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The fifty years, 1880-1930, saw momentous changes in the economy and social life of Cape Town, the Mother City.
Growth and physical expansion altered the previous character of the city, but this was accompanied by social and cultural developments springing from the opinions and interests of the citizens.
A.B. Reid, in his career as a Master Builder and subsequently as leader in the public life of Cape Town, not only contributed to the changes that took place but also influenced their direction.
A collection of papers prepared for the European Forum on Integrated Environmental Assessment's (EFIEA) Policy Workshop on Scaling Issues in Integrated Assessment, held from 12-19 July 2000.
The U.S. Clean Water Act calls for the minimization of "adverse environmental impact" at cooling water intake structures. To facilitate an exchange of information among all stakeholders in the issue, the Electric Power Research Institute organised a national symposium in 2001 to discuss the meaning of adverse environmental impact and methods for its assessment. Technical experts in federal and state resource agencies, academia, industry and non-governmental organizations attended the symposium. This is a collection of peer-reviewed papers, intended both to inform and to encourage the development of rules regarding the minimization of adverse environmental impact at cooling water intake structures.
"The Fight for Fairfax" presents the story of a group of local citizens in Fairfax County, Virginia, and their efforts over the past half-century to invent a place that would be more than simply a Washington, D.C., suburb. Told from the group's point of view, the book chronicles their vision of Fairfax and the steps they took to bring it to life. The group faced many opponents, including populist politicians and anti-growth forces, and this book examines those clashes as part of the overall story.
The Fairfax pro-development group--a zoning attorney, a university president, two defense contractors, a homebuilder and several county officials, real estate developers, and engineers--believed their work would transform Fairfax's rural landscape into what might be called the cradle of the Information Age. And indeed, Fairfax has become a vibrant economic hub that boasts of modern industries, high-paying jobs, superior public schools, a multicultural workforce, and abundant open spaces. In making the case for these architects of change, the author, who extensively researched the subject and conducted numerous interviews with key players, produces an eloquent account that must be considered by all--those who agree with and even those who question the development.
"The Fight for Fairfax" will appeal to a diverse audience, including local Virginia history buffs and scholars and those with an interest in business history, especially in terms of the challenges and opportunities that are often linked to growth and change.
"Distributed for George Mason University Press"
"Corbett's work makes a welcome addition to the regional history of upstate New York as well as the exploding interest in American resorts. Corbett's book . . . not only summarizes more recent work but adds new perspectives on the built environment, the make-up of the visitors, the role of women, and the nuts and bolts of resort development. . . . An indispensable work for anyone broadly interested in the history of leisure it he early republic, or upstate New York resorts in particular. Certainly, no one with an interest in the history of Saratoga Springs will be able to do without it."-New York History "Corbett takes readers on a grand trip into the history of three upstate New York resorts communities, Ballston Spa, Caldwell at Lake George and Saratoga Springs. Ballston Spa and Caldwell on Lake George were products of land developers who saw tourism as a way to success. But neither town invested in the infrastructure to make tourism work. Saratoga Springs did provide the amenities, with lavish hotels amid parks and pleasure gardens. It was also blessed with a strong work force, particularly in the numbers of Irish women ready to staff the resorts."-Waterbury Republican (CT) "Corbett cuts through the nostalgic haze and localized thought surrounding usual resort histories with the searching investigations and rigorous scholarship we have come to expect from the very best of modern urban studies."-Ellen Weiss, author of City in the Woods: The Life and Design of an American Camp Meeting on Martha's Vineyard "A book notable for its attention to the development of the infrastructure of resorts-hotels and boarding houses, public spaces, and service facilities-as well as the African American and Irish women and men whose labors supported the leisure of visitors." - David Schuyler, Franklin & Marshall College How did the rise of lavish hotels and spas reflect the changing values of American society during the nineteenth century? Historians have argued that resorts were created to meet the demands of a leisured social elite. Theodore Corbett demonstrates that resorts created and re-created themselves to keep pace with changing times. Success came with anticipating demands, not just reacting to them Corbett focuses on the conditions underlying the rise-and demise-of the resorts at Ballston Spa and Caldwell on Lake George. Both towns' major landlord-developers saw tourism as only one vehicle that could lead to success. As a result of their divided policies, neither town invested in the proper infrastructure to make tourism work. Saratoga Springs, however, was able to supply the amenities needed to attract the well-heeled. The town provided visitors with lavish hotels, parks, and pleasure gardens. It also had a workforce that was available for the five-month period per year that the spas were active. Corbett examines the participation of African Americans, Irish, and Native Americans in the resort's service sector The book also stresses middle-class America's emulation of the leisure habits of the English aristocracy. Even though these pursuits (hunting and horse racing) were dominated by men, social rituals were dominated by women, and resorts that accommodated "public domesticity" thrived as the century progressed. Theodore Corbett teaches history at Adirondack Community College and is former director of the Saratoga Springs Preservation Foundation.
