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The Elements of Metal Cutting gives an account of an investigation in the fundamental elements of metal cutting conducted in the Machine Tool Laboratory at the University of Michigan. The object of the investigation was to determine a relation between the force on the tool in the direction of cut for a constant cutting speed of 20 feet per minute, and the degrees of tool sharpness, the various tool angles, the width and depth of cut, and the physical properties of the materials cut. Nine representative types of material were cut including three carbon steels, three alloy steels, brass, and annealed and unannealed cast iron. The cutting was confined to straight-line motion on a planer, and the tools used were of the end-cutting type. No cutting fluids were used, and only one element was varied at a time. The results show that the clearance angle has no influence on the force on the tool so long as the tool does not drag on the work; that the force on the tool remains constant for a wide variation of keenness of cutting edge and for thick chips, particularly, the tool edge may be rounded to 1/64 in. diameter without appreciable increase in the cutting force. It is also shown that the cutting force on the tool is reduced in direct proportion to the increase in front-rake angle, all other factors remaining constant. It is shown that thick chips are removed more efficiently than thin chips, and that narrow chips are removed more efficiently than wide chips. The results also indicate that there is an apparent relation between some of the physical properties of the metals and their machinability or the cutting force on the tool for the carbon steels in one group, the alloy steels in a second group, and cast iron in a third group.
The ease with which a motor will start, the length of time required to warm it up, and the character of its general performance are almost wholly dependent upon the volatility of the fuel as indicated by the A.S.T.M. distillation curve. The 10-percent point is related to the lowest engine temperature at which satisfactory starting may be obtained, and the lowest mixture temperature at which the car may be operated. The 35-percent point is related to the lowest mixture temperature at which satisfactory performance may be obtained during the warming-up period and therefore determines the length of time necessary to warm up the motor. The 65-percent point is related to the lowest mixture temperature at which perfect performance can be obtained. For these reasons the 10-, 35-, and 65-percent points should be low to ensure satisfactory starting, warming-up, and general performance. The 90-percent point, however, should not be so low as to indicate a dry mixture, for this means loss in power or acceleration with many modern cars equipped with heated manifolds and accelerating devices. The vapor pressure of the fuel or the 10-percent point should not be so low as to indicate trouble from vapor-lock. The relations developed in The Volatility of Motor Fuels make it possible to determine the volatility characteristic of a fuel for any desired engine performance.
The Noise-Reduction Manual was prepared under the auspices of the U.S. Office of Naval Research and was originally intended to constitute the introductory sections of a more extensive study of noise-reduction problems encountered aboard ship. There is a sustained emphasis on the practical techniques for the reduction of airborne noise, the treatment of each problem tacitly deprecating the need for, and even the practical value of, mathematical investigation of noise sources and noise fields as compared to the greater importance of careful acoustical measurements designed to direct the proper use of acoustical materials and relatively simple noise-reduction techniques. Careful distinction is made between the various techniques of noise reduction at the source and the various methods of noise and vibration isolation and dissipation, greatest emphasis being devoted to the latter. After basic definitions and analysis of several causes of noise, entire chapters are devoted to absorption of airborne sound, insulation against airborne sound, vibration damping, and vibration isolation. Each chapter contains extensive discussions of the evaluation and application of the various types of acoustical materials, including selection rules, performance data, and instrumentation. The straightforward exposition should make the manual equally valuable to both the novice and expert in the field of noise reduction.
In this age of DNA computers and artificial intelligence,
information is becoming disembodied even as the "bodies" that once
carried it vanish into virtuality. While some marvel at these
changes, envisioning consciousness downloaded into a computer or
humans "beamed" "Star Trek"-style, others view them with horror,
seeing monsters brooding in the machines. In "How We Became
Posthuman," N. Katherine Hayles separates hype from fact,
investigating the fate of embodiment in an information age.
