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It has been said of Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) that no one from his day to ours has ever rivalled him in his achievements in such a wide range of fields. He was a far-sighted scientific genius, fertile in theory and invention, and one of the foremost physicians of his time. His gift for friendship enabled him to recruit the members of the Lunar Society of Birmingham which is often seen as the main intellectual powerhouse of the Industrial Revolution in England. He was especially close to Franklin, Wedgwood, Boulton and Watt. Towards the end of his life he gained recognition as the leading English poet in the country, and he deeply influenced Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge and Shelley. The most striking of Darwin's many talents was his extraordinary scientific insight in physics, chemistry, geology, meteorology and all aspects of biology -- his deepest insight being his evolutionary theory of life. Two of his books, the Zoonomia, which made him famous as the leading medical mind of the 1790s, and The Temple of Nature, a long poem, show that he believed life developed from microscopic specks in primeval seas through fishes and amphibians to 'humankind'. But he failed to convince the world about biological evolution: that was left to his grandson Charles. Erasmus was the first person to give a full description of how clouds form and of photosynthesis in plants. He was also an obsessive inventor of mechanical devices, among them a speaking machine, a copying machine and the steering technique used in modern cars. Substantial donations of Darwin family papers recently to the Cambridge University Library, including over 170 letters written by Erasmus Darwin himself, have made it possible for the author to tell much of the enthralling story of his life in Erasmus' own words. Desmond King-Hele, who is the leading authority on Erasmus Darwin having studied his life and work for three decades, is a mathematician and physicist who is an expert on space research by satellite, in particular on the Earth's gravity field and the upper atmosphere. A Fellow of the Royal Society since 1966, he has written fifteen books including a standard critical work on Shelley, Shelley: His Thought and Work, and Erasmus Darwin and the Romantic Poets; and he has edited the Letters of Erasmus Darwin.
This book summarizes the research findings in regarding a region as a rational and abstract concept and explores the principles of regional science. Focusing on location theory, spatial dynamics and regional evolution theory, it stresses that the region as a scientific concept is an essential abstract of an economic entity of a place. While it introduces a number of case studies, the content is general and universal rather than specific. Beginning with location theory - the basis of regional science - it explains how regions breed their own characteristics as economic entities against a background of place. For example, it discusses the location theory of the tourism industry and analyzes issues of facility location and R&D-industry location theory. The second part of the book addresses interactions with the spatial dynamics, including the dynamic mechanism of regions against a background of space. Spatial dynamics, which includes concepts from statistical physics, provides insights into the dynamic mechanism of aggregation, diffusion, and industrial clustering in regional science as well as in geography and economics. The book then describes regional dynamics as a development of spatial dynamics: REGION is completely independent as a research object and is no longer part of spatial dynamics. This book also discusses in detail regions as the dynamic characteristics of the economy or the basic characteristics of a certain place and examines the theory of regional evolution. It argues that regions are evolution and irreversible features of development with path dependence, which are the characteristics of a region that differ from general economic phenomena. This book by Professor Zheng Wang is outstanding. Its focus on Regional Science will open this area up to a wide variety of theoretical and applied researchers. I recommend the work without reservations. It covers critically important principles in the field and should be read and used by students, faculty and applied researchers doing policy analysis. I can see this as an important handbook and reference work as well as a textbook in the field. Kingsley Haynes
Coherent, well organized text familiarizes readers with complete theory of logical inference and its applications to math and the empirical sciences. Part I deals with formal principles of inference and definition; Part II explores elementary intuitive set theory, with separate chapters on sets, relations, and functions. Last section introduces numerous examples of axiomatically formulated theories in both discussion and exercises. Ideal for undergraduates; no background in math or philosophy required.
Creating a Classroom Community of Young Scientists helps teachers - both pre-service and in-service - to develop exciting science programs in their classrooms. This book provides the groundwork for designing and implementing a science program that takes into account the latest research in teaching and learning. It provides an approach that will capture children's imaginations, stimulate their curiosity and create a strong foundation for their continued interest in, and appreciation of, science and the world in which they live. The book is designed to be user-friendly, and offers an approach to teaching science that is exciting for teachers as well.
This thoroughly revised, second edition focuses on making inquiry more explicit both in terms of the process of inquiry and teaching in ways that capitalize on children's curiosity and questions. New material has also been added on U.S. and Canadian science standards, as well as professional standards for teachers.
