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This book describes how one can use The Scientific Method to solve everyday problems including medical ailments, health issues, money management, traveling, shopping, cooking, household chores, etc. It illustrates how to exploit the information collected from our five senses, how to solve problems when no information is available for the present problem situation, how to increase our chances of success by redefining a problem, and how to extrapolate our capabilities by seeing a relationship among heretofore unrelated concepts.One should formulate a hypothesis as early as possible in order to have a sense of direction regarding which path to follow. Occasionally, by making wild conjectures, creative solutions can transpire. However, hypotheses need to be well-tested. Through this way, The Scientific Method can help readers solve problems in both familiar and unfamiliar situations. Containing real-life examples of how various problems are solved - for instance, how some observant patients cure their own illnesses when medical experts have failed - this book will train readers to observe what others may have missed and conceive what others may not have contemplated. With practice, they will be able to solve more problems than they could previously imagine.In this second edition, the authors have added some more theories which they hope can help in solving everyday problems. At the same time, they have updated the book by including quite a few examples which they think are interesting.
Plant Breeding Reviews presents state-of-the-art reviews on plant genetics and the breeding of all types of crops by both traditional means and molecular methods. Many of the crops widely grown today stem from a very narrow genetic base; understanding and preserving crop genetic resources is vital to the security of food systems worldwide. The emphasis of the series is on methodology, a fundamental understanding of crop genetics, and applications to major crops.
Producing sufficient numbers of graduates who are prepared for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations has become a national priority in the United States. To attain this goal, some policymakers have targeted reducing STEM attrition in college, arguing that retaining more students in STEM fields in college is a low-cost, fast way to produce the STEM professionals that the nation needs. The purpose of this book is to gain a better understanding of this attrition by determining rates of attrition from STEM and non-STEM fields; identifying characteristics of students who leave STEM fields; comparing the STEM course-taking and performance of STEM leavers and persisters; and examining the strength of various factors' associations with STEM attrition. This book is also intended to serve as a primer for outlining existing STEM education policy issues and programs. It includes assessments of the federal STEM education effort and the condition of STEM education in the United States, as well as an analysis of several of the policy issues central to the contemporary federal conversation about STEM education.
The Zoology of Tapeworms was first published in 1952. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.Leaders in helminthology have long recognized the need for such a work as this--a comprehensive study of tapeworms. This definitive treatise describes the tapeworms of the world--their gross and microscopic anatomy, their physiology, life cycles, and relationships to hosts, the theories of origin and evolution, and the various systems of classification that have been applied to tapeworms.Detailed, systematic descriptions and keys for the identification of all known genera of the world and species of North America are provided. Emphasis on the theoretical significance of various aspects of tapeworm zoology is balanced by a wealth of detailed description. A bibliography up to 1950 is appended.A review of the literature on each topic is incorporated in the discussions. Starting with a few fragments of information a century or more ago, the literature on the subject of tapeworms has appeared in a wide range of journals and books published in at least five languages. Many of the older publications are, for practical purposes, unavailable, and a number of the more recent journals are difficult to obtain. Therefore, the consolidation of this large body of scattered literature in a single volume will be of value to scientists in many fields.In addition to filling a basic need for helminthologists, this book should serve as a reference work for parasitologists, zoologists, ecologists, clinicians, medical research workers, and students and workers in various fields of biology.There are 419 text illustrations from drawings of species by the authors.
Chronicles the most amazing and secretive research project in recorded history. Starting with the Philadelphia Experiment of 1943, invisibility experiments were conducted aboard the USS Eldridge that resulted in full-scale teleportation of the ship and crew. Forty years of massive research ensued, culminating in bizarre experiments at Montauk Point that actually manipulated time itself. The controversial lectures by Al Bielek on the Montauk Project and the Philadelphia Experiment are similar to the information in this book. The book includes diagrams and photos of the time-travel devices themselves, plus photocopies of documents and schematic diagrams.
"A masterly assessment of the way the idea of quanta of radiation
became part of 20th-century physics. . . . The book not only deals
with a topic of importance and interest to all scientists, but is
also a polished literary work, described (accurately) by one of its
original reviewers as a scientific detective story."--John Gribbin,
Adam Hart Davis has interviewed some of the most influential scientists and thinkers of our time. In this fascinating insight into modern science he presents the stories behind the science, the difficulties behind the discoveries and the future of the findings, as explained by the people themselves.
Adam Hart Davis talks with:
Jocelyn Bell Burnell (Bath, UK)
Sir Michael Berry (Bristol, UK)
Colleen Cavanaugh (Harvard, US)
Richard Dawkins (Oxford, UK) .
