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The Noise-Reduction Manual was prepared under the auspices of the U.S. Office of Naval Research and was originally intended to constitute the introductory sections of a more extensive study of noise-reduction problems encountered aboard ship. There is a sustained emphasis on the practical techniques for the reduction of airborne noise, the treatment of each problem tacitly deprecating the need for, and even the practical value of, mathematical investigation of noise sources and noise fields as compared to the greater importance of careful acoustical measurements designed to direct the proper use of acoustical materials and relatively simple noise-reduction techniques. Careful distinction is made between the various techniques of noise reduction at the source and the various methods of noise and vibration isolation and dissipation, greatest emphasis being devoted to the latter. After basic definitions and analysis of several causes of noise, entire chapters are devoted to absorption of airborne sound, insulation against airborne sound, vibration damping, and vibration isolation. Each chapter contains extensive discussions of the evaluation and application of the various types of acoustical materials, including selection rules, performance data, and instrumentation. The straightforward exposition should make the manual equally valuable to both the novice and expert in the field of noise reduction.
This witty and amusing exploration of the physical universe explains fundamental concepts in language that is clear to anyone with little or no scientific background. Tyson transforms everyday experiences into venues of cosmic enlightenment as he probes the philosophy, methods, and discoveries of science, including stellar evolution, the conservation of energy, the electromagnetic spectrum, gravity and thermodynamics. Deftly demystifying astronomical terms and concepts such as the Big Bang, black holes, redshifts, syzygy, and Kirkwood Gaps, "Universe Down to Earth" traces the life of the stars from birth to death; presents the Periodic Table of Elements, highlighting noteworthy elements such as titanium, iron, and hydrogen; gives an unorthodox yet entertaining tour of famous constellations; and tackles modern-day astrology.
This rapidly paced book provides a fascinating insight into how our understanding of Mars has developed. When a Renaissance astronomer studied the motions of Mars in the sky, he discovered the laws of planetary motion. With the advent of the telescope, the planet could be studied as a world in its own right, measuring the length of its day and mapping its surface in ever more detail. Late in the 19th century, Percival Lowell in the USA claimed Mars was criss-crossed by canals created by a race of intelligent beings to transport water from the polar ice caps to the equatorial areas. Although Lowell's vision of Mars was rejected by astronomers, it inspired storytellers to write classic works of science fiction. By the mid-20th century, the consensus view was that large tracts of the planet hosted a hardy form of vegetation. Given the limitation of telescopes, the only way to be sure was to send a probe. The engaging text, supported by numerous technical illustrations, photographs and graphics, relates the challenges and technical triumph of sending space vehicles to Mars, initially on flyby missions, then to orbit the planet, and more recently to land on it. Mars is a world of contrasts. Much of the southern hemisphere is cratered highlands and much of the northern hemisphere is a low-lying plain that might once have held an ocean. There are volcanoes and canyons much larger than those on Earth, and broad channels cut by vast floods - all formed early in the planet's history. Mars has suffered extreme climate change. Did life develop there when the planet was warm and wet? Did it adapt to the current arid and cold conditions? We looked for microbes in the soil with indeterminate results. Soon, we hope to drill to seek evidence of microbes living beneath the surface. The implications of finding life on Mars are profound, because if life can develop independently in several places in the solar system then it is probably ubiquitous across the universe. The Mars Owners' Workshop Manual chronicles this story of discovery and looks forward to the time when we will join our robots in exploring the intriguing Red Planet.
Examining science as a rhetorical enterprise, this book seizes upon
one scientific essay--"The Spandrels of San Marco and the
Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist
Programme"--and probes it from many angles. Written by prominent
evolutionary theorists Stephen Jay Gould and Richard C. Lewontin
and first published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of
London in 1979, the "Spandrels" article is both serious science and
Make your own luck by understanding probability Over the years, some very smart people have thought they understood the rules of chance?only to fail dismally. Whether you call it probability, risk, or uncertainty, the workings of chance often defy common sense. Fortunately, advances in math and science have revealed the laws of chance, and understanding those laws can help in your everyday life. In Chancing It, award-winning scientist and writer Robert Matthews shows how to understand the laws of probability and use them to your advantage. He gives you access to some of the most potent intellectual tools ever developed and explains how to use them to guide your judgments and decisions. By the end of the book, you will know: How to understand and even predict coincidences When an insurance policy is worth having Why "expert" predictions are often misleading How to tell when a scientific claim is a breakthrough or baloney When it makes sense to place a bet on anything from sports to stock markets A groundbreaking introduction to the power of probability, Chancing It will sharpen your decision-making and maximize your luck.