Many important advances in designing earthquake-resistant structures have occurred over the last several years. Civil engineers need an authoritative source of information that reflects the issues that are unique to the field. Comprising chapters selected from the second edition of the best-selling Handbook of Structural Engineering, Earthquake Engineering for Structural Design provides a tightly focused, concise, and valuable guide to the theoretical, practical, and computational aspects of earthquake engineering. In chapters contributed by renowned experts from around the world, this book supplies the latest concepts, design methodologies, and analytical techniques for mitigating the effects of seismic damage to structures. It discusses the fundamentals of earthquake engineering, explaining the causes of earthquakes and faulting, measurement of earthquakes, and characterization of seismicity. Subsequent chapters discuss the various types of earthquake damage to structures including recent improvements in earthquake performance, seismic design of buildings and bridges considering various types of construction materials, and performance-based seismic design and evaluation of building structures. The book introduces probabilistic approaches to performance-based methodologies as well as an application example of performance-based design. Earthquake Engineering for Structural Design offers practical tools gathered together in a convenient reference for immediate implementation. It is an ideal resource for civil and structural engineers specializing in earthquake engineering.
The true story of how a deadly virus from the central African rain forest suddenly appears in a Washington, D.C., animal test lab. In a matter of days, 90% of the primates exposed to the virus are dead, and secret government forces are mobilized to stop the spread of this exotic "hot" virus.
Scientists, theologians, and philosophers have all sought to answer the questions of why we are here and where we are going. Finding this natural basis of life has proved elusive, but in the eloquent and creative Into the Cool, Eric D. Schneider and Dorion Sagan look for answers in a surprising place: the second law of thermodynamics. This second law refers to energy's inevitable tendency to change from being concentrated in one place to becoming spread out over time. In this scientific tour de force, Schneider and Sagan show how the second law is behind evolution, ecology, economics, and even life's origin. Working from the precept that "nature abhors a gradient," Into the Cool details how complex systems emerge, enlarge, and reproduce in a world tending toward disorder. From hurricanes here to life on other worlds, from human evolution to the systems humans have created, this pervasive pull toward equilibrium governs life at its molecular base and at its peak in the elaborate structures of living complex systems. Schneider and Sagan organize their argument in a highly accessible manner, moving from descriptions of the basic physics behind energy flow to the organization of complex systems to the role of energy in life to the final section, which applies their concept of energy flow to politics, economics, and even human health. A book that needs to be grappled with by all those who wonder at the organizing principles of existence, Into the Cool will appeal to both humanists and scientists. If Charles Darwin shook the world by showing the common ancestry of all life, so Into the Cool has a similar power to disturb--and delight--by showing the common roots in energy flow of all complex, organized, and naturally functioning systems. "Whether one is considering the difference between heat and cold or between inflated prices and market values, Schneider and Sagan argue, we can apply insights from thermodynamics and entropy to understand how systems tend toward equilibrium. The result is an impressive work that ranges across disciplinary boundaries and draws from disparate literatures without blinking."--Publishers Weekly
A perfect introduction to the connection between religious faith
and physical and mental health
Explore the issues that are changing user/librarian interactions in today's evolving electronic libraries This book examines the rapid advances in technology and scientific discovery that have changed the way sci/tech library users seek information changes which have also necessitated increasingly high levels of skill in information technology and advanced subject knowledge from librarians. From negotiating the intricacies of working with e-journals to simplifying the data collection process, anyone involved in allocating library resources or prioritizing research agendas will find relevant, useful information here, as will those involved in library education. Emerging Issues in the Electronic Environment: Challenges for Librarians and Researchers in the Sciences begins with "Scientific Communication: New Roles and New Players," a detailed examination of the evolution of the information-seeking behavior of scientists, from the days of print-based resources to today's electronic media. Next, you'll find techniques designed to maximize the ability of scientists to make "lucky" connections in their electronic search for information in "Too Important to be Left to Chance: Serendipity and the Digital Library." Four chapters in Emerging Issues in the Electronic Environment bring you up-to-date information on various aspects of working with e-journals: "For Better or Worse: The Joys and Woes of E-Journals," investigates the impact of electronic-only journal holdings on collection development decisions and the accompanying issues of archiving, economics, content, and research use "Scan It and They Will Come . . . But Will They Cite It?" provides citation data on the usefulness and impact of retrospective digitization projects for journal contents "The Use of Online Supplementary Material in High-Impact Scientific Journals" raises vital questions as to whether the print or electronic article should be regarded as the primary archival resource "Challenges and Opportunities for Bibliometrics in the Electronic Environment: The Case of the Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science" investigates how issues of access, copyright, and fair use, as well as differences among online file formats may impact bibliometric analysis Two chapters in Emerging Issues in the Electronic Environment are designed to help simplify the data collection process. "Information Overload: Keeping Current Without Being Overwhelmed" will show you how to identify needed sources by using current awareness services and e-mail filtering technologies "The Impact of Electronic Bibliographic Databases and Electronic Journal Articles on the Scholar's Information Seeking Behavior and Personal Collection of Reprints" reviews organizational methods for managing large collections of electronic articles. In addition, this forward-thinking book contains four chapters that point out possible avenues for increased librarian-facilitated service to users: "Biology Databases for the New Life Sciences" discusses the new sequence, microarray, and protein structure databases, the emergence of bioinformatics, and the opportunities available to librarians in this developing area "Map and Spatial Data Acquisitions in the Electronic Age" shows how the traditionally complicated and time-consuming process of acquiring cartographic information can be simplified by efficient use of the Internet "Webinar Technology: Applications in Libraries" reviews the operation, application, and features of Webinars and compares this technology with Web tutorials, virtual reference, and courseware management systems, videoconferencing, and Webcasting "Preserving Digital Librari