A thoroughly researched and extensively documented look at race relations in Arkansas druing the forty years after the Civil War, Town and Country focuses on the gradual adjustment of black and white Arkansans to the new status of the freedman, in both society and law, after generations of practicing the racial etiquette of slavery. John Graves examines the influences of the established agrarian culture on the developing racial practices of the urban centers, where many blacks living in the towns were able to gain prominence as doctors, lawyers, successful entrepreneurs, and political leaders. Despite the tension, conflict, and disputes within and between the voice of the government and the voice of the people in an arduous journey toward compromise, Arkansas was one of the most progressive states during Reconstruction in desegregating its people. Town and Country makes a significant contribution to the history of the postwar South and its complex engagement with the race issue.
This volume analyzes sustainability-related innovations in the building sector and discusses how regional contexts articulate transition trajectories toward green building. It presents 'biographies' of drivers and processes of green building innovation in four case studies: Brisbane (AUS), Freiburg (GER), Luxembourg (LU), and Vancouver (CA). Two of them are relatively well known for their initiatives to mitigate climate change - particularly in the building sector, whereas the other two have only recently become more active in promoting green building. The volume places emphasis on development paths, learning processes, and innovations. The focus of the case studies is not restricted to purely technological aspects but also integrates regulatory, procedural, institutional, and other processes and routines and their influence on the variations of the building sector. The diversity of the selected case studies offers the reader the opportunity to gain a thorough understanding of how sustainability developments have unfolded in different city regions. Case study-specific catalogues of transition paths provide insights to inform policy debates and planning processes. The catalogues identify crucial innovations (technological, regulatory, etc.) and explain the factors and circumstances that have led to their success and broader acceptance in Freiburg, Vancouver, Luxembourg, and Brisbane. With the help of a number of micro case studies within each of the four city regions, the case studies also offer ground for comparison and identification of differences. The book represents the outcome of the GreenRegio project, which stands for 'Green building in regional strategies for sustainability: multi-actor governance and innovative building technologies in Europe, Australia, and Canada.' GreenRegio was a 3-year CORE-INTER research project funded by the National Research Fund Luxembourg (FNR) and the German Research Foundation (DFG).
The only comprehensive text available for advanced study and professional reference, this book brings much needed clarity to both the theoretical and practical aspects of EU intervention.
Integrating both theoretical and practical research in a clear and accessible structure, covering economic, social and territorial issues European Cohesion Policy provides a systematic view of the various stages of the whole policy cycle, looking in detail at:
An authoritative analysis of the problems and debates involved, European Cohesion Policy is essential reading for students, policy makers, development workers and researchers working in all aspects of European policy.
