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Provides learners with sufficient knowledge, skills and attitudes that will enable them to identify and explain the impact of human activities on the physical environment on the global, regional and local scales and measures that can be taken to reduce environmental degradation.
Key themes explored in the course include environmental worldviews, ecosystems, biodiversity, waste, renewable and non-renewable energy.
A one-of-a-kind annual featuring surprising facts, stunning colour photos, arresting infographics, and illuminating maps that present the world in a whole new way. An almanac like you've never seen before, this arresting volume features key information on science, nature, history, and geography, spiked with cutting-edge ideas and spectacular visuals. Discover features that only National Geographic can deliver, including exquisite photography, explanatory infographics, illustrated timelines, and maps created by expert cartographers. Chapters include Exploration & Adventure, This Planet & Beyond, Life on Earth, and The Science of Us; featured topics range from the polar jet stream and how chameleons change colours to the world's biggest cities and the science of addiction. It includes top travel trends, new explorations, and recent discoveries, as well as fascinating trivia. Enlightening for young and old, exquisitely designed, each page of this special almanac reveals something new about today's world.
Geography is getting stranger. Out there, fleets of new islands are under construction and micro-nations are struggling into the light. As new borders and boundaries ebb and flow with increasing speed, it feels as if our old maps are being discarded, redrawn or torn up. Alastair Bonnett uncovers the stories of thirty-nine extraordinary places, each of which challenges us to re-imagine the world around us. From emerging islands, disruptive enclaves and bold utopian visions to uncanny ruins, ghostly tunnels and hidden landscapes - these are destinations that lie beyond ordinary coordinates. A follow on from the critically acclaimed Off the Map, this is a timely and fascinating discussion of place, ownership and ideas of state.
This hands-on introduction to numerical geodynamic modelling provides a solid grounding in the necessary mathematical theory and techniques, including continuum mechanics and partial differential equations, before introducing key numerical modelling methods and applications. Fully updated, this second edition includes four completely new chapters covering the most recent advances in modelling inertial processes, seismic cycles and fluid-solid interactions, and the development of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms. Many well-documented, state-of-the-art visco-elasto-plastic 2D models are presented, which allow robust modelling of key geodynamic processes. Requiring only minimal prerequisite mathematical training, and featuring over sixty practical exercises and ninety MATLAB (R) examples, this user-friendly resource encourages experimentation with geodynamic models. It is an ideal introduction for advanced courses and can be used as a self-study aid for graduates seeking to master geodynamic modelling for their own research projects.
How did the atom bomb help save the elephant? Have we found the secret to eternal youth? Could a parasite be manipulating you right now? This dazzling collection of stories reveals the key recent breakthroughs in science, across all fields. Inside you will meet the killers lurking in Earth's ice, the super-coral that could save our seas and the neuroscientists hunting ghosts. You will travel beyond our galaxy to worlds where the sun sets twice, and beyond our time to a future where the Internet is unhackable and chickenosaurs roam the land. Divided into sections covering physics, space, humanity, the brain, plants and animals, and linking stories from different fields, Cutting-Edge Science offers a boundless journey of discovery for anyone with a passion for the world around them. Prepare to be shocked and amazed on every page.
Provides comprehensive coverage of the chemical interactions among organic and inorganic solids, air, water, microorganisms, and the plant roots in soil This book focuses on the species and reaction processes of chemicals in soils, with applications to environmental and agricultural issues. Topics range from discussion of fundamental chemical processes to review of properties and reactions of chemicals in the environment. This new edition contains more examples, more illustrations, more details of calculations, and reorganized material within the chapters, including nearly 100 new equations and 51 new figures. Each section also ends with an important concepts overview as well as new questions for readers to answer. Starting with an introduction to the subject, Soil Chemistry, 5th Edition offers in-depth coverage of properties of elements and molecules; characteristics of chemicals in soils; soil water chemistry; redox reactions in soils; mineralogy and weathering processes in soils; and chemistry of soil clays. The book also provides chapters that examine production and chemistry of soil organic matter; surface properties of soil colloids; adsorption processes in soils; measuring and predicting sorption processes in soils; soil acidity; and salt-affected soils. Provides a basic description of important research and fundamental knowledge in the field of soil chemistry Contains more than 200 references provided in figure and table captions and at the end of the chapters Extensively revised with updated figures and tables Soil Chemistry, 5th Edition is an excellent text for senior-level soil chemistry students.
