, and linguistic identities. Tweddell's diary, presented here in full for the first time, offers a rare and fascinating first-person account of Charlie's first war. It is a privileged insight into the fabric of late nineteenth-century military life, its opportunities, and personal costs, seen through the eyes of a perceptive observer and sympathetic raconteur.
This work was originally published in 1917. It is a Report on a visit made in December, 1916, and January, 1917, to the Camps for Turkish Prisoners of War in Egypt, by the Delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross. This book is part of the World War One Centenary series; creating, collating and reprinting new and old works of poetry, fiction, autobiography and analysis. The series forms a commemorative tribute to mark the passing of one of the world's bloodiest wars, offering new perspectives on this tragic yet fascinating period of human history. Each publication also includes brand new introductory essays and a timeline to help the reader place the work in its historical context.
""The bulk of these ""Sketches"" were written without any thought of publication. It was my practice in ""writing home"" to touch upon different features of the campaign or of my daily experiences, and only when I returned to England to find that kind hands had carefully preserved these hurried letters, did it occur to me that, grouped together, they might serve to throw some light on certain aspects of the East Africa campaign, which might not find a place in a more elaborate history."" This book is part of the World War One Centenary series; creating, collating and reprinting new and old works of poetry, fiction, autobiography and analysis. The series forms a commemorative tribute to mark the passing of one of the world's bloodiest wars, offering new perspectives on this tragic yet fascinating period of human history. Each publication also includes brand new introductory essays and a timeline to help the reader place the work in its historical context.
Fought between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal Republic, the First Boer War (1880–1881) was a rebellion by the Boers (farmers) against British rule in the Transvaal that re-established their independence.
The engagements that it involved, such as they were, were small and involved few casualties. More commonly referred to as just the Boer War, the Second Boer War (1899–1902), by contrast, was a lengthy conflict involving large numbers of troops from many British possessions (up to as many as 500,000 men), which ended with the conversion of the Boer republics into British colonies. The British defeated the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, first in open warfare and then in a long and bitter guerrilla campaign. British losses were high due to both disease and combat. It was also the war conflict which saw Winston Churchill first achieve household fame. The war had a lasting effect on the region and on British domestic politics.
For Britain, the Boer War was the longest, the most expensive (£200 million), and the bloodiest conflict between 1815 and 1914, lasting three months longer and resulting in higher British casualties than the Crimean War. This unique collection of original documents will prove to be an invaluable resource for historians, students and all those interested in what was one of the most significant periods in British military history.
Don McRae grew up in a South Africa where his father would call the black men he met 'boy' and where his mother insisted that their black servants used tin mugs, plates and cutlery as they ate the family's left-over food in the backyard of their grand suburban property. The McRaes, like so many white people, seemed oblivious to the violent injustices of apartheid. As the author grew up, the political differences between father and son widened and when Don refused to join up for National Service, risking imprisonment or exile overseas, the two were torn apart. It wasn't until years later that the author discovered that the father with whom he had fought so bitterly had later in his life transformed himself into a political hero. Risking everything one dark and rainy night Ian McRae travelled secretly into the black township of Soweto to meet members of Nelson Mandela's then banned African National Congress to discuss ways to bring power to black South Africa. He had no political ambitions; he was just a man trying to replace the worst in himself with something better. Under Our Skinis a memoir of these tumultuous years in South Africa's history, as told through the author's family story. It offers an intimate and penetrating perspective on life under apartheid, and tells a story of courage and fear, hope and desolation and love and pain, especially between a father and his son.
On December 12, 1963, people across Kenya joyfully celebrated independence from British colonial rule, anticipating a bright future of prosperity and social justice. As the nation approaches the fiftieth anniversary of its independence, however, the people's dream remains elusive. During its first five decades Kenya has experienced assassinations, riots, coup attempts, ethnic violence, and political corruption. The ranks of the disaffected, the unemployed, and the poor have multiplied. In this authoritative and insightful account of Kenya's history from 1963 to the present day, Daniel Branch sheds new light on the nation's struggles and the complicated causes behind them. Branch describes how Kenya constructed itself as a state and how ethnicity has proved a powerful force in national politics from the start, as have disorder and violence. He explores such divisive political issues as the needs of the landless poor, international relations with Britain and with the Cold War superpowers, and the direction of economic development. Tracing an escalation of government corruption over time, the author brings his discussion to the present, paying particular attention to the rigged election of 2007, the subsequent compromise government, and Kenya's prospects as a still-evolving independent state.
Forty years after Col. Gaddafi's Libyan Revolution cut Libya off from the outside world, scrubbed out Western lettering and turned the country against the US, Libya has changed its outlook, renounced nuclear weapons and reopened itself to Western cruise ships and tourists. Gaddafi is still in power. Nicholas Hagger, an eyewitness of the events of the 1969 Revolution and plans for a rival coup, predicted at the time that Gaddafi would still be in power 40 years later. He narrates the story of the first year of the Revolution, identifies its aims and considers if they have been achieved. Before the Revolution he wrote a weekly two-page feature in a Libyan English-language newspaper under the byline the Barbary Gipsy. His timeless and poetic views of Libya's sea, sand and Roman ruins in these articles are reprinted in an Appendix. This is a memoir and a portrait of western Libya. The places visited have changed little as a return visit in 2001 established. This book is required reading for all visitors to Libya today.