Loren Graham (MIT, US)
Richard Gregory (Bristol, UK)
Eric Lander (MIT, US)
Lord May of Oxford (UK)
John Maynard Smith (Sussex, UK)
Rosalind Picard (MIT, US)
Peter Raven (St Louis, US)
Sir Martin Rees (Cambridge, UK)
Eugenie Scott (Oakland, US)
Lewis Wolpert (UCL, UK)
Science writers get into the game with all kinds of noble, high-minded ambitions. We want to educate. To enlighten," notes guest editor Amy Stewart in her introduction to The Best American Science and Nature Writing 2016. "But at the end of the day, we're all writers . . . We're here to play for the folks." The writers in this anthology brought us the year's highest notes in the genre. From a Pulitzer Prize-winning essay on the earthquake that could decimate the Pacific Northwest to the astonishing work of investigative journalism that transformed the nail salon industry, this is a collection of hard-hitting and beautifully composed writing on the wonders, dangers, and oddities of scientific innovation and our natural world. The Best American Science and Nature Writing 2016 includes Kathryn Schulz, Sarah Maslin Nir, Charles C. Mann, Oliver Sacks, Elizabeth Kolbert, Gretel Ehrlich, and others Amy Stewart, guest editor, is the award-winning author of seven books, including her acclaimed Kopp Sisters novels and the bestsellers The Drunken Botanist and Wicked Plants. She and her husband live in Eureka, California, where they own a bookstore called Eureka Books. Tim Folger, series editor, is a contributing editor at Discover and writes about science for several magazines. He lives in Gallup, New Mexico.
Soybeans and Their Products was first published in 1972. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.This is the report of a comprehensive study designated to identify and measure empirically the forces, interrelationships, and processes which shape the behavior of the total soybean market. The research focused on the years from 1946 to 1967, a period when the soybean economy developed from its small beginnings to its present magnitude. Soybeans are now the leading oilseed in world trade; soybean oil is the most prominent among the many edible oils available in the world; and soybean meal stands first in importance in world markets for high-protein livestock feeds. As a top cash crop in U.S. agriculture soybeans are rivaled only by corn.Much of the remarkable surge in soybean and related markets in recent years can be explained and analyzed by using the concepts of demand growth and commodity substitution developed in this book. In addition to serving the specific interests of commodity experts, the study will be useful to econometricians and price analysts as an example of empirical investigation of a major agricultural and industrial raw material.The research was carried out through close cooperation between the University of Minnesota's Department of Agricultura and Applied Economics and the Economic and Statistical Analysis Division of the Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
The Comparative Anatomy and Histology of the Cerebellum was first published in 1972. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.This is the third and final volume of the late Dr. Larsell's definitive work on the cerebellum, brought to completion for publication by Dr. Jansen. Two additional contributing authors for this volume are Enrico Mugnaini, M.D., and Helge K. Korneliussen, M.D.The first section of this volume deals with the morphology of the human cerebellum. The morphogenetic development, the fissure formation, and the differentiation of the cerebellar lobules are described in detail, and followed by a comprehensive account of the adult cerebellum, its lobes and lobules. It is shown that the ten major lobules which Dr. Larsell distinguished in other mammals are recognizable also in man.Chapters on the cerebellum connections include detailed accounts of all afferent and efferent cerebellar tracts. A subsequent chapter, by Drs. Jansen and Korneliussen, is devoted to the fundamental plan of cerebellar organization. The final chapters, by Dr. Mugnaini, deal with the histology and cytology of the cerebellar cortex. A comprehensive account is given of electron micrographs, a virtual atlas of the ultrastructure of the cerebellar cortex, illustrate the description.
The Comparative Anatomy and Histology of the Cerebellum was first published in 1970. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. This is the second volume of the late Dr. Larsell's comprehensive monograph on the cerebellum, the first volume of which is described below. A third volume, on the human cerebellum, will be published by the University of Minnesota Press next spring to complete the work. This second volume deals with the morphogenetic development and morphology of the cerebellum of all orders of mammals from monotremes through apes. The descriptions cover the cerebellum in about forty species with special emphasis on the cerebellum of the albino rate, rabbit, cat, and rhesus monkey. Dr. Larsell's comparative anatomical studies over a period of many years led to the conclusion that fundamentally the mammalian cerebellum is composed of ten subdivisions. With few exceptions (the smallest and most primitive cerebella) the subdivisions are identified in all mammals. The descriptions of the cerebella are based on the author's personal investigations but the relevant literature is thoroughly reviewed also.
Neuroscientist V.S. Ramachandran is internationally renowned for uncovering answers to the deep and quirky questions of human nature that few scientists have dared to address. His bold insights about the brain are matched only by the stunning simplicity of his experiments -- using such low-tech tools as cotton swabs, glasses of water and dime-store mirrors. In Phantoms in the Brain, Dr. Ramachandran recounts how his work with patients who have bizarre neurological disorders has shed new light on the deep architecture of the brain, and what these findings tell us about who we are, how we construct our body image, why we laugh or become depressed, why we may believe in God, how we make decisions, deceive ourselves and dream, perhaps even why we're so clever at philosophy, music and art. Some of his most notable cases:
Dr. Ramachandran's inspired medical detective work pushes the boundaries of medicine's last great frontier -- the human mind -- yielding new and provocative insights into the "big questions" about consciousness and the self.