A Brief History of Time, published in 1988, was a landmark volume in science writing and in world-wide acclaim and popularity, with more than 9 million copies in print globally. The original edition was on the cutting edge of what was then known about the origins and nature of the universe. But the ensuing years have seen extraordinary advances in the technology of observing both the micro- and the macrocosmic world--observations that have confirmed many of Hawking's theoretical predictions in the first edition of his book.
This witty and amusing exploration of the physical universe explains fundamental concepts in language that is clear to anyone with little or no scientific background. Tyson transforms everyday experiences into venues of cosmic enlightenment as he probes the philosophy, methods, and discoveries of science, including stellar evolution, the conservation of energy, the electromagnetic spectrum, gravity and thermodynamics. Deftly demystifying astronomical terms and concepts such as the Big Bang, black holes, redshifts, syzygy, and Kirkwood Gaps, "Universe Down to Earth" traces the life of the stars from birth to death; presents the Periodic Table of Elements, highlighting noteworthy elements such as titanium, iron, and hydrogen; gives an unorthodox yet entertaining tour of famous constellations; and tackles modern-day astrology.
This rapidly paced book provides a fascinating insight into how our understanding of Mars has developed. When a Renaissance astronomer studied the motions of Mars in the sky, he discovered the laws of planetary motion. With the advent of the telescope, the planet could be studied as a world in its own right, measuring the length of its day and mapping its surface in ever more detail. Late in the 19th century, Percival Lowell in the USA claimed Mars was criss-crossed by canals created by a race of intelligent beings to transport water from the polar ice caps to the equatorial areas. Although Lowell's vision of Mars was rejected by astronomers, it inspired storytellers to write classic works of science fiction. By the mid-20th century, the consensus view was that large tracts of the planet hosted a hardy form of vegetation. Given the limitation of telescopes, the only way to be sure was to send a probe. The engaging text, supported by numerous technical illustrations, photographs and graphics, relates the challenges and technical triumph of sending space vehicles to Mars, initially on flyby missions, then to orbit the planet, and more recently to land on it. Mars is a world of contrasts. Much of the southern hemisphere is cratered highlands and much of the northern hemisphere is a low-lying plain that might once have held an ocean. There are volcanoes and canyons much larger than those on Earth, and broad channels cut by vast floods - all formed early in the planet's history. Mars has suffered extreme climate change. Did life develop there when the planet was warm and wet? Did it adapt to the current arid and cold conditions? We looked for microbes in the soil with indeterminate results. Soon, we hope to drill to seek evidence of microbes living beneath the surface. The implications of finding life on Mars are profound, because if life can develop independently in several places in the solar system then it is probably ubiquitous across the universe. The Mars Owners' Workshop Manual chronicles this story of discovery and looks forward to the time when we will join our robots in exploring the intriguing Red Planet.
Examining science as a rhetorical enterprise, this book seizes upon
one scientific essay--"The Spandrels of San Marco and the
Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist
Programme"--and probes it from many angles. Written by prominent
evolutionary theorists Stephen Jay Gould and Richard C. Lewontin
and first published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of
London in 1979, the "Spandrels" article is both serious science and
This highly original work presents laboratory science in a deliberately skeptical way: as an anthropological approach to the culture of the scientist. Drawing on recent work in literary criticism, the authors study how the social world of the laboratory produces papers and other "texts,"' and how the scientific vision of reality becomes that set of statements considered, for the time being, too expensive to change. The book is based on field work done by Bruno Latour in Roger Guillemin's laboratory at the Salk Institute and provides an important link between the sociology of modern sciences and laboratory studies in the history of science.
