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Covering theoretical methods and computational techniques in biomolecular research, this book focuses on approaches for the treatment of macromolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, and bilayer membranes. It uses concepts in free energy calculations, conformational analysis, reaction rates, and transition pathways to calculate and interpret biomolecular properties gleaned from computer-generated membrane simulations. It also demonstrates comparative protein structure modeling, outlines computer-aided drug design, discusses Bayesian statistics in molecular and structural biology, and examines the RISM-SCF/MCSCF approach to chemical processes in solution.
This book highlights the current research, conceptual and practical utilization of waste in building materials. It examines the production of industrial and agricultural wastes that have been generated worldwide and have significant environmental impact. The book discusses how to incorporate these wastes effectively with greener technology and how to address its environmental impact in order to produce environmentally friendly and sustainable green products. This book also will capitalize on its practical application, properties, performance and economic advantages. The topics covered include the physical, mechanical and environmental properties, leaching behaviour, gas emissions and performance of sustainable construction materials. This book offers a valuable reference for researchers, industries and interested stakeholders in sustainable construction or any allied fields.
Since carbon sequestration in soils reduces the amount of carbon available to the atmosphere, the Kyoto Protocols have heightened interest in soil carbon pools and their effect on carbon fluxes. Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon addresses many of the questions related to the measurement, monitoring, and verification of organic and inorganic carbon in soils. The major topics covered are: carbon pools; soil sampling
The updated third edition of the only textbook on colour The revised third edition of Colour and the Optical Properties of Materials focuses on the ways that colour is produced, both in the natural world and in a wide range of applications. The expert author offers an introduction to the science underlying colour and optics and explores many of the most recent applications. The text is divided into three main sections: behaviour of light in homogeneous media, which can largely be explained by classical wave optics; the way in which light interacts with atoms or molecules, which must be explained mainly in terms of photons; and the interaction of light with insulators, semiconductors and metals, in which the band structure notions are of primary concern. The updated third edition retains the proven concepts outlined in the previous editions and contains information on the significant developments in the field with many figures redrawn and new material added. The text contains new or extended sections on photonic crystals, holograms, flat lenses, super-resolution optical microscopy and modern display technologies. This important book: Offers and introduction to the science that underlies the everyday concept of colour Reviews the cross disciplinary subjects of physics, chemistry, biology and materials science, to link light, colour and perception Includes information on many modern applications, such as the numerous different colour displays now available, optical amplifiers lasers, super-resolution optical microscopy and lighting including LEDs and OLEDs Contains new sections on photonic crystals, holograms, flat lenses, super-resolution optical microscopy and display technologies Presents many worked examples, with problems and exercises at the end of each chapter Written for students in materials science, physics, chemistry and the biological sciences, the third edition of Colour and The Optical Properties of Materials covers the basic science of the topic and has been thoroughly updated to include recent advances in the field.
Written by experts in the field, The Chemistry of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Composition and Measurement, Second Edition compiles data on the properties of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and on concentrations of its constituents in indoor air. The authors focus on common natural indoor environments and environments associated with chronic exposure. They stress measurement methods and competing sources of indoor air contaminants commonly attributed to ETS.
The origin and early years of any rapidly changing scientific discipline runs the risk of being forgotten unless a record of its past is preserved. In this, the first book-length history of clinical chemistry, those involved or interested in the field will read about who and what went before them and how the profession came to its present state of clinical importance. The narrative reconstructs the origins of clinical chemistry in the seventeenth century and traces its often obscure path of development in the shadow of organic chemistry, physiology and biochemistry until it assumes its own identity at the beginning of the twentieth century. The chronological development of the story reveals the varied roots from which modern clinical chemistry arose.
Demonstrating the interdisciplinary nature of modern glycosciences, this volume covers research in the fields of polysaccharides and small carbohydrates from the synthetic and structural viewpoints, with applications ranging from biology to the bioeconomy. Key aspects of the synthesis and properties of imino disaccharides and regioselective glycosylation reactions are reviewed, glycosyltransferase inhibitors are shown to be potential future therapeutic agents, protein-carbohydrate interactions in plant cell-wall biodegradation are targeted by the use of glycan microarrays, biological properties of polysaccharidic microbial surface antigens are discussed with respect to their intimate structure, and contributions on carbohydrate-based hydrogelators, green/blue sugar-based surfactants and carbohydrate-based green solvents illustrate the modern design of tomorrow's chemicals. With the increase in volume, velocity and variety of information, researchers can find it difficult to keep up to date with the literature in their field and this book remains a valuable addition to any researcher's library.