Approaches to avoid loss of life and limit disruption and damage from flooding have changed significantly in recent years. Worldwide, there has been a move from a strategy of flood defence to one of flood risk management. Flood risk management includes flood prevention using hard defences, where appropriate, but also requires that society learns to live with floods and that stakeholders living in flood prone areas develop coping strategies to increase their resilience to flood impacts when these occur. This change in approach represents a paradigm shift which stems from the realisation that continuing to strengthen and extend conventional flood defences is unsustainable economically, environmentally, and in terms of social equity. Flood risk management recognises that a sustainable approach must rest on integrated measures that reduce not only the probability of flooding, but also the consequences. This is essential as increases in the probability of inundation are inevitable in many areas of the world due to climate change, while socio-economic development will lead to spiralling increases in the consequences of flooding unless land use in floodplains is carefully planned.
Flood Risk Science and Management provides an extensive and comprehensive synthesis of current research in flood management; providing a multi-disciplinary reference text covering a wide range of flood management topics. Its targeted readership is the international research community (from research students through to senior staff) and flood management professionals, such as engineers, planners, government officials and those with flood management responsibility in the public sector. By using the concept of case study chapters, international coverage is given to the topic, ensuring a world-wide relevance.
APPLYING UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR SOUNDER HYDROSYSTEMS ENGINEERING.
. Focusing on issues of vital civic interest, this comprehensive practice manual teaches the application of uncertainty analysis for more sustainable hydrosystem design and management. Created by internationally respected authorities, "Hydrosystems Engineering Uncertainty Analysis" deals with the uncertainties inherent in engineering projects such as dams, levees, and storm sewer systems. Going beyond unpredictability in geophysical processes such as extreme rainfalls and floods, Drs. Tung and Yen address uncertainties arising from imperfect models, imprecise parameters, data errors, and other sources. The authors call on work in uncertainty analysis from the past two decades to provide and illustrate mathematical tools of varying sophistication available for quantifying the integrated effect of different uncertainties and making the uncertain more knowable..
. "Hydrosystems Engineering Uncertainty Analysis" is the only volume that: . Brings together in a single resource all mathematical uncertainty analysis methods relevant to hydrosystem risk and reliability issues. Demonstrates uses and limitations of uncertainty analysis in the broadest possible range of hydrosystem engineering problems. Provides the tools needed to better protect systems, citizens, and the environment against failure in critical hydrosystem projects. Shows engineers and students how to perform expert uncertainty analysis for reliability assessments and risk-based design. Offers examples of each application. Provides sets of Q And A's for self-testing after every chapter.
"Financial Times" Business Book of the Year Finalist
The near meltdown of Fukushima, the upheavals in the Middle East, the BP oil spill, and the looming reality of global warming have reminded the president and all U.S. citizens that nothing has more impact on our lives than the supply and demand for energy. Its procurement dominates our economy and foreign policy more than any other factor. But the "energy question" is more confusing, contentious, and complicated than ever before. We need to know if nuclear power will ever really be safe. We need to know if solar and wind power will ever really be viable. And we desperately need to know if the natural gas deposits in Pennsylvania are a windfall of historic proportions or a false alarm that will create more problems than solutions. Richard A. Muller provides the answers in this must-read manual for our energy priorities now and in the coming years.