Approaches to avoid loss of life and limit disruption and damage from flooding have changed significantly in recent years. Worldwide, there has been a move from a strategy of flood defence to one of flood risk management. Flood risk management includes flood prevention using hard defences, where appropriate, but also requires that society learns to live with floods and that stakeholders living in flood prone areas develop coping strategies to increase their resilience to flood impacts when these occur. This change in approach represents a paradigm shift which stems from the realisation that continuing to strengthen and extend conventional flood defences is unsustainable economically, environmentally, and in terms of social equity. Flood risk management recognises that a sustainable approach must rest on integrated measures that reduce not only the probability of flooding, but also the consequences. This is essential as increases in the probability of inundation are inevitable in many areas of the world due to climate change, while socio-economic development will lead to spiralling increases in the consequences of flooding unless land use in floodplains is carefully planned.
Flood Risk Science and Management provides an extensive and comprehensive synthesis of current research in flood management; providing a multi-disciplinary reference text covering a wide range of flood management topics. Its targeted readership is the international research community (from research students through to senior staff) and flood management professionals, such as engineers, planners, government officials and those with flood management responsibility in the public sector. By using the concept of case study chapters, international coverage is given to the topic, ensuring a world-wide relevance.
Scientists, theologians, and philosophers have all sought to answer the questions of why we are here and where we are going. Finding this natural basis of life has proved elusive, but in the eloquent and creative Into the Cool, Eric D. Schneider and Dorion Sagan look for answers in a surprising place: the second law of thermodynamics. This second law refers to energy's inevitable tendency to change from being concentrated in one place to becoming spread out over time. In this scientific tour de force, Schneider and Sagan show how the second law is behind evolution, ecology, economics, and even life's origin. Working from the precept that "nature abhors a gradient," Into the Cool details how complex systems emerge, enlarge, and reproduce in a world tending toward disorder. From hurricanes here to life on other worlds, from human evolution to the systems humans have created, this pervasive pull toward equilibrium governs life at its molecular base and at its peak in the elaborate structures of living complex systems. Schneider and Sagan organize their argument in a highly accessible manner, moving from descriptions of the basic physics behind energy flow to the organization of complex systems to the role of energy in life to the final section, which applies their concept of energy flow to politics, economics, and even human health. A book that needs to be grappled with by all those who wonder at the organizing principles of existence, Into the Cool will appeal to both humanists and scientists. If Charles Darwin shook the world by showing the common ancestry of all life, so Into the Cool has a similar power to disturb--and delight--by showing the common roots in energy flow of all complex, organized, and naturally functioning systems. "Whether one is considering the difference between heat and cold or between inflated prices and market values, Schneider and Sagan argue, we can apply insights from thermodynamics and entropy to understand how systems tend toward equilibrium. The result is an impressive work that ranges across disciplinary boundaries and draws from disparate literatures without blinking."--Publishers Weekly
APPLYING UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR SOUNDER HYDROSYSTEMS ENGINEERING.
. Focusing on issues of vital civic interest, this comprehensive practice manual teaches the application of uncertainty analysis for more sustainable hydrosystem design and management. Created by internationally respected authorities, "Hydrosystems Engineering Uncertainty Analysis" deals with the uncertainties inherent in engineering projects such as dams, levees, and storm sewer systems. Going beyond unpredictability in geophysical processes such as extreme rainfalls and floods, Drs. Tung and Yen address uncertainties arising from imperfect models, imprecise parameters, data errors, and other sources. The authors call on work in uncertainty analysis from the past two decades to provide and illustrate mathematical tools of varying sophistication available for quantifying the integrated effect of different uncertainties and making the uncertain more knowable..
. "Hydrosystems Engineering Uncertainty Analysis" is the only volume that: . Brings together in a single resource all mathematical uncertainty analysis methods relevant to hydrosystem risk and reliability issues. Demonstrates uses and limitations of uncertainty analysis in the broadest possible range of hydrosystem engineering problems. Provides the tools needed to better protect systems, citizens, and the environment against failure in critical hydrosystem projects. Shows engineers and students how to perform expert uncertainty analysis for reliability assessments and risk-based design. Offers examples of each application. Provides sets of Q And A's for self-testing after every chapter.