Few subjects have caught the attention of the entire world as much as those dealing with natural hazards. The first decade of this new millennium provides a litany of tragic examples of various hazards that turned into disasters affecting millions of individuals around the globe. The human losses (some 225,000 people) associated with the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, the economic costs (approximately 200 billion USD) of the 2011 Tohoku Japan earthquake, tsunami and reactor event, and the collective social impacts of human tragedies experienced during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 all provide repetitive reminders that we humans are temporary guests occupying a very active and angry planet. Any examples may have been cited here to stress the point that natural events on Earth may, and often do, lead to disasters and catastrophes when humans place themselves into situations of high risk.
Few subjects share the true interdisciplinary dependency that characterizes the field of natural hazards. From geology and geophysics to engineering and emergency response to social psychology and economics, the study of natural hazards draws input from an impressive suite of unique and previously independent specializations. Natural hazards provide a common platform to reduce disciplinary boundaries and facilitate a beneficial synergy in the provision of timely and useful information and action on this critical subject matter.
As social norms change regarding the concept of acceptable risk and human migration leads to an explosion in the number of megacities, coastal over-crowding and unmanaged habitation in precarious environments such as mountainous slopes, the vulnerability of people and their susceptibility to natural hazards increases dramatically. Coupled with the concerns of changing climates, escalating recovery costs, a growing divergence between more developed and less developed countries, the subject of natural hazards remains on the forefront of issues that affect all people, nations, and environments all the time.
This treatise provides a compendium of critical, timely and very detailed information and essential facts regarding the basic attributes of natural hazards and concomitant disasters. The "Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards" effectively captures and integrates contributions from an international portfolio of almost 300 specialists whose range of expertise addresses over 330 topics pertinent to the field of natural hazards. Disciplinary barriers are overcome in this comprehensive treatment of the subject matter. Clear illustrations and numerous color images enhance the primary aim to communicate and educate. The inclusion of a series of unique classic case study events interspersed throughout the volume provides tangible examples linking concepts, issues, outcomes and solutions. These case studies illustrate different but notable recent, historic and prehistoric events that have shaped the world as we now know it. They provide excellent focal points linking the remaining terms in the volume to the primary field of study. This "Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards" will remain a standard reference of choice for many years.
There are several billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy. One of them is the middle-aged G2V yellow dwarf that rules our lives. The Sun Today discusses the Sun's appearance and composition, its internal workings, and the various kinds of radiation it emits, and it puts forward a novel explanation for coronal heating. The book draws on the findings of telescopic observation, space missions, and technical and theoretical advances in many fields, and shows why we need to know more if we are to understand and manage our foothold in the Universe. From the reviews of other books by Claudio Vita-Finzi: The Sun - A User's Manual (2008) ....this, jargon-free, concise, beautifully illustrated and eminently readable book... D.W. Hughes, Times Literary Supplement Solar History (2013) ....a book that is supremely informative, intensely stimulating and enjoyable to read... Ian Seymour, Astronomy Now A History of the Solar System (2016) ...there is a huge amount of useful information in this book that would benefit anyone who needed more detail than is available in a typical popular science title. Brian Clegg, Popular Science
The Earth and environmental sciences are becoming progressively more quantitative due to the increased use of mathematical models and new data analysis techniques. This accessible introduction presents an overview of the mathematical methods essential for understanding Earth processes, providing an invaluable resource for students and early career researchers who may have missed (or forgotten) the mathematics they need to succeed as scientists. Topics build gently from basic methods such as calculus to more advanced techniques including linear algebra and differential equations. The practical applications of the mathematical methods to a variety of topics are discussed, ranging from atmospheric science and oceanography to biogeochemistry and geophysics. Including over 530 exercises and end-of-chapter problems, as well as additional computer codes in Python and MATLAB (R), this book supports readers in applying appropriate analytical or computational methods to solving real research questions.