Establishing Scientific Classroom Discourse Communities: Multiple Voices of Teaching and Learning Research is designed to encourage discussion of issues surrounding the reform of classroom science discourse among teachers, teacher educators, and researchers. The contributors--some of the top educational researchers, linguists, and science educators in the world--represent a variety of perspectives pertaining to teaching, assessment, research, learning, and reform. As a whole the book explores the variety, complexity, and interconnectivity of issues associated with changing classroom learning communities and transforming science classroom discourse to be more representative of the discourse of scientific communities. The intent is to expand debate among educators regarding what constitutes exemplary scientific speaking, thinking, and acting. This book is unparalleled in discussing current reform issues from sociolinguistic and sociocultural perspectives. The need for a revised perspective on enduring science teaching and learning issues is established and a theoretical framework and methodology for interpreting the critique of classroom and science discourses is presented. To model and scaffold this ongoing debate, each chapter is followed by a "metalogue" in which the chapter authors and volume editors critique the issues traversed in the chapter by opening up the neatly argued issues. These "metalogues" challenge, extend, and deepen the arguments made. Central questions addressed include: *Why is a sociolinguistic interpretation essential in examining science education reform? *What are key similarities and differences between classroom and scientific communities? *How can the utility of common knowledge and existing classroom discourse be balanced toward alternative outcomes? *What curricular issues are associated with transforming classroom talk? *What other perspectives can assist in creating multiple access to science through redefining classroom discourse? Whether this volume improves readers' science teaching, assists their research, or helps them to better prepare tomorrow's science teachers, the goal is to engage them in considering the challenges faced by educators as they navigate the seas of reform and strive to improve science education for all.
The near meltdown of Fukushima, the upheavals in the Middle East, the BP oil spill, and the looming reality of global warming have reminded the president and all U.S. citizens that nothing has more impact on our lives than the supply and demand for energy. Its procurement dominates our economy and foreign policy more than any other factor. But the "energy question" is more confusing, contentious, and complicated than ever before. We need to know if nuclear power will ever really be safe. We need to know if solar and wind power will ever really be viable. And we desperately need to know if the natural gas deposits in Pennsylvania are a windfall of historic proportions or a false alarm that will create more problems than solutions. Richard A. Muller provides the answers in this must-read manual for our energy priorities now and in the coming years.
Clear, comprehensive exposition of interrelation of game theory and linear programming, interrelation of linear programming and modern welfare economics, Leontief theory of input-output, problems of dynamic linear programming, more. First comprehensive treatment of role of linear programming in traditional economic theory. Bibliography. Index.
From the author of Guns, Germs and Steel, Jared Diamond's Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive is a visionary study of the mysterious downfall of past civilizations. Now in a revised edition with a new afterword, Jared Diamond's Collapse uncovers the secret behind why some societies flourish, while others founder - and what this means for our future. What happened to the people who made the forlorn long-abandoned statues of Easter Island? What happened to the architects of the crumbling Maya pyramids? Will we go the same way, our skyscrapers one day standing derelict and overgrown like the temples at Angkor Wat? Bringing together new evidence from a startling range of sources and piecing together the myriad influences, from climate to culture, that make societies self-destruct, Jared Diamond's Collapse also shows how - unlike our ancestors - we can benefit from our knowledge of the past and learn to be survivors. 'A grand sweep from a master storyteller of the human race' - Daily Mail 'Riveting, superb, terrifying' - Observer 'Gripping ... the book fulfils its huge ambition, and Diamond is the only man who could have written it' - Economis 'This book shines like all Diamond's work' - Sunday Times
Stay up-to-date with the latest developments in sci-tech librarianship! Information and the Professional Scientist and Engineer examines how electronic resources have affected the ways engineers and scientists seek, use, and communicate information vital to their research and development needs. Information specialists working in academic, corporate, government, and organization libraries discuss the changes in user behavior as academics in science and engineering fields rely more and more on the Internet and online journals. The book provides unique insight into the specific educational needs of college and university students as librarians and department faculty determine appropriate instruction for science and engineering classes. Information and the Professional Scientist and Engineer addresses the distinctions among various science and engineering fields, types of libraries, communities of users, and users within a field or discipline. Within these discussions, librarians also examine the differences between commercial and academic databases, and between personal or group subscriptions to database services, print, and online journals. The book also addresses Geographic Information Systems users through a study of the interconnection among disciplines associated with GIS. Information and the Professional Scientist and Engineer includes bibliographies that provide valuable information resources, reviews of pertinent web sites, tables, figures, and interviews while addressing: the information-seeking behavior of chemists, geologists, pharmacists, botanists, and zoologists the case for an engineering knowledge community online bibliographic sources in hydrology a practical guide to finding physical properties of chemicals new reference works in science and technology new age e-journals, indexes, and services Information and the Professional Scientist and Engineer is a unique resource for librarians and other information specialists, science and engineering faculty and students, and academic administrators.