Tools to make hard problems easier to solve. In this book, Sanjoy Mahajan shows us that the way to master complexity is through insight rather than precision. Precision can overwhelm us with information, whereas insight connects seemingly disparate pieces of information into a simple picture. Unlike computers, humans depend on insight. Based on the author's fifteen years of teaching at MIT, Cambridge University, and Olin College, The Art of Insight in Science and Engineering shows us how to build insight and find understanding, giving readers tools to help them solve any problem in science and engineering. To master complexity, we can organize it or discard it. The Art of Insight in Science and Engineering first teaches the tools for organizing complexity, then distinguishes the two paths for discarding complexity: with and without loss of information. Questions and problems throughout the text help readers master and apply these groups of tools. Armed with this three-part toolchest, and without complicated mathematics, readers can estimate the flight range of birds and planes and the strength of chemical bonds, understand the physics of pianos and xylophones, and explain why skies are blue and sunsets are red. The Art of Insight in Science and Engineering will appear in print and online under a Creative Commons Noncommercial Share Alike license.
"Financial Times" Business Book of the Year Finalist
John Brockman brings together the world's best-known physicists and science writers--including Brian Greene, Walter Isaacson, Nobel Prize-winners Murray Gell-Mann and Frank Wilczek, and Brian Cox--to explain the universe in all wondrous splendor.
In Universe, today's most influential science writers explain the science behind our evolving understanding of the universe and everything in it, including the cutting edge research and discoveries that are shaping our knowledge.
Lee Smolin reveals how math and cosmology are helping us create a theory of the whole universe Brian Cox offers new dimensions on the Large Hadron and the existence of a Higgs-Boson particle Neil Turok analyzes the fundamental laws of nature, what came before the big bang, and the possibility of a unified theory.
Seth Lloyd investigates the impact of computational revolutions and the informational revolution Lawrence Krauss provides fresh insight into gravity, dark matter, and the energy of empty space Brian Greene and Walter Isaacson illuminate the genius who revolutionized modern science: Albert Einstein and much more.
Explore the Universe with some of today's greatest minds: what it is, how it came into being, and what may happen next.
In forty years, the population of the Earth will reach ten billion. Can our world support so many people? What kind of world will it be? In this unique, original and important book, Charles C. Mann illuminates the four great challenges we face - food, water, energy, climate change - through an exploration of the crucial work and wide-ranging influence of two little-known twentieth-century scientists, Norman Borlaug and William Vogt. Vogt (the Prophet) was the intellectual forefather of the environmental movement, and believed that in our using more than the planet has to give, our prosperity will bring us to ruin. Borlaug's research in the 1950s led to the development of modern high-yield crops that have saved millions from starvation. The Wizard of Mann's title, he believed that science will continue to rise to the challenges we face. Mann tells the stories of these scientists and their crucial influence on today's debates as his story ranges from Mexico to India, across continents and oceans and from the past and the present to the future. Brilliantly original in concept, wryly observant and deeply researched, The Wizard and the Prophet is essential reading for readers of Yuval Noah Harari's Sapiens or Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs and Steel, for anyone interested in how we got here and in the future of our species.
Whether depicting humans battling aliens or a brave geologist saving lives as a volcano erupts, science-fiction films are an exciting visual and sensuous introduction to the workings of science and technology. These films explore a range of complex topics in vivid and accessible ways, from space travel and laser technology to genetic engineering, global warming, and the consequences of nuclear weaponry. Though actual scientific lab work might not be as exciting, science fiction is an engaging yet powerful way for a wide audience to explore some of the most pressing issues and ideas of our time.
In this book, a scientist and dedicated film enthusiast discusses the portrayal of science in more than one hundred films, including science fiction, scientific biographies, and documentaries. Beginning with early films like "Voyage to the Moon" and "Metropolis" and concluding with more recent offerings like "The Matrix," "War of the Worlds," "A Beautiful Mind," and "An Inconvenient Truth," Sidney Perkowitz questions how much faith we can put into Hollywood's depiction of scientists and their work; how accurately these films capture scientific fact and theory; whether cataclysms like our collision with a comet can actually happen; and to what extent these films influence public opinion about science and the future.