Waves and flows are pervasive on and within Earth. This book presents a unified physical and mathematical approach to waves and flows in the atmosphere, oceans, rivers, volcanoes and the mantle, emphasizing the common physical principles and mathematical methods that apply to a variety of phenomena and disciplines. It is organized into seven parts: introductory material; kinematics, dynamics and rheology; waves in non-rotating fluids; waves in rotating fluids; non-rotating flows; rotating flows; and silicate flows. The chapters are supplemented by 47 'fundaments', containing knowledge that is fundamental to the material presented in the main text, organized into seven appendices: mathematics; dimensions and units; kinematics; dynamics; thermodynamics; waves; and flows. This book is an ideal reference for graduate students and researchers seeking an introduction to the mathematics of waves and flows in the Earth system, and will serve as a supplementary textbook for a number of courses in geophysical fluid dynamics.
Were you looking for the book with access to MasteringGeology? This product is the book alone, and does NOT come with access to MasteringGeology. Buy the book and access card package to save money on this resource. Enhanced for today's students, the bestselling Foundations of Earth Science returns in a new edition with a bold new look, new contributor Callan Bentley, and a highly anticipated learning path that facilitates active learning. This brief, paperback version of the best-selling Earth Science by Lutgens and Tarbuck is designed for introductory courses in Earth science. It maintains its highly visual, non-technical survey and broad, up-to-date coverage of basic topics and principles in geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy to foster student understanding of foundational Earth science principles.
Despite the modern dominance of computer graphics programs and digital cameras, the ability todraw geological structures manually remains a necessity in academic geology and beyond. Drawings serve for quick and simple documentation in the field or at the microscope. They can be applied as a language of their own as well as be adapted to suit specific requirements. Moreover, geological drawing improves observational ability and contributes to the understanding of geological structures and structure-forming processes. Geological drawing is assisted scientific thinking. Drawing Geological Structures provides undergraduate as well as graduate and practicing geologists with a thorough, step-by-step practical guide to the art of geological drawing. Beginning with the basics, the book covers thin sections, sample sections, samples and geological stereograms. The chapters provide examples of how drawings evolve and are complemented by exercises, allowing the reader to practice their drawing prior to going out into the field or working at the microscope. Users of this unique guide will develop their knowledge and technical vocabulary whilst also improving their drawing skills.
An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics, 2nd Edition, describes the rapidly developing field of near-surface geophysics. The book covers a range of applications including mineral, hydrocarbon and groundwater exploration, and emphasises the use of geophysics in civil engineering and in environmental investigations. Following on from the international popularity of the first edition, this new, revised, and much expanded edition contains additional case histories, and descriptions of geophysical techniques not previously included in such textbooks. The level of mathematics and physics is deliberately kept to a minimum but is described qualitatively within the text. Relevant mathematical expressions are separated into boxes to supplement the text. The book is profusely illustrated with many figures, photographs and line drawings, many never previously published. Key source literature is provided in an extensive reference section; a list of web addresses for key organisations is also given in an appendix as a valuable additional resource. * Covers new techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Sounding, Controlled- Source EM, shear-wave seismic refraction, and airborne gravity and EM techniques * Now includes radioactivity surveying and more discussions of down-hole geophysical methods; hydrographic and Sub-Bottom Profiling surveying; and UneXploded Ordnance detection * Expanded to include more forensic, archaeological, glaciological, agricultural and bio-geophysical applications * Includes more information on physio-chemical properties of geological, engineering and environmental materials * Takes a fully global approach * Companion website with additional resources available at www.wiley.com/go/reynolds/introduction2e * Accessible core textbook for undergraduates as well as an ideal reference for industry professionals The second edition is ideal for students wanting a broad introduction to the subject and is also designed for practising civil and geotechnical engineers, geologists, archaeologists and environmental scientists who need an overview of modern geophysical methods relevant to their discipline. While the first edition was the first textbook to provide such a comprehensive coverage of environmental geophysics, the second edition is even more far ranging in terms of techniques, applications and case histories.