The chaotic proliferation of skyscrapers in many cities around the world is contributing to a decline in placemaking. This book examines the role of skyscrapers and open spaces in promoting placemaking in the city of Chicago. Chicago's skyscrapers tell an epic story of transformative architectural design, innovative engineering solutions, and bold entrepreneurial spirit. The city's public plazas and open spaces attract visitors, breathe life, and bring balance into the cityscape. Using locational data from social media platforms, including Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram, along with imagery from Google Earth, fieldwork, direct observations, in-depth surveys, and the combined insights from architectural and urban design literature, this study reveals the roles that socio-spatial clusters of skyscrapers, public spaces, architecture, and artwork play to enhance placemaking in Chicago. The study illustrates how Chicago, as the birthplace of skyscrapers, remains a leading city in tall building integration and innovation. Focusing on some of the finest urban places in America, including the Chicago River, the Magnificent Mile, and the Chicago Loop, the book offers meaningful architectural and urban design lessons that are transferable to emerging skyscraper cities around the globe.
This issue focuses on: 1) Exploring the significance of territorial spatial planning by stressing its necessity and main ideas under the contemporary background of ecological civilisation construction in China, while re-examining the role of landscape architects in this reform. 2) Strengthening research on related methodologies and techniques of urban ecological planning, ecological security pattern, ecological infrastructure, and ecological restoration to improve cities liveability and resilience and rebuild harmonious human-nature relationship under a mandatory planning framework combined with resilient measures, avoiding inflexible ecological conservation practices. 3) Analysing and learning from diversified efforts made by different countries and regions to promote urban development while protecting ecosystems, particularly their experience on territorial, regional, and urban planning that is significantly valuable to the Chinese counterpart, to leverage the value of territorial natural resources. 4) Exploring feasible approaches that help restore urban ecosystem structure and ecological elements, and improve planning and design methods on specific sites, so as to enhance spatial construction and ecological quality, to eventually improve a national eco-security pattern with scientific and user-friendly planning and design. 5) Encouraging applications of research frontiers in geology, macro-ecology, regional economics, public management, and sustainability science.
This edited collection demonstrates that the ideas inherent in social development are practical and not utopian. By discussing and delineating a social development approach, the book argues the need for practicing it at local or grassroots-level communities to promote universal social justice and wellbeing. Towards this end, several leading scholars have presented critical and inspiring thoughts on the significance and usefulness in development of genuine participation of people, bottom-up strategies, self-reliance, capacity building, and egalitarian and empowering partnerships. They also delve into hitherto neglected aspects of social development related to preparing personnel for social development work, ethical imperatives and a new social development paradigm. The world's contemporary problems persist in part because the social development approach in its comprehensive form has not been planned and implemented at local, national and global levels. Social Development presents the optimistic argument that the application of social development ideas can help create a world in which almost all people's wellbeing can be significantly enhanced.
As windfarms proliferate across the UK, visualisation as a means of predicting the scale and impacts of wind turbines has become a highly controversial subject. The purpose of any visualisation is to inform so that judgements can be made by professionals and the general public alike. Yet after nearly two decades, post-construction shocks are still common and the public demand for comprehensible and reliable pre-planning visuals increases. In Windfarm Visualisation, the author draws together a blend of knowledge and experience to explain the many scientific disciplines involved. He gives an overview of how some simple fixed standards facilitate proper validation and testing to restore confidence in visualisations which allow realistic prediction and effective planning. Photography is both an art and a science which, if used scientifically, must be capable of being tested. Current practice is found at best to be impractical and at worst an artifice to diminish potential impacts. Under scrutiny, flaws in the adopted methodology are exposed, pseudo-science is repudiated and wide-ranging problems for the public, planners and decision-makers explored and explained.The assumption that perspective geometry equates to what we see is challenged and the case is made that visual representation must take full account of human visual perception. This simple subject has been subverted by needless complexity. In Windfarm Visualisation this complexity is stripped away to provide a refreshingly informative text covering the fundamentals of photomontage visualisation, the unique challenges of representing windfarms and some simple recommendations for fixed photographic standards and presentation formats to restore confidence in predictive visualisation. It is also a scientific detective story into what we see, how it can be misrepresented and manipulated by self-interested parties and how visualisation itself has become the unwitting victim of its own potential to reliably inform the planning system and the public.