Movies, especially science-fiction films, temporarily remove viewers from the world as they know it and show them the world as it might be, providing special perspective on human nature and society. Yet "Hollywood science" can be erroneous, distorting fact for dramatic effect and stereotyping scientists as remote and nerdy, evil, or noble, doing little to improve the relationship between science and society. Bringing together history, scientific theory, and humorous observation, "Hollywood Science" features dozens of film stills and a list of the all-time best and worst science-fiction movies. Just as this genre appeals to all types of viewers, this book will resonate with anyone who has been inspired by science-fiction films and would like to learn how fantasy compares to fact.
Every student can benefit from extra help with matters of organization and style in the writing of term papers, theses, and dissertations - as a precursor to better grades and greater respect. This handy guide from the best-selling author team of "The Art of Scientific Writing" shows how to achieve maximum benefit with relatively little effort. Based on a proven concept that assumes no special talent for writing, the book will be of great value to both native and non-native speakers of English. The treatment is rich in examples and challenging problems (with solutions provided in an appendix), applicable either in conjunction with a course or for self-study.
Why are there so few women in science? In Breaking into the Lab, Sue Rosser uses the experiences of successful women scientists and engineers to answer the question of why elite institutions have so few women scientists and engineers tenured on their faculties. Women are highly qualified, motivated students, and yet they have drastically higher rates of attrition, and they are shying away from the fields with the greatest demand for workers and the biggest economic payoffs, such as engineering, computer sciences, and the physical sciences. Rosser shows that these continuing trends are not only disappointing, they are urgent: the U.S. can no longer afford to lose the talents of the women scientists and engineers, because it is quickly losing its lead in science and technology. Ultimately, these biases and barriers may lock women out of the new scientific frontiers of innovation and technology transfer, resulting in loss of useful inventions and products to society.
Take four emblematic American scenes: the Hall of Biodiversity at the American Museum of Natural History in New York; Disney's Animal Kingdom theme park in Orlando; an ecotour of Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks; the film "An Inconvenient Truth." Other than expressing a common interest in the environment, they seem quite dissimilar.
And yet, as "Governing the Wild" makes clear, these sites are all manifestations of green governmentality, each seeking to define and regulate our understanding, experience, and treatment of nature. Stephanie Rutherford shows how the museum presents a scientized assessment of global nature under threat; the Animal Kingdom demonstrates that a corporation can successfully organize a biopolitical project; the ecotour, operating as a school for a natural aesthetic sensibility, provides a visual grammar of pristine national nature; and the film offers a toehold on a moral way of encountering nature. But one very powerful force unites the disparate "truths" of nature produced through these sites, and that, Rutherford tells us, is their debt to nature's commodification.
Rutherford's analysis reveals how each site integrates nature,
power, and profit to make the buying and selling of nature critical
to our understanding and rescuing of it. The combination, she
argues, renders other ways of encountering nature--particularly
more radically environmental ways--unthinkable.
We live in an age where working in science or engineering offers tremendous professional opportunities - the pace of scientific development is truly breathtaking. Yet many researchers struggle with the pressures of the fast-paced academic workplace, and struggle to harmonize their work and personal lives. The result can be burnout, exhaustion, and stress on a personal level, and difficulty in recruiting and retaining talented, diverse people to science and engineering. This book, written for graduate students and researchers at all stages of their careers, aims to help scientists by identifying and questioning the core beliefs that drive a culture of overwork, and provides real-world examples and exercises for those wishing to do things differently. Written in a lively narrative style, and including interview excerpts from practicing scientists, social scientists, and engineers, this book serves as a guide for those seeking to practice the seven traits of the joyful scientist.
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