In this exploration of the concept of the gene, Jonathan Slack looks at the discovery, nature, and role of genes in both evolution and development. Explaining the nature of genetic variation in the human population, how hereditary factors were identified as molecules of DNA, and how certain specific mutations can lead to disease, Slack highlights how DNA variants are used to trace human ancestry and migration, and can also used by forensic scientists to identify individuals in crime. He also explores issues such as the role of genetic heritability and IQ as well as the changes that occur in the genes of populations during evolution. An ideal guide for anyone curious about what genes are and how genetics can be put to use, this Very Short Introduction demonstrates the ways in which the gene concept has been understood and used by molecular biologists, population biologists, and social scientists around the world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
In forty years, the population of the Earth will reach ten billion. Can our world support so many people? What kind of world will it be? In this unique, original and important book, Charles C. Mann illuminates the four great challenges we face - food, water, energy, climate change - through an exploration of the crucial work and wide-ranging influence of two little-known twentieth-century scientists, Norman Borlaug and William Vogt. Vogt (the Prophet) was the intellectual forefather of the environmental movement, and believed that in our using more than the planet has to give, our prosperity will bring us to ruin. Borlaug's research in the 1950s led to the development of modern high-yield crops that have saved millions from starvation. The Wizard of Mann's title, he believed that science will continue to rise to the challenges we face. Mann tells the stories of these scientists and their crucial influence on today's debates as his story ranges from Mexico to India, across continents and oceans and from the past and the present to the future. Brilliantly original in concept, wryly observant and deeply researched, The Wizard and the Prophet is essential reading for readers of Yuval Noah Harari's Sapiens or Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs and Steel, for anyone interested in how we got here and in the future of our species.
Whether depicting humans battling aliens or a brave geologist saving lives as a volcano erupts, science-fiction films are an exciting visual and sensuous introduction to the workings of science and technology. These films explore a range of complex topics in vivid and accessible ways, from space travel and laser technology to genetic engineering, global warming, and the consequences of nuclear weaponry. Though actual scientific lab work might not be as exciting, science fiction is an engaging yet powerful way for a wide audience to explore some of the most pressing issues and ideas of our time.
In this book, a scientist and dedicated film enthusiast discusses the portrayal of science in more than one hundred films, including science fiction, scientific biographies, and documentaries. Beginning with early films like "Voyage to the Moon" and "Metropolis" and concluding with more recent offerings like "The Matrix," "War of the Worlds," "A Beautiful Mind," and "An Inconvenient Truth," Sidney Perkowitz questions how much faith we can put into Hollywood's depiction of scientists and their work; how accurately these films capture scientific fact and theory; whether cataclysms like our collision with a comet can actually happen; and to what extent these films influence public opinion about science and the future.
Movies, especially science-fiction films, temporarily remove viewers from the world as they know it and show them the world as it might be, providing special perspective on human nature and society. Yet "Hollywood science" can be erroneous, distorting fact for dramatic effect and stereotyping scientists as remote and nerdy, evil, or noble, doing little to improve the relationship between science and society. Bringing together history, scientific theory, and humorous observation, "Hollywood Science" features dozens of film stills and a list of the all-time best and worst science-fiction movies. Just as this genre appeals to all types of viewers, this book will resonate with anyone who has been inspired by science-fiction films and would like to learn how fantasy compares to fact.
Every student can benefit from extra help with matters of organization and style in the writing of term papers, theses, and dissertations - as a precursor to better grades and greater respect. This handy guide from the best-selling author team of "The Art of Scientific Writing" shows how to achieve maximum benefit with relatively little effort. Based on a proven concept that assumes no special talent for writing, the book will be of great value to both native and non-native speakers of English. The treatment is rich in examples and challenging problems (with solutions provided in an appendix), applicable either in conjunction with a course or for self-study.
Why are there so few women in science? In Breaking into the Lab, Sue Rosser uses the experiences of successful women scientists and engineers to answer the question of why elite institutions have so few women scientists and engineers tenured on their faculties. Women are highly qualified, motivated students, and yet they have drastically higher rates of attrition, and they are shying away from the fields with the greatest demand for workers and the biggest economic payoffs, such as engineering, computer sciences, and the physical sciences. Rosser shows that these continuing trends are not only disappointing, they are urgent: the U.S. can no longer afford to lose the talents of the women scientists and engineers, because it is quickly losing its lead in science and technology. Ultimately, these biases and barriers may lock women out of the new scientific frontiers of innovation and technology transfer, resulting in loss of useful inventions and products to society.
Take four emblematic American scenes: the Hall of Biodiversity at the American Museum of Natural History in New York; Disney's Animal Kingdom theme park in Orlando; an ecotour of Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks; the film "An Inconvenient Truth." Other than expressing a common interest in the environment, they seem quite dissimilar.