Continues the tradition of excellence established in previous volumes in this acclaimed series. Volume 36 focuses on the vibrant research area concerning the interrelation between free radicals and metal ions and their resulting effects on life processes; it offers an authoritative and timely account of this fascinating area of research in 21 chapters.
Learn more about foundational and advanced topics in polymer thin films and coatings besides species with this powerful two-volume resource The two-volume Inorganic and Organic Thin Films: Fundamentals, Fabrication, and Applications delivers a foundational resource for current researchers and commercial users involved in the design and fabrication of thin films. The book offers newcomers to the field a thorough description of new design theory, fabrication methods, and applications of advanced thin films. Readers will discover the physics and chemistry underlying the manufacture of new thin films and coatings in this leading new resource that promises to become a handbook for future applications of the technology. This one-stop reference brings together all important aspects of inorganic and polymeric thin films and coatings, including construction, assembly, deposition, functionality, patterning, and characterization. Explorations of their applications in industries as diverse as information technology, new energy, biomedical engineering, aerospace, and oceanographic engineering round out this fulsome exploration of one of the most exciting and rapidly developing areas of scientific and industrial research today. Readers will also learn from: A comprehensive introduction to the progress of thin films and coatings as well as fundamentals in functional thin films and coatings An exploration of multi-layered magnetic thin films for electron transport control and signal sensing, including giant magnetoresistance, colossal magnetoresistance, tunneling magnetoresistance, and the quantum anomalous Holzer effect An in time summary of high-quality magneto-optics, nanophotonics, spin waves and spintronics using bismuth-substituted iron garnet thin films as examples A thorough discussion of template-assisted fabrication of nanostructure thin films for ultrasensitive detection of chemicals and biomolecules A treatment of biomass derived functional films and coatings Perfect for materials scientists and inorganic chemists, Inorganic and Organic Thin Films will also earn a place in the libraries of solid state physicists and physical chemists working in private industry, as well as polymer and surface chemists who seek to improve their understanding of thin films and coatings.
Chemistry Essentials For Dummies (9781119591146) was previously published as Chemistry Essentials For Dummies (9780470618363). While this version features a new Dummies cover and design, the content is the same as the prior release and should not be considered a new or updated product. Whether studying chemistry as part of a degree requirement or as part of a core curriculum, students will find Chemistry Essentials For Dummies to be an invaluable quick reference guide to the fundamentals of this often challenging course. Chemistry Essentials For Dummies contains content focused on key topics only, with discrete explanations of critical concepts taught in a typical two-semester high school chemistry class or a college level Chemistry I course, from bonds and reactions to acids, bases, and the mole. This guide is also a perfect reference for parents who need to review critical chemistry concepts as they help high school students with homework assignments, as well as for adult learners headed back into the classroom who just need to a refresher of the core concepts. The Essentials For Dummies Series Dummies is proud to present our new series, The Essentials For Dummies. Now students who are prepping for exams, preparing to study new material, or who just need a refresher can have a concise, easy-to-understand review guide that covers an entire course by concentrating solely on the most important concepts. From algebra and chemistry to grammar and Spanish, our expert authors focus on the skills students most need to succeed in a subject.
First published in 1967. The impression is sometimes given that the Atomic Theory was revived in the early years of the nineteenth century by John Dalton, and that continuously from then on it has played a vital role in chemistry. The aim of this study is to revise this over-simplified picture. Atomic explanations seemed to chemists to go beyond the facts, to fail to lend themselves to mathematical expression, and to deny the ultimate simplicity and unity of all matter. Most, therefore, rejected them. Meanwhile, physicists were developing a whole range of atomic theories to explain the physical properties of bodies in terms of very simple atoms or particles. During the last thirty years of the century the position changed, as physicists and chemists came to agree on a common atomic theory. But the last prominent opponents of atomism were not converted until the early years of the twentieth century, by which time studies of radioactivity had made it clear that the billiard-ball Daltonian atom must, in any case, be abandoned.