Captain Robert Dolbey (1878 - 1937) wrote the following in his introduction to his collection of letters written home during his military experiences. "The bulk of these "Sketches" were written without any thought of publication. It was my practice in "writing home" to touch upon different features of the campaign or of my daily experiences, and only when I returned to England to find that kind hands had carefully preserved these hurried letters, did it occur to me that, grouped together, they might serve to throw some light on certain aspects of the East Africa campaign, which might not find a place in a more elaborate history."
With the end of the Cold War, the United States has an unprecedented opportunity to create a new policy toward Africa freed from the constraints of East-West geopolitics.
In "Free at Last?," Michael Claugh provides a comprehensive overview of U.S.-Africa relations from World War II to the present: he surveys past American initiatives to illustrate how U.S. policy, intent on containing Soviet expansion, benefited African rulers at the expense of African civil society. He also discusses the declining importance of U.S. strategic and economic interests in Africa and how this is counterbalanced by the growing interest of American constituencies focused on such issues as humanitarian relief, human rights, and the environment.
Clough proposes abandoning traditional, government-to- government diplomatic approaches in favor of a radical new strategy modeled on the successes achieved in combating famine in Ethiopia and ending apartheid in South Africa. Offering an unconventional look at U.S. policy, "Free at Last?" is absorbing and essential reading for anyone concerned with both U.S.- Africa relations and the future of U.S. policy toward the Third World.
In October 1899, tens of thousands of Boer horsemen poured over their borders, sparking the Boer War by invading the British territories of Natal, Cape Colony, Bechuanaland and Rhodesia. The long hoped for, and openly stated, aim was to drive the British from Southern Africa. Overwhelming the outnumbered and unprepared colonial garrisons, the invaders pushed forwards, annexing the land they grabbed, looting villages and farms, renaming towns and introducing their racist laws. Over a century of propaganda - first by Afrikaner nationalists, then by the Apartheid regime and now even by the ANC government - has reinvented these invasions, styling Kruger's republic as the innocent victim of British aggression, desperate only to preserve their independence. Released in 2014, `Kruger Kommandos & Kak' exploded onto the scene to shatter these and many other long-cherished myths of the Boer War. This updated and greatly expanded edition builds on this, and will prompt the intelligent and open-minded reader to re-evaluate everything he thought he knew about the conflict. Uncomfortable reading for some, `Kruger's War' tells the truth of the Boer War - the side which the Apartheid regime's propaganda machine did not want you to hear.
The Battle of Spion Kop was fought during the campaign to relieve Ladysmith, South Africa, after the Boers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State had gotten a jump on the British Empire and besieged a British army in the town. It was the single bloodiest episode in the campaign, as well as a harbinger of the bitter and desperate fighting still to come in the Second Boer War.Spion Kop, just northeast of Ladysmith, was the largest hill in the region, being over 1,400 feet high, and it lay almost exactly at the center of the Boer line. If the British could capture this position and bring artillery to the hill they would then command the flanks of the surrounding Boer positions.On the night of 23 January 1900, a large British force under Major General Edward Woodgate was dispatched to secure the height, with Lt. Colonel Alexander Thorneycroft selected to lead the initial assault. However, the Boers refused to give up the position and a bitter two days of fighting ensued. In the initial darkness the British mistakenly entrenched at the center of the hill instead of the crest, and suffered horribly from Boer marksmen clinging to the periphery. Suffering badly themselves, the Boers were finally inclined to admit defeat when they discovered that the British had retreated, leaving behind their many dead. Yet, in light of the devastation wrought on both sides, the British were finally able to rally and relieve Ladysmith four weeks later. Ron Lock, esteemed author of many Zulu warfare histories, brings to life this bitter and previously overlooked campaign in vivid and complete detail, with supporting sources including then-journalist Winston Churchill s battle report, as well as many previously unpublished illustrations and 6 newly commissioned maps. His account will be valuable to both historians and strategists wanting to better understand this difficult and devastating conflict.REVIEWS a wonderful addition to the bookshelves not only of enthusiasts in the Anglo-Boer War but anybody with an interest in military history. Guild of Battlefield Guides Member Tony Scott Ron Lock s well-researched book brings to life this bitter and somewhat overlooked battle in vivid and complete detail This account will be valuable to both historians and armchair generals wanting a better understanding of this difficult and devastating conflict. Military Modelcraft International Ron Lock has done his homework in compiling this history nicely presented Highly recommended Miniature Wargames a boon to anyone seeking a better understanding of the Boer War s intricacies, follies, ironies and pathos Toy Soldier and Model Figure Magazine well written, easy to read, and focuses on the British perspective of the battles involved and included much about the action and leadership of the Boers. It provided good focused context for anyone with ancestors involved with this campaign. Paul Milner, FGS FORUM..".an excellent read, well researched and incisive in his handling of the various protagonists involved. He succeeds in offering a fresh perspective"Al Venter, Author of Barrel of a Gun, Iran's Nuclear Option, Gunship Ace, Mercaenaries, War Dog"
The Great Boer War (1899 - 1902) - more properly the Great Anglo-Boer War - was one of the last romantic wars, pitting a sturdy, stubborn pioneer people fighting to establish the independence of their tiny nation against the British Empire at its peak of power and self-confidence. It was fought in the barren vastness of the South African veldt, and it produced in almost equal measure extraordinary feats of personal heroism, unbelievable examples of folly and stupidity, and many incidents of humor and tragedy. Byron Farwell traces the war's origins, the slow mounting of the British efforts to overthrow the Afrikaners, the bungling and bickering of the British command, the remarkable series of bloody battles that almost consistently ended in victory for the Boers over the much more numerous British forces, political developments in London and Pretoria, the sieges of Ladysmith, Mafeking and Kimberley, the concentration camps into which Boer families were herded and the exhausting guerrilla warfare of the last few years when the Boer armies were finally driven from the field.