Based on a course taught by the author, this book combines the theoretical underpinnings of statistics with the practical analysis of Earth sciences data using MATLAB. The book is organized to introduce the underlying concepts, and then extends these to the data, covering methods that are most applicable to Earth sciences. Topics include classical parametric estimation and hypothesis testing, and more advanced least squares-based, nonparametric, and resampling estimators. Multivariate data analysis, not often encountered in introductory texts, is presented later in the book, and compositional data is treated at the end. Datasets and bespoke MATLAB scripts used in the book are available online, as well as additional datasets and suggested questions for use by instructors. Aimed at entering graduate students and practicing researchers in the Earth and ocean sciences, this book is ideal for those who want to learn how to analyse data using MATLAB in a statistically-rigorous manner.
This book presents a comprehensive overview of the science of the history of life. Paleobiologists bring many analytical tools to bear in interpreting the fossil record and the book introduces the latest techniques, from multivariate investigations of biogeography and biostratigraphy to engineering analysis of dinosaur skulls, and from homeobox genes to cladistics. All the well-known fossil groups are included, including microfossils and invertebrates, but an important feature is the thorough coverage of plants, vertebrates and trace fossils together with discussion of the origins of both life and the metazoans. All key related subjects are introduced, such as systematics, ecology, evolution and development, stratigraphy and their roles in understanding where life came from and how it evolved and diversified. Unique features of the book are the numerous case studies from current research that lead students to the primary literature, analytical and mathematical explanations and tools, together with associated problem sets and practical schedules for instructors and students. New to this edition The text and figures have been updated throughout to reflect current opinion on all aspects New case studies illustrate the chapters, drawn from a broad distribution internationally Chapters on Macroevolution, Form and Function, Mass extinctions, Origin of Life, and Origin of Metazoans have been entirely rewritten to reflect substantial advances in these topics There is a new focus on careers in paleobiology
A quantitative introduction to the Solar System and planetary systems science for advanced undergraduate students, this engaging textbook explains the wide variety of physical, chemical and geological processes that govern the motions and properties of planets. The authors provide an overview of our current knowledge and discuss some of the unanswered questions at the forefront of research in planetary science and astrobiology today. This updated edition contains the latest data, new references and planetary images and an extensively rewritten chapter on current research on exoplanets. The text concludes with an introduction to the fundamental properties of living organisms and the relationship that life has to its host planet. With more than 200 exercises to help students learn how to apply the concepts covered, this textbook is ideal for a one-semester or two-quarter course for undergraduate students.
A newly revised and fully updated edition of the market-leading introduction to paleontology Designed for students and anyone else with an interest in the history of life on our planet, the new edition of this classic text describes the biological evolution of Earth's organisms, and reconstructs their adaptations and the ecology and environments in which they functioned. Cowen's History of Life, 6th Edition includes major updates, including substantial rewrites to chapters on the origins of eukaryotes, the Cambrian explosion, the terrestrialization of plants and animals, the Triassic recovery of life, the origin of birds, the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, and human evolution. It also features new chapters on plants, soils and transformation of the land; the Mesozoic marine revolution; and the evolution of oceans and climates. Beginning with the origin of the Earth and the earliest life on earth, the book goes on to offer insightful contributions covering: the evolution of Metazoans; the early vertebrates; life of vertebrates on land; and early amniotes and thermoregulation. The book also looks at: dinosaur diversity, as well as their demise; early mammals; the rise of modern mammals; the Neogene Savannas; primates; life in the ice ages; and more. Covers the breadth of the subject in a concise yet specific way for undergrads with no academic background in the topic Reorganizes all chapters to reflect the geological series of events, enabling a new focus on big events Updated with three brand new chapters and numerous revised ones Put together by a new editorial team internationally recognized as the global leaders in paleontology Filled with illustrations and photographs throughout Includes diagrams to show internal structures of organisms, cladograms, time scales and events, and paleogeographic maps Supplemented with a dedicated website that explores additional enriching information and discussion, and which features images for use in visual presentations Cowen's History of Life, 6th Edition is an ideal book for undergraduate students taking courses in introductory paleontology, as well those on global change and earth systems.