Outlines the latest developments in 2D heterojunction nanomaterials with energy conversion applications In 2D Functional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications, Dr. Ganesh S. Kamble presents an authoritative overview of the most recent progress in the rational design and synthesis of 2D nanomaterials and their applications in semiconducting catalysts, biosensors, electrolysis, batteries, and solar cells. This interdisciplinary volume is a valuable resource for materials scientists, electrical engineers, nanoscientists, and solid-state physicists looking for up-to-date information on 2D heterojunction nanomaterials. The text summarizes the scientific contributions of international experts in the fabrication and application of 2D nanomaterials while discussing the importance and impact of 2D nanomaterials on future economic growth, novel manufacturing processes, and innovative products. Provides thorough coverage of graphene chemical derivatives synthesis and applications, including state-of-the-art developments and perspectives Describes 2D/2D graphene oxide-layered double hydroxide nanocomposites for immobilization of different radionuclides Covers 2D nanomaterials for biomedical applications and novel 2D nanomaterials for next-generation photodetectors Discusses applications of 2D nanomaterials for cancer therapy and recent trends in graphene-latex nanocomposites Perfect for materials scientists, inorganic chemists, and electronics engineers, 2D Functional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications is also an essential resource for solid-state physicists seeking accurate information on recent progress in two-dimensional heterojunction materials with energy conversion applications.
This collection from the 12th International Conference on Magnesium Alloys and Their Applications (Mg 2021)-the longest running conference dedicated to the development of magnesium alloys-covers the breadth of magnesium research and development, from primary production to applications to end-of-life management. Authors from academia, government, and industry discuss new developments in magnesium alloys and share valuable insights. Topics in this volume include but are not limited to the following: Primary production Alloy development Solidification and casting processes Forming and thermo-mechanical processing Other manufacturing process development (including joining and additive manufacturing) Corrosion and protection Modeling and simulation Structural, functional, biomedical, and energy applications Advanced characterization and fundamental theories Recycling and environmental issues
Developed for the new International A Level specification, these new resources are specifically designed for international students, with a strong focus on progression, recognition and transferable skills, allowing learning in a local context to a global standard. Recognised by universities worldwide and fully comparable to UK reformed GCE A levels. Supports a modular approach, in line with the specification. Appropriate international content puts learning in a real-world context, to a global standard, making it engaging and relevant for all learners. Reviewed by a language specialist to ensure materials are written in a clear and accessible style. The embedded transferable skills, needed for progression to higher education and employment, are signposted so students understand what skills they are developing and therefore go on to use these skills more effectively in the future. Exam practice provides opportunities to assess understanding and progress, so students can make the best progress they can.
This book is for undergraduate and diploma chemistry students who are about to begin their project work. Student projects are now an essential part of most undergraduate and diploma chemistry courses in the UK, and are an important component of the later years of chemistry degree courses in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand The book covers all aspects of project work, from choosing a suitable topic and supervisor to communicating research results effectively. There is advice on the best way to use libraries and on how to gather relevant references. Students are taught how to work safely and effectively, and to present their results in report, seminar or conference poster form. Additionally, the author offers guidance on engaging a keyboard operator, on how to prepare artwork and visual aids, and coaching tips on effective communication. The work is a distillation of the author's many years of experience of guiding students of all abilities to success in their project work This book should be of interest to second and third year undergraduates and diploma students in chemistry.
Bald leben mehr als eine Million (!) Waschbaren in unseren Waldern und nicht nur da sie kommen uns auch in den Stadten "besuchen". Die putzigen Kerlchen konnen nichts dafur, denn wir sind an ihrer Verbreitung Schuld, da wir das okologische Gleichgewicht der Natur gestort haben. Doch was genau ist eigentlich Okologie jenseits von Okostrom und Okolabel? Hightech-Ameisen, hochintelligente Krahen und der Urzeit-Ginkgo Alles hangt mit allem zusammen: Gerat ein okologisches Teilsystem aus dem Gleichgewicht, lost das oft eine Kettenreaktion aus. In dem Teil Zusammen leben fragt Michael Gross u. a., ob Schutzgebiete wirklich die bedrohten Arten schutzen, erzahlt uber die Wanderschaft von Pflanzenschadlingen, die sich durch weltweite Handelsnetze auch global verbreiten, oder stellt einen Uberlebenden der Dinosaurierzeit vor: den Ginkgo. Warum uberlebte er damals das Massensterben der Arten? Kohlendioxidschwaden, Vibrationen, Magnetismus, Pedometer und noch vieles mehr: All das besitzt z. B. ein sehr kleines Lebewesen die Ameise. Sie findet mit dieser "Ausstattung" sogar in der Wuste wieder zu ihrem Nest zuruck. Im Teil Aktiv leben stellt uns Gross diese kleinen tierischen Wunderwerke vor, berichtet aber auch von den hochintelligenten Krahen oder erzahlt, wie das Krokodil seine Zahne bekam. Im Abschnitt Weiter leben gibt er einen Ausblick auf die unmittelbare Zukunft des Lebens auf der Erde, die immer starker von menschlichen Aktivitaten gepragt wird: das Zeitalter des "Anthropozan" ist angebrochen!