The Great Boer War is a definitive history of a dramatic conflict by a master story teller and historian. Byron Farwell served as an officer in the North African and Italian campaigns in World War II and also in the Korean War. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature in 1964, and is the author of Queen Victoria's Little Wars, also published by Pen and Sword.
The Boer War took place between 1899 and 1902, just 15 years before the start of the First World War. Some 180,00 Britons, mainly volunteers, travelled 6,000 miles to fight and die in boiling conditions on the veld and atop 'kopjes'. Of the over 20,000 who died more than half suffered enteric, an illness consequent on insanitary water. This book will act as an informative research guide for those seeking to discover and uncover the stories of the men who fought and the families they left behind. It will look in particular at the kind of support the men received if they were war injured and that offered to the families of the bereaved. Some pensions were available to regular soldiers and the Patriotic Fund, a charitable organisation , had been resurrected at the beginning of the conflict. However for those who did not fit these categories the Poor Law was the only support available at the time.The book will explore a variety of research materials such as: contemporary national and local newspapers; military records via websites and directly through regimental archives; census, electoral, marriage and death records; records at the National Archives including the Book of Wounds from the Boer War, the Transvaal Widows' Fund and others.
Take a community of Dutchmen of the type of those who defended themselves for fifty years against all the power of Spain at a time when Spain was the greatest power in the world. Intermix with them a strain of those inflexible French Huguenots who gave up home and fortune and left their country for ever at the time of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
The West African states have reached maturity. This new volume--appearing a decade after the successful West African States: Failure and Promise--provides up-to-date studies of nine states, including Chad, Burkina Faso and Cameroon, which were neglected in the earlier volume, and introduces contemporary theories of West African politics. The book reflects changes on the ground and also in academic debate, notably the remarkable retreat of dependency theory and Marxian analysis and the rise of free-market theorizing by both governments and scholars. The volume also contains important observations on the political importance of religious fundamentalism in the region, and the growth of subnational forms of political activity. The writers are well-known scholars in the field, and include contributors to the influential journal Politique Africaine. This will be a useful textbook for everyone interested in African politics, but it is also a provocative contribution to the debate on the nature of the state and political processes in Africa.
When darkness stalked the plains of Africa one man stood alone to face the evil. In this no-holds-barred account, the former head of the United Nations in Sudan reveals the shocking depths of evil plumbed by those who designed and orchestrated 'the final solution' in Darfur. A veteran of humanitarian crisis and ethnic cleansing in Iraq, Rwanda, Srebrenica, Afghanistan and Sierra Leone, Mukesh Kapila arrived in Sudan in March 2003 having made a promise to himself that if he were ever in a position to stop the mass-killers, they would never triumph on his watch.
Edward Spiers, a leading authority on the Victorian British army, presents here a select edition of letters from the siege of Ladysmith (1899-1900) that have not been seen since their original publication in metropolitan and provincial newspapers. The 250 letters were published in different British newspapers and provide crucial insights into contemporary perceptions of the battles that preceded the siege, the onset of the siege itself, and the desperate and bloody attempts to relieve the town.
Subsequent efforts to defend Ladysmith - and to march to its relief - became the great dramatic saga of the early phase of the Anglo-Boer War, providing the context for a series of dramatic battles that embarrassed the Empire and destroyed established reputations. Much has been written about the failings of the British commanders but it is clear that in no other theater in the war were the practical difficulties so real - or the stakes so high.
These letters reflect vividly the feelings of junior officers and other ranks as they struggled to cope with the demands of modern warfare. Their eyewitness testimonies provide firsthand commentary upon the events in Natal that shattered the prewar confidence in Britain.
In this text, Phyllis Martin, an African scholar, opens a whole field of African research: the leisure activities of urban Africans. Her study, set in colonial Brazzaville and based on a wide variety of written resources and interviews, investigates recreational activities from football and fashion to music, dance and night life. In it, she brings out the way in which these activities built social networks, humanized daily life and forged new indentities, and explains how they unltimately helped to remake older traditions and values with new cultural forms.
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