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The Poisoners is a history of four devastating chapters in the making of the region, seen through the disturbing use of toxins and accusations of poisoning circulated by soldiers, spies, and politicians in Zimbabwe and South Africa.
Imraan Coovadia’s fascinating new book exposes the secret use of poisons and diseases in the Rhodesian bush war and independent Zimbabwe, and the apparent connection to the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States; the enquiry into the chemical and biological warfare programme in South Africa known as Project Coast, discovered through the arrest and failed prosecution of Dr Wouter Basson; the use of toxic compounds such as Virodene to treat patients at the height of the Aids epidemic in South Africa, and the insistence of the government that proven therapies like Nevirapine, which could have saved hundreds of thousands of lives, were in fact poisons; and the history of poisoning and accusations of poisoning in the modern history of the African National Congress, from its guerrilla camps in Angola to Jacob Zuma’s suggestion that his fourth wife collaborated with a foreign intelligence agency to have him murdered.
But The Poisoners is not merely a book of history. It is also a meditation, by a most perceptive commentator, on the meaning of race, on the unhappy history of black and white in southern Africa, and on the nature of good and evil.
Discover the subject of optimization in a new light with this modern and unique treatment. Includes a thorough exposition of applications and algorithms in sufficient detail for practical use, while providing you with all the necessary background in a self-contained manner. Features a deeper consideration of optimal control, global optimization, optimization under uncertainty, multiobjective optimization, mixed-integer programming and model predictive control. Presents a complete coverage of formulations and instances in modelling where optimization can be applied for quantitative decision-making. As a thorough grounding to the subject, covering everything from basic to advanced concepts and addressing real-life problems faced by modern industry, this is a perfect tool for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in chemical and biochemical engineering.
Drawing together topics from a wide range of disciplines, this text provides a comprehensive insight into the fundamentals of magnetic biosensors and the applications of magnetic nanoparticles in medicine. Internationally renowned researchers showcase topics ranging from the basic physical principles of magnetism to the detection and manipulation, synthesis protocols and natural occurrence of magnetic nanoparticles. Up-to-date examples of their clinical usage and research applications in the biomedical fields of sensing by diverse magnetic detection methods, in imaging by MRI and in therapeutic strategies such as hyperthermia, are also discussed, providing a thorough introduction to this rapidly developing field. Each chapter features questions with answers, highlighted definition boxes, and numerous illustrations which help readers grasp key concepts. Mathematical tools, together with key literature references, provide a strong underpinning for the material, making it ideal for graduate students, lecturers, medical researchers and industrial scientific strategists.
Uniquely focusing on dynamic modeling, this volume incorporates metabolic regulation as a survival mechanism for cells, by driving metabolism through optimal investment of its resources for control of enzyme synthesis and activity. Consequently, the models have a proven record of describing various uptake patterns of mixed carbon substrates that have become significant in modern applications of biomass for the production of bioenergy. The models accurately describe dynamic behavior of microbes in nutrient environments with mixtures of complementary substrates, such as carbon and nitrogen. Modeling of large metabolic networks (including prospects for extension to genome scale) is enabled by lumped hybrid cybernetic models with an unparalleled capacity to predict dynamic behavior of knockout strains. This is an invaluable, must-have reference for bio-researchers and practicing engineers.
This book covers the most up-to-date photoaffinity labeling method to tackle the key loop module involved in the binding process of a bioactive small molecule to its host protein. The book introduces rational points for preparing powerful photoaffinity probes, keys for the efficient analysis of labeled products, and recent successful applications for protein probing. Regarding drug design, the unique topics of the book are the special consideration of the crosslinking potential of recent probes and their application of important receptor proteins . This book presents emerging technologies of photoaffinity labeling to readers who are working in the fields of proteomics, molecular recognition, and drug discovery and development.
A valuable introduction to the appreciation of corrosion and the techniques for control.
A comprehensive source of information about modern drying technologies that uniquely focus on the processing of pharmaceuticals and biologicals Drying technologies are an indispensable production step in the pharmaceutical industry and the knowledge of drying technologies and applications is absolutely essential for current drug product development. This book focuses on the application of various drying technologies to the processing of pharmaceuticals and biologicals. It offers a complete overview of innovative as well as standard drying technologies, and addresses the issues of why drying is required and what the critical considerations are for implementing this process operation during drug product development. Drying Technologies for Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Applications discusses the state-of-the-art of established drying technologies like freeze- and spray- drying and highlights limitations that need to be overcome to achieve the future state of pharmaceutical manufacturing. The book also describes promising next generation drying technologies, which are currently used in fields outside of pharmaceuticals, and how they can be implemented and adapted for future use in the pharmaceutical industry. In addition, it deals with the generation of synergistic effects (e.g. by applying process analytical technology) and provides an outlook toward future developments. -Presents a full technical overview of well established standard drying methods alongside various other drying technologies, possible improvements, limitations, synergies, and future directions -Outlines different drying technologies from an application-oriented point of view and with consideration of real world challenges in the field of drug product development -Edited by renowned experts from the pharmaceutical industry and assembled by leading experts from industry and academia Drying Technologies for Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Applications is an important book for pharma engineers, process engineers, chemical engineers, and others who work in related industries.