How do scientists impact society in the twenty-first century? Many scientists are increasingly interested in the impact that their research will have on the public. Scientists likewise must answer the question above when applying for funding from government agencies, particularly as part of the 'Broader Impacts' criterion of proposals to the US National Science Foundation. This book equips scientists in all disciplines to do just that, by providing an overview of the origins, history, rationale, examples, and case studies of broader impacts, primarily drawn from the author's experiences over the past five decades. Beyond including theory and evidence, it serves as a 'how to' guide for best practices for scientists. Although this book primarily uses examples from the NSF, the themes and best practices are applicable to scientists and applications around the world where funding also requires impacts and activities that benefit society.
On February 15, 2013, the Chelyabinsk meteor sailed over Russian skies in a streak of light that was momentarily brighter than the Sun. The remarkable event and its subsequent shock wave were witnessed and documented by countless local residents, launching a widespread scientific expedition to gather and study the remaining meteoritic fragments. This book chronicles Chelyabinsk's tale of recovery and discovery from the minds of many of the scientists who studied the superbolide, leading field experiments and collecting meteorites and meteorite dust across the region. The Chelyabinsk superbolide is a complex and multi-aspect phenomenon. The book not only presents the results of the scientific research but also details the firsthand experiences of those involved in such efforts, providing readers with a unique opportunity to look at the "inner workings" of science that are seldom shown to the public. Over the course of their studies, the scientists collected over 200 photographs and a dozen video recordings taken by nearly 40 different eyewitnesses. Many of those never-before-published illustrations and photos can be found in full color in the pages of this book.
Who hasn't felt better after a walk in the woods, a picnic alfresco or a swim in the sea? There is something soul-soothingly simple and refreshing about getting back to nature, about making the most of the great outdoors, being mindful of Mother Nature's gifts and grabbing spring and summer - and those blue sky, brisk days of autumn and winter - with both hands. But sadly it is a skill we are losing. We are becoming creatures wrapped in walls and trapped by to-do lists, hibernating while the world sprouts, grows and changes. From a simple walk in the woods and countryside couples therapy to DIY natural beauty products and how to bring the outdoors to your home, Forest Therapy will provide seasonal tips to help you reconnect with nature. This book is not just for mountain climbers or white water rafters - it is for uninspired fathers wanting to reconnect their families, bookworms looking to shake off their cobwebs, cooped-up kids needing to let off steam, stressed-out professionals wanting to stop and smell the flowers and worn-down mums needing a rejuvenating boost. We all know getting outside is good for us. Our ancestors did it. We should too. This book will help you live your most unforgettable, fabulous alfresco life.