This book is the result of research into the considerable impacts the signing of the Schengen Agreement has had on the border regions of the signatory, in particular the Central European internal borders. The analysis provides an in-depth look at European integration, development and perception at the state level as well as in the selected border regions of Central Europe. The book discusses results from population questionnaires in this region, and presents the most important features of development of border regions within Central European internal borders/borderlands after the Schengen Agreement. This book is suitable for students and researchers dealing with the borderlands, but also outlines sufficient information to be of interest to regional planners and policy makers.
As the growth of the world's population requires the continued search for residential space, the urbanization of natural lands is an inevitable process, but that process does not have to be one that is accomplished without regard for environmental quality. This book presents the unique perspective of naturbanization, the urbanization of protected and highly valued natural spaces that are geographically removed from current urban centers. It discusses the search and selection of new residential spaces, economic planning and policy in such areas, environmentally sensitive construction, and public investment in infrastructure to make the areas more accessible and habitable.
Specifically, the book analyzes naturbanization as it is occurring in National Parks located along the European Union borders. Recent declarations have made the parks more accessible to development and consequently they are serving as models for ways to reach workable solutions and encourage the sort of economic development that will satisfy both developers and environmentalists
At the center of what was once the tallgrass prairie, Iowa has stood out for clearing the land and becoming one of the most productive agricultural states in the nation. But its success is challenged by multiple issues including but not limited to a decline in union representation of meatpacking workers; lack of demographic diversity; the advent of job-replacing mechanization; growing income inequality; negative contributions to and effects of climate change and environmental hazards. To become green, fair, and prosperous, Connerly argues that Iowa must reckon with its past and the fact that its farm economy continues to pollute waterways, while remaining utterly unprepared for climate change. Iowa must recognize ways in which it can bolster its residents' standard of living and move away from its demographic tradition of whiteness. For development to be sustainable, society must balance it with environmental protection and social justice. Connerly provides a crucial roadmap for how Iowans can move forward and achieve this balance.
Can regional identities create a more sustainable alternative to the increasingly standardised environments in which we live? Is bottom-up rather than top-down planning possible? Why is the development of housing in the countryside so controversial in Britain, but accepted in Norway and Sweden? What does the Dutch way of managing landscapes demonstrate? How is the EU promoting a new relationship between cities and countryside, and moulding the identity of new D uro-regions D ? This book tackles these questions by looking at the contested identities of areas facing industrial and agricultural change in Scotland, Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands. The book draws on collaboration between local governments from these four countries in analyzing the changes that are happening in places, identities, and public engagement in the planning process, such as the emergence of new regional bodies which sidestep the nation state in their dealings with the EU. also altering relations between governments and voters, as welfare state paternalism and local representative democracy is overtaken by a new, fragmented politics of identity and lifestyle. These overall themes are introduced in the first three chapters and then explored in relation to specific examples in the second part of the book. Chapters look at the European Spatial Development Perspective and new trans-national D patial Visions D; change in exemplar regions and their sub-regional identities; innovations in strategic regional planning; local involvement in rural development and Local Agenda 21; green belts and the urban fringe; and design and regeneration of small towns. The final chapter reflects on the content and process of creating narratives of place identity through planning. This book has emerged out of planning practice. It draws on insights from geography, politics and cultural studies to analyse how those involved in the planning process are addressing the practical questions posed by urban expansion and the loss of traditional place identities. planning D are being driven through the development of the European Union. The editors argue that globalisation and the politics of neo-liberalism challenge planners everywhere to rethink their assumptions and create a new approach to planning.