Subcritical water is a green extraction solvent compared to conventional extraction solvents. While experimental results on subcritical water extraction (SWE) technology have been published piecemeal, there has been no comprehensive review of the state of the art. Green Extraction in Separation Technology fills that gap, serving to cover extracting with subcritical water as an environmentally friendly solvent. FEATURES Presents new technologies for extracting natural compounds from plants and compares the advantages and disadvantages versus SWE Explains research on SWE over the last 15 years Offers an overview of the solubility of different compounds in SWE and related theoretical content Discusses modeling of SWE and describes the development of a new model for this process This monograph is aimed at researchers and advanced students in chemical and biochemical engineering.
This book examines bioremediation technologies as a tool for environmental protection and management. It provides global perspectives on recent advances in the bioremediation of various environmental pollutants. Topics covered include comparative analysis of bio-gas electrification from anaerobic digesters, mathematical modeling in bioremediation, the evaluation of next-generation sequencing technologies for environmental monitoring in wastewater abatement; and the impact of diverse wastewater remediation techniques such as the use of nanofibers, microbes and genetically modified organisms; bioelectrochemical treatment; phytoremediation; and biosorption strategies. The book is targeted at scientists and researchers working in the field of bioremediation.
Biotechnology and Competitive Advantage investigates the development of biotechnology in Europe and the United States. It examines why Europe has fallen behind in applying biotechnology, when its scientific capabilities are largely comparable to those in the US. In addition it sheds new light on the wider context of the theory of growth of new technologies. This innovative book brings together a wide range of material concerning socio-economic aspects of the development of biotechnology in Europe and the US. Issues discussed include: * European policy for biotechnology, in individual countries and at the European Union level * risk regulation and the ways in which industry, regulators and non-government organizations manage risk regulation and the perception of risk * the formation and roles of biotechnology firms in Europe and the US and their relative capabilities * gene therapy development in Europe and the US * the impact on Europe of overseas biotechnology research by European multinationals. This book argues in favour of developing an integrated research and development system which will strengthen the research and development capabilities of all the actors involved. This book will be of great interest to science policymakers; businesses and academics studying the development of biotechnology and students of economics and business studies throughout Europe and the US.
The development of biologically based processes for the treatment of hazardous inorganic and organic wastes is a multi-disciplinary effort requiring the consideration of a number of biological, chemical, and physical parameters, as well as the effective teaming of biologists, chemists, engineers, and regulatory agencies. This new text/reference bridges the disciplines in a unique way, allowing an exchange of fundamental information to take place. The book begins with a description of the biological transformations of inorganic and organic compounds and a review of strategies that may be used for the treatment of hazardous wastes. It continues with a discussion of the physiological and engineering factors that must be considered for successful process development and concludes with a discussion of the regulations that have influenced biological waste treatment and environmental remediation.
Drawing on the expertise of researchers from around the world, the second edition of this invaluable handbook, now updated to cover the lastest advances across several areas of research, offers one of the most complete and respected references on biodiesel development, improvements, and applications. It covers the conversion of vegetable oils, animal fats, and used oils into biodiesel fuel. The handbook delivers solutions to issues associated with biodiesel feedstocks, production issues, quality control, viscosity, stability, and applications, as well as emissions and other environmental impacts. In addition to technical material, it updates readers on the status of the biodiesel industry worldwide.
Provides an engaging and clearly structured source of information on the capture and storage of CO2 Designed to bridge the gap between the many disciplines involved in carbon dioxide emission management, this book provides a comprehensive yet easy-to-understand introduction to the subject of CO2 capture. Fit for graduate students, practicing process engineers, and others interested in the subject, it offers a clear understanding and overview of thermal power plants in particular and of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in general. Carbon Dioxide Emission Management in Power Generation starts with a discussion of the greenhouse effect, climate change, and CO2 emissions as the rationale for the concept of CCS. It then looks at the long-term storage of CO2. A chapter covering different fossil fuels, their usage, and properties comes next, followed by sections on: CO2 generation, usage and properties; power plant technologies; theory of gas separation; power plant efficiency calculations; and classification of CO2 capture methods. Other chapters examine: CO2 capture by gas absorption and other gas separation methods; removing carbon from the fuel; pre- and post-combustion CO2 capture in power cycles; and oxy-combustion CO2 capture in power cycles. -Discusses both CO2 capture technologies as well as power generation technologies -Bridges the gap between many different disciplines?from scientists, geologists and engineers, to economists -One of the few books that covers all the different sciences involved in the capture and storage of CO2 -Introduces the topic and provides useful information to the academic as well as professional reader Carbon Dioxide Emission Management in Power Generation is an excellent book for students who are interested in CO2 capture and storage, as well as for chemists in industry, environmental chemists, chemical engineers, geochemists, and geologists.