"Eloquent Science" evolved from a workshop aimed at offering atmospheric science students formal guidance in communications, tailored for their eventual scientific careers. Drawing on advice from over twenty books and hundreds of other sources, this volume presents informative and often humorous tips for writing scientific journal articles, while also providing a peek behind the curtain into the operations of editorial boards and publishers of major journals. The volume focuses on writing, reviewing, and speaking and is aimed at the domain of the student or scientist at the start of her career. The volume offers tips on poster presentations, media communication, and advice for non-native speakers of English, as well as appendices on proper punctuation usage and commonly misunderstood meteorological concepts. A further reading section at the end of each chapter suggests additional sources for the interested reader, and sidebars written by experts in the field offer diverse viewpoints on reference topics.
The scope of this extraordinary selection of essays, distilled from nearly a thousand works that the author has written, is literally the entire universe and universe of knowledge. It charts the author's quest for the meaning of life faced with a dominant knowledge system she regards as incoherent, meaningless, and often acting against people and planet. She shows how contemporary scientific findings across all disciplines already provide an authentic knowledge system that's coherent with life and the universe. The aim is to transform science thoroughly from inspiration to research to applications that work for people and planet.This book is simply unique in its scope and content. There is no equivalent. The author surveys and explains contemporary science in depth ranging over philosophy, anthropology, quantum physics and chemistry, neurobiology, psychology, genetics and epigenetics, cosmology, art, humanities, and mathematics. It presents a truly holistic view of nature, with profound implications for life in the social, political, and personal realm.
Almost 200 million human beings, mostly civilians, have died in
wars over the last century, and there is no end of slaughter in
"In some ways disease does not exist until we have agreed that it does, by perceiving, naming, and responding to it," writes Charles E. Rosenberg in his introduction to this stimulating set of essays. Disease is both a biological and a social phenomenon. Patient, doctor, family, and social institutions--including employers, government, and insurance companies--all find ways to frame the biological event in terms that make sense to them and serve their own ends. Many diseases discussed here--endstage renal disease, rheumatic fever, parasitic infectious diseases, coronary thrombosis--came to be defined, redefined, and renamed over the course of several centuries. As these essays show, the concept of disease has also been used to frame culturally resonant behaviors: suicide, homosexuality, anorexia nervosa, chronic fatigue syndrome. Disease is also framed by public policy, as the cases of industrial disability and forensic psychiatry demonstrate. Medicl institutions, as managers of people with disease, come to have vested interests in diagnoses, as the histories of facilities to treat tuberculosis or epilepsy reveal. Ultimately, the existence and conquest of disease serve to frame a society's sense of its own "healthiness" and to give direction to social reforms. The contributors include Steven J. Peitzman, Peter C. English, John Farley, Christopher Lawrence, Michael Macdonald, Bert Hansen, Joan Jacobs Brumberg, Robert A. Aronowitz, Gerald Markowitz, David Rosner, Janet A. Tighe, Barbara Bates, Ellen Dwyer, John M. Eyler, and Elizabeth Fee. Charles Rosenberg is Janice and Julian Bers Professor of the History of Science at the University of Pennsylvania. Janet Golden is an assistant professor of history at Rutgers University.
Based on a course developed by the author, Introduction to High Performance Scientific Computing introduces methods for adding parallelism to numerical methods for solving differential equations. It contains exercises and programming projects that facilitate learning as well as examples and discussions based on the C programming language, with additional comments for those already familiar with C++. The text provides an overview of concepts and algorithmic techniques for modern scientific computing and is divided into six self-contained parts that can be assembled in any order to create an introductory course using available computer hardware.Part I introduces the C programming language for those not already familiar with programming in a compiled language. Part II describes parallelism on shared memory architectures using OpenMP. Part III details parallelism on computer clusters using MPI for coordinating a computation. Part IV demonstrates the use of graphical programming units (GPUs) to solve problems using the CUDA language for NVIDIA graphics cards. Part V addresses programming on GPUs for non-NVIDIA graphics cards using the OpenCL framework. Finally, Part VI contains a brief discussion of numerical methods and applications, giving the reader an opportunity to test the methods on typical computing problems. Introduction to High Performance Scientific Computing is intended for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students who have limited exposure to programming or parallel programming concepts. Extensive knowledge of numerical methods is not assumed. The material can be adapted to the available computational hardware, from OpenMP on simple laptops or desktops to MPI on computer clusters or CUDA and OpenCL for computers containing NVIDIA or other graphics cards. Experienced programmers unfamiliar with parallel programming will benefit from comparing the various methods to determine the type of parallel programming best suited for their application. The book can be used for courses on parallel scientific computing, high performance computing, and numerical methods for parallel computing.
The Potentials About a Point Electrode and Apparent Resistivity Curves for a Two-, Three-, and Four-Layer Earth was first published in 1956. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.This publication will be useful to geophysicists, geologists, and others engaged in exploration for minerals by electrical methods, and may be used in theoretical studies of electrical prospecting. It makes available for the first time a comprehensive collection of 2268 master resistivity curves for a two-, three-, and four-layer earth. All previous collections of curves for Wenner electrode configuration are included, so the user will not need to refer elsewhere to complete his set of working curves. In addition, the basic potential data used in computing the curves is given in tables. Auxiliary tables are provided to reduce the graphic integration procedures to simple arithmetic. The integral in question occurs widely in solutions to Laplace's equation.
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