This Reader brings together a wide range of material to present an international perspective on topical issues in science education today. In order to identify what themes should be addressed in the book, thirty-eight science educators from around the world responded to the question: 'What issues are currently important in science education in your country?' The outcome is this lively and authoritative Reader, which features topics as varied as:
With a specially written introduction from the editor, providing a much-needed context to the current education climate, students of science education will find this Reader an important route map to further reading and understanding.
Developments in information technology are bringing about changes in science education. This Reader focuses on the theoretical and practical consideration of using information and communications technologies in teaching and learning. It examines current approaches to teaching and learning in science at various levels of education, and ways in which science in made more accessible. This will include the future potential of such current developments as access to practical work delivered on the web. The Reader is divided into three sections: What are the current issues in using ICT to teach and learn in science? Designing and evaluating ICT to teach and learn science Extending access to science learning This is a companion book to Reconsidering Science Education, also published by RoutledgeFalmer. Mediating Science Learning Through ICT is a valuable resource for teachers on Masters courses in science education and academics in science education.
Examine the vital issues facing sci-tech libraries in today's economic and technological climate! This book addresses current challenges and changes in science and technology libraries and shows how librarians are handling them in difficult financial times. It examines issues related to closing and merging libraries, online collections maintenance and costs, assistance/outreach geared toward specific groups of library patrons, and the gathering of usage statistics in the electronic environment. You'll also find specific descriptions and a general overview of new technologies and case studies of the impact of new technologies on sci-tech library management. Handy tables and figures make the information easy to access and understand. Presenting a wide variety of problems and solutions, Information Practice in Science and Technology will help you understand the needs of users regarding current information technologies and how to meet them. From the editor: "Among the critical challenges facing sci-tech libraries (and actually all libraries) are the need to perform detailed collection assessment and evaluation, particularly in regard to e-resource collections; the need to examine and provide appropriate public services; and the need to develop strategies for the adoption of new information technologies. This book addresses these key issues and attempts to provide both perspective and insight into these problems." Information Practice in Science and Technology examines: how merging academic departmental libraries can both improve services and smooth the transition to increased use of digital information the process of developing, managing, and providing access to an electronic collection a case study from the University of Notre Dame, with special attention paid to licensing and publisher agreements how a limited Web interface can be enhanced and become a digital portal to a library's print collection a case study from the Grainger Engineering Library at the University of Illinois how libraries can support academic faculty research in cross-disciplinary subject areas how to address the specialized subject area information needs of meteorologists and geologists outreach methods that the University of California uses to better connect with library patrons and demonstrate the services that the library offers Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) the new technology for archiving and linking electronic information how to gather and benefit from usage statistics, with attention to electronic databases, statistics gathered from public library terminals, and transaction log usage statistics for electronic reserves the proposals to provide all government documents through an electronic distribution system and what that will mean to sci-tech libraries
The field of medicinal/aromatic plant breeding is growing and
changing?this resource will help you stay up to date!
"Describes the quantitative research process--framing analytical questions, developing a comprehensive outline, providing a roadmap for the reader, and accessing indispensable computer and program tools. Supplies end-of-chapter checklists, extensive examples, and biobliographies."
The article-based thesis is becoming increasingly common, especially in the 'hard' sciences such as biology, medicine and technology, and is beginning to replace the traditional monograph. Format guidelines vary among universities. This is the first book to summarise the main features, showing the PhD student how to prepare a thesis in such a format. The suggestions are highly practical; both its good and bad examples from published theses support the author's wise advice on all aspects of such theses. Poor figures are not only scrutinised in detail but also redrawn for comparison. Guidance also covers the issues of reprint permissions and copyright. This informative and accessible book, from the author of How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper, has been developed through the author's extensive teaching experience in scientific writing and also his experience as a journal editor. It is therefore an indispensable guide to article-based thesis success.
With the spectacular developments in technology accompanying and
aiding scientific research over the past few decades, postgraduate
students are often encouraged to focus more on generating data than
to utilize their most sophisticated piece of equipment: their
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