A new, full-color, completely updated edition of the key practical guide to chemometrics This new edition of this practical guide on chemometrics, emphasizes the principles and applications behind the main ideas in the field using numerical and graphical examples, which can then be applied to a wide variety of problems in chemistry, biology, chemical engineering, and allied disciplines. Presented in full color, it features expansion of the principal component analysis, classification, multivariate evolutionary signal and statistical distributions sections, and new case studies in metabolomics, as well as extensive updates throughout. Aimed at the large number of users of chemometrics, it includes extensive worked problems and chapters explaining how to analyze datasets, in addition to updated descriptions of how to apply Excel and Matlab for chemometrics. Chemometrics: Data Driven Extraction for Science, Second Edition offers chapters covering: experimental design, signal processing, pattern recognition, calibration, and evolutionary data. The pattern recognition chapter from the first edition is divided into two separate ones: Principal Component Analysis/Cluster Analysis, and Classification. It also includes new descriptions of Alternating Least Squares (ALS) and Iterative Target Transformation Factor Analysis (ITTFA). Updated descriptions of wavelets and Bayesian methods are included. Includes updated chapters of the classic chemometric methods (e.g. experimental design, signal processing, etc.) Introduces metabolomics-type examples alongside those from analytical chemistry Features problems at the end of each chapter to illustrate the broad applicability of the methods in different fields Supplemented with data sets and solutions to the problems on a dedicated website, www.booksupport.wiley.com Chemometrics: Data Driven Extraction for Science, Second Edition is recommended for post-graduate students of chemometrics as well as applied scientists (e.g. chemists, biochemists, engineers, statisticians) working in all areas of data analysis.
The essential, authoritative guide to microaggressions, revised and updated The revised and updated second edition of Microaggressions in Everyday Life presents an introduction to the concept of microaggressions, classifies the various types of microaggressions, and offers solutions for ending microaggressions at the individual, group, and community levels. The authors--noted experts on the topic--explore the psychological effects of microaggressions on both perpetrators and targets. Subtle racism, sexism, and heterosexism remain relatively invisible and potentially harmful to the wellbeing, self-esteem, and standard of living of many marginalized groups in society. The book examines the manifestations of various forms of microaggressions and explores their impact. The text covers: researching microaggressions, exploring microaggressions in education, identifying best practices teaching about microaggressions, understanding microaggressions in the counseling setting, as well as guidelines for combating microaggressions. Each chapter concludes with a section called The Way Forward that provides guidelines, strategies, and interventions designed to help make our society free of microaggressions. This important book: Offers an updated edition of the seminal work on microaggressions Distinguishes between microaggressions and macroaggressions Includes new information on social media as a key site where microaggressions occur Presents updated qualitative and quantitative findings Introduces the concept of microinterventions Contains new coverage throughout the text with fresh examples and new research findings from a wide range of studies Written for students, faculty, and practitioners of psychology, education, social work, and related disciplines, the revised edition of Microaggressions in Everyday Life illustrates the impact microaggressions have on both targets and perpetrators and offers suggestions to eradicate microaggressions.