The title of this book, "Traditional Wisdom and Modern Knowledge for the Earth s Future," is from the theme of the 2013 Kyoto Regional Conference of the International Geographical Union. Over the past few decades, globalization has strengthened connections among countries and regions of the world and has greatly changed existing geographies. However, this trend has also fostered various problems on a regional or global scale, such as economic imbalance, social fragmentation, political conflicts, and environmental crises. While acknowledging the world s diversity, geography as a discipline must endeavor to resolve these problems by devising plans for cooperation and symbiotic existence of the different peoples of the world. An old Japanese proverb, "On-ko chi-shin," taken from a Chinese one, "Wengu Zhixin," says that only by exploring the old can one understand the new. People should first understand how traditional ideas, linked to interaction between society/culture and the environment, were formed in different countries and regions. Traditional wisdom, in harmony with the environment, remains prevalent. This book examines how we can mold the earth s future through such traditional wisdom and modern knowledge from the nine keynote speeches of the Kyoto Regional Conference focusing on three topics: traditional wisdom, the environment, and the Great East Japan Earthquake."
A public meeting with angry residents and eager reporters is a common feature on the local news. Whether addressing environmental, or other issues, the experience for the board members, consultants, and specialists at these meetings ranges from uncomfortable to nightmarish. The issues discussed in these meetings usually stem from years of community disappointment, mistrust, fears, factions, political or social positioning, or all of the above. Industry faces a labyrinth of environmental and business regulations, and unique challenges in dealing with the public and the media. Environmental Risk Communication serves as a guide to understanding and complying with the Federal Risk Management Program and applying risk management and communication principles to daily plant operations. This book also helps Risk Management Plan (RMP) facilities successfully meet the new Federal requirements for public disclosure of RMP offsite consequence analysis results and provides techniques for communicating effectively during environmental emergencies. Written in a straight-forward, no-nonsense style the book presents concise informative chapters, flow diagrams, checklists, and a thorough index. The authors present step-by-step instruction on developing a principled plan of action that generates open communications. CEOs, Corporate Communications Specialists, Plant Managers, Environmental Compliance Supervisors, Health and Safety Officers, Environmental Scientists and Engineers, and Consultants will benefit from Environmental Risk Communication. Features
Die aktiwiteite help om vorms wat bymekaar pas en die wat nie pas nie te identifiseer. Dit ontwikkel die waarnemings- en koordinasievaardighede van die leerder.
A key aspect of town planning, landscape planning and landscape architecture is to identify and then use the distinctive features and characteristics of space, place and landscape to achieve environmental quality. Landscape Analysis provides an introduction to the field both in theory and in practice. A wide range of methods and techniques for landscape analysis is illustrated by urban and rural examples from many countries. Analysing landscapes within a planning context requires both skill and insights. Drawing upon numerous concrete examples, together with an examination of some theoretical concepts, this book guides the reader through a wide range of different approaches and techniques of landscape analysis that may be applied at different scales, from elementary site analysis to historical and regional studies. This is an essential book for students and graduate practitioners working in landscape architecture, planning and architecture.
This book presents the overall vision and research outcomes of Nano-Tera.ch, which is a landmark Swiss federal program to advance engineering system and device technologies with applications to Health and the Environment, including smart Energy generation and consumption. The authors discuss this unprecedented nation-wide program, with a lifetime of almost 10 years and a public funding of more than 120 MCHF, which helped to position Switzerland at the forefront of the research on multi-scale engineering of complex systems and networks, and strongly impacted the Swiss landscape in Engineering Sciences.
This book focuses on the urban wind environment of urban center district. Through urban spatial morphology and urban space units it provides in-depth evaluation and research on the correlation between urban spatial morphology indicator and urban wind environment. Based on urban spatial morphology indicators, such as building density, FAR, average building height and wind environment parameter, it conducts quantitative analysis and statistic evaluation to acquire the influence relationship between urban planning indicators and wind speed. In addition, based on the 13 typical urban morphology units it also analyses the different situation of wind environment. Finally it provides the optimized strategies on urban planning, architecture and landscape. It intertwines the quantitative research between wind environment and urban morphology through in-depth analysis and urban microclimate simulation. It makes a valuable contribution for the research on urban environment and urban morphology.
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