And yet, as "Governing the Wild" makes clear, these sites are all manifestations of green governmentality, each seeking to define and regulate our understanding, experience, and treatment of nature. Stephanie Rutherford shows how the museum presents a scientized assessment of global nature under threat; the Animal Kingdom demonstrates that a corporation can successfully organize a biopolitical project; the ecotour, operating as a school for a natural aesthetic sensibility, provides a visual grammar of pristine national nature; and the film offers a toehold on a moral way of encountering nature. But one very powerful force unites the disparate "truths" of nature produced through these sites, and that, Rutherford tells us, is their debt to nature's commodification.
Rutherford's analysis reveals how each site integrates nature,
power, and profit to make the buying and selling of nature critical
to our understanding and rescuing of it. The combination, she
argues, renders other ways of encountering nature--particularly
more radically environmental ways--unthinkable.
We live in an age where working in science or engineering offers tremendous professional opportunities - the pace of scientific development is truly breathtaking. Yet many researchers struggle with the pressures of the fast-paced academic workplace, and struggle to harmonize their work and personal lives. The result can be burnout, exhaustion, and stress on a personal level, and difficulty in recruiting and retaining talented, diverse people to science and engineering. This book, written for graduate students and researchers at all stages of their careers, aims to help scientists by identifying and questioning the core beliefs that drive a culture of overwork, and provides real-world examples and exercises for those wishing to do things differently. Written in a lively narrative style, and including interview excerpts from practicing scientists, social scientists, and engineers, this book serves as a guide for those seeking to practice the seven traits of the joyful scientist.
The Big Bang, the birth of the universe, was a singular event. All of the matter of the universe was concentrated at a single point, with temperatures so high that even the familiar protons and neutrons of atoms did not yet exist, but rather were replaced by a swirling maelstrom of energy, matter and antimatter. Exotic quarks and leptons flickered briefly into existence, before merging back into the energy sea.This book explains the fascinating world of quarks and leptons and the forces that govern their behavior. Told from an experimental physicist's perspective, it forgoes mathematical complexity, using instead particularly accessible figures and apt analogies. In addition to the story of quarks and leptons, which are regarded as well-accepted fact, the author (who is a leading researcher at one of the world's highest energy particle physics laboratories) also discusses mysteries at both the experimental and theoretical frontiers, before tying it all together with the exciting field of cosmology and indeed the birth of the universe itself.The text spans the tiny world of the quark to the depths of the universe with breathtaking clarity. The casual student of science will appreciate the careful distinction between what is known (quarks, leptons and antimatter), what is suspected (Higgs bosons, neutrino oscillations and the reason why the universe has so little antimatter) and what is merely dreamed (supersymmetry, superstrings and extra dimensions). Included is an unprecedented chapter explaining the accelerators and detectors of modern particle physics experiments. The chapter discussing the hunt for the Higgs boson - currently consuming the efforts of nearly 6000 physicists - reveals drama that only big-stakes science can give. Understanding the Universe leaves the reader with a deep appreciation of the fascinating particle realm and reverence for just how much it determines the rich beauty of our universe.Since the release of the first edition, the landscape has changed. The venerable Fermilab Tevatron has ceased operations after a quarter century of extraordinary performance, to be replaced by the CERN Large Hadron Collider, an accelerator with a design energy of seven times greater than the Tevatron and a collision rate of nearly a billion collisions per second. The next few years promise to be very exciting as scientists explore this new realm. This revised edition of Understanding the Universe will leave the reader with a deep appreciation of just why physicists are so excited.
The goal of this book is to examine how different theoretical and methodological perspectives can be used to frame authors' examination of sociocultural studies in science education. Three lead chapters from Kenneth Tobin, Paul Grobstein, and Wesley Shumar who presented keynotes at the 2010 Springer Forum provide the core for the book. Other authors contribute chapters based on their use of a variety of methodological or theoretical perspectives for specific contexts that are either based on direct experiences or on the author's experiences with the use of a multiuser virtual environment (MUVE), Second Life.
Plant Breeding Reviews presents state-of-the-art reviews on plant genetics and the breeding of all types of crops by both traditional means and molecular methods. Many of the crops widely grown today stem from a very narrow genetic base; understanding and preserving crop genetic resources is vital to the security of food systems worldwide. The emphasis of the series is on methodology, a fundamental understanding of crop genetics, and applications to major crops.
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