"We are buried beneath mountains of fast-accumulating data. In such circumstances, this book, rather than adding to the data load, aims to offer real understanding." -James Lovelock Human beings are extraordinary creatures. Intelligent, agile, and curious, we have adapted and invented our way to becoming the most important species on the planet. So great is the extent of our influence, that many speak of a new geological era, the Anthropocene, an age defined by human-induced change to the blue and green globe we call home. Our lofty status comes with responsibility as much as possibility: How should we approach our present and future? What knowledge should we carry with us? Conceived by James Lovelock, inventor of the Gaia theory, this illustrated essay collection brings together an all-star lineup of thinkers and scientists to offer essential understanding about who we are, how we live, and where we might be going. Much as the Gaia theory considers our Earth as an integrated whole of living systems, The Earth and I encourages holistic understanding. Across 12 chapters, we take in both the intricate details and immense structures of our species and our planet, from our ever-expanding universe to our minuscule but mighty cells. We see stellar explosions and the layers of life beneath our feet, delve into the neuroscience of decision-making, get to grips with our climate, and contemplate our increasing intimacy with technology. The book's world-class contributors include quantum physicist Lisa Randall, Astronomer Royal Martin Rees, Pulitzer Prize-winning biologist Edward O. Wilson, and Nobel Prize-winning neuroscientist Eric Kandel. With lively illustrations from British artist Jack Hudson, the result is an inspiration for curious minds young and old, and a trusted tool kit for an informed and enlightened future.
Contemporary soil science and conservation methods of effective forestry Forests and the soils that serve as their foundation cover almost a third of the world's land area. Soils influenced by forest cover have different properties than soils cultivated for agricultural use. Ecology and Management of Forest Soils provides a clear and comprehensive overview of the composition, structure, processes, and management of the largest terrestrial ecosystem. From composition and biogeochemistry to dynamics and management, this essential text enables readers to understand the vital components of sustainable, long-term forest soil fertility. The interaction of trees, animals, microbes, and vegetation alter the biology and chemistry of forest soils-these dynamics are also subject to human management, requiring conservationists to be conversant in the philosophy and methods of soil science. Now in its fifth edition, this classic text includes new coverage of uptake of organic nitrogen in forests, 15N retention studies, the effects of N additions on C accumulation, evidence-based examples of the dynamics of soils, and more. Extensive updates and revisions to topics such as spatial implications of megafires, long?term organic matter accumulation, soil characterization, and molecular soil measurement techniques reflect contemporary research and practices in the field. This informative overview of forest soils integrates clear and accurate descriptions of central concepts and logically organized chapters to provide readers with foundational knowledge of major soil features, processes, measurement techniques, and management methods. This authoritative survey of the management and ecology of forest soils: Offers full-color photographs and illustrations, real-world examples and case studies, and clear overviews to each topic Presents up-to-date and accessible coverage of contemporary forest science literature and research Addresses topical issues relevant to areas such as ecology, forest management, conservation, and government policy Provides a comprehensive, global perspective on forest soils, from tropical to temperate to boreal Presents balanced coverage of soil science principles and their practical application to forest management Ecology and Management of Forest Soils offers students in areas of soil science and forestry, natural resource and environmental management, ecology, agronomy, and conservation an invaluable overview of the field, while providing forestry professionals an efficient and current work of reference.
Using full-colour palaeogeographical maps from the Cambrian to the present, this interdisciplinary volume explains how plate motions and surface volcanism are linked to processes in the Earth's mantle, and to climate change and the evolution of the Earth's biota. These new and very detailed maps provide a complete and integrated Phanerozoic story of palaeogeography. They illustrate the development of all the major mountain-building orogenies. Old lands, seas, ice caps, volcanic regions, reefs, and coal beds are highlighted on the maps, as well as faunal and floral provinces. Many other original diagrams show sections from the Earth's core, through the mantle, and up to the lithosphere, and how Large Igneous Provinces are generated, helping to understand how plates have appeared, moved, and vanished through time. Supplementary resources are available online, making this an invaluable reference for researchers, graduate students, professional geoscientists and anyone interested in the geological history of the Earth.
This reference encompasses the fields of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism in a single volume. Both sciences have applications in navigation, in the search for minerals and hydrocarbons, in dating rock sequences, and in unraveling past geologic movements such as plate motions they have contributed to a better understanding of the Earth. The book describes in fine detail the current state of knowledge and provides an up-to-date synthesis of the most basic concepts. It is an indispensable working tool not only for geophysicists and geophysics students but also for geologists, physicists, atmospheric and environmental scientists, and engineers.
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