Considering the deleterious impacts of fossil fuels on the environmental and natural ecosystems, it has become imperative to make a paradigm shift toward renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials. The exhaustive everyday usage of fossil fuels and processed petrochemical products are the leading causes for the increase in greenhouse gas emissions, global warming, climate changes, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, pollution of air, water, and soil as well as for the accumulation of nonbiodegradable materials in the soil and oceans. On the contrary, biofuels, biochemicals, and biomaterials derived from renewable wastes such as nonedible plant biomass (e.g., agricultural and forestry biomass), energy crops, microalgae, municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and other biogenic residues seem to be carbon neutral. Therefore, the global interest in biorefining technologies, especially thermochemical and biological conversion processes, is gaining momentum in academic and industrial perspectives. Progressive Thermochemical Biorefining Technologies offers all-inclusive coverage of the most crucial topics as follows: State-of-the-art information on the production and utilization of biofuels through thermochemical biorefining technologies Conversion of waste biomass through pyrolysis, liquefaction, torrefaction, carbonization, gasification, reforming, and other clean technologies Waste-to-energy/chemical generation Fuel upgrading technologies Techno-economic analysis and life-cycle assessment of biorefining processes Specifically designed to be instantly applicable, this volume serves as a reference book for undergraduate and graduate students, scientific investigators, and research scholars working in the areas relating to energy and fuels.
Mathematics Applied to Engineering in Action: Advanced Theories, Methods, and Models focuses on material relevant to solving the kinds of mathematical problems regularly confronted by engineers. This new volume explains how an engineer should properly define the physical and mathematical problem statements, choose the computational approach, and solve the problem by a proven reliable approach. It presents the theoretical background necessary for solving problems, including definitions, rules, formulas, and theorems on the particular theme. The book aims to apply advanced mathematics using real-world problems to illustrate mathematical ideas. This approach emphasizes the relevance of mathematics to engineering problems, helps to motivate the reader, and gives examples of mathematical concepts in a context familiar to the research students. The volume is intended for professors and instructors, scientific researchers, students, and industry professionals. It will help readers to choose the most appropriate mathematical modeling method to solve engineering problems.
Magnesium is one of the most abundant minerals in seawater. Extracting magnesium from seawater could reduce cost of this mineral, resulting in positive implications for industries that use it. This book addresses mineral process engineering with emphasis on magnesium and provides practicing engineers and students with comprehensive knowledge on magnesium and how it is extracted from seawater and magnesium ores. It takes a chemical engineering approach as separation of magnesium from seawater involves the application of the powerful science of chemistry and transport phenomena principles. This monograph discusses magnesium resources and occurrence, includes an exploration study on deriving magnesium and mineral salts from seawater, and features coverage of magnesium chloride. It also covers commercial methods for magnesium production as an end product, current and prospective applications in the energy domain, and offers an account of the use of magnesium to store hydrogen in the form of magnesium hydride.
This book covers the properties of biomaterials that have found wide clinical applications, while also reviewing the state-of-the-art in the development towards future medical applications, starting with a brief introduction to the history of biomaterials used in hip arthroplasty. The book then reviews general types of biomaterials - polymers, ceramics, and metals, as well as different material structures such as porous materials and coatings and their applications - before exploring various current research trends, such as biodegradable and porous metals, shape memory alloys, bioactive biomaterials and coatings, and nanometals used in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. In turn, the book discusses a range of methods and approaches used in connection with biomaterial properties and characterization - chemical properties, biocompatibility, in vivo behaviour characterisation, as well as genotoxicity and mutagenicity - and reviews various diagnostic techniques: histopathological analysis, imagining techniques, and methods for physicochemical and spectroscopic characterization. Properties of stent deployment procedures in cardiovascular surgeries, from aspects of prediction, development and deployment of stent geometries are presented on the basis of novel modelling approaches. The last part of the book presents the clinical applications of biomaterials, together with case studies in dentistry, knee and hip prosthesis. Reflecting the efforts of a multidisciplinary team of authors, gathering chemical engineers, medical doctors, physicists and engineers, it presents a