Tinospora cordifolia stem is used as a tonic, vitalizer, and as a remedy for metabolic disorders to treat allergies, diabetes, dysentery, jaundice, heart diseases, leprosy, rheumatoid arthritis, skin diseases, and urinary disorders. It shows anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic actions and immunosuppressive effects. This book focuses on providing gender and geographical location-based differences in the phytoconstituents of T. cordifolia by the liquid chromatography mass spectrometric method. These methods have potential use in the quality control of T. cordifolia and the screening of herbal preparations. Features: Compilation of ayurvedic features of one of the most important plants of the Indian system of medicines. Useful for all ayurvedic practitioners, researchers, faculty, students, and herbal product manufacturers. Application of advance hyphenated LC-MS techniques for variation study in phytoconstituents.
Rauvolfia species, commonly known as Sarpagandha, has been traditionally used in Ayurveda for curing high blood pressure, hypertension, snake bites, fever, and mental illnesses. Due to its wide variety and differences in chemical composition, it is necessary to develop an efficient and reliable method for rapid screening and determination of phytochemicals in the extracts of the Rauvolfia species. This book will provide qualitative and quantitative comparative phytochemical investigations of selected medicinal plants from the Rauvolfia genus using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques. The results will help in assuring the efficacy and safety of Rauvolfia herbal products. Features: Collection of Ayurvedic features and scientific evidence of important medicinal plants. Discusses chemical signatures for the identification of Rauvolfia (Sarpagandha) and its products. Easy-to-use analytical procedure for quality control of Rauvolfia and its products.
From cooking to medicine, from engineering to art, chemistry-the science of molecules-is everywhere. A celebration of the molecules of chemistry, Every Molecule Tells a Story celebrates the molecules responsible for the experiences of everyday life: the air we breathe; the water we drink; the chemicals that fuel our living; the steroids that give us sex; the colours of the seasons; the drugs that heal us; and the scented molecules that enrich our diet and our encounters with each other. You can't see them, but you know that they are there. Unveiling the structures of poisonous "natural" substances and beneficial man-made molecules, this book brushes away any preconceived notions about chemistry to demonstrate why and how molecules matter.
Piper betle (betel vine) a pan-Asiatic, tropical plant, which can also grow under mild subtropical areas, is essentially grown for leaves which are chewed with array of additives besides slaked lime. The plant is cultivated widely in India and its surrounding areas. Phytochemistry of Piper betel landraces presents a brief on the distribution, historical and cultural aspects, and properties ascribed to this plant in the ancient texts. Phytochemical and pharmacological information has also been included to underscore the importance of this plant in the present time. A detailed account on metabolic profiling employing modern methods is included, such as real-time, direct analysis of the flight mass spectrometric method and chemometric analysis for characterization of the available biodiversity and signatures specific to gender and geographical location. It was also possible to identify the gender of unknown landraces, with the help of principal component analysis. Features: Elaborates on the chemical diversity within Piper betle. Piper betle leaves have mouth freshening antimicrobial compounds. Use of chemical signatures for the identification of different Piper betle landraces, their gender and geographical locations.
Piper is the representative genus of family Piperaceae. Piper species are pan-tropical in distribution and found in both the hemispheres. As the king of all spices, black pepper, Piper nigrum, led to the global expeditions culminating in the discovery of India and the new world. Piper species have been reported to possess various pharmacological activities such as insecticidal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, anti-hypertensive, antithyroid, antitumor activities and hepatoprotective properties. Botanical authentication of the plants of Piper species is difficult because of the morphological similarity among the species. This book describes ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole electrospray tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode to study the quantitative variation of thirteen bioactive markers in different plant parts of ten Piper species. Features: Collection of Ayurvedic features and scientific evidence of the most important medicinal plants of Piper species. Describes chemical signatures for identification of Piper species. Provides easy-to-use analytical procedure for quality control of Piper species and its products.
Ocimum species has been used as a traditional remedy for various ailments such as arthritis, bronchitis, cold, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, dysentery, and flatulence, as well as for healing wounds and lowering blood glucose level. These are characterized by variations in their morphology such as the shape, size and pigmentation of leaves, which cause differences in chemical composition and affect the commercial value of this genus. This book describes phytochemical investigations of Ocimum species using LC-MS/MS instruments to study qualitative and quantitative variations of phytochemicals in different Ocimum species. Features: Collection of Ayurvedic features and scientific analytical and pharmacological evidence of most important medicinal plants of genus Ocimum. Chemical signatures for the identification of Ocimum species. Easy-to-use analytical procedure for quality control of plants of Ocimum species and its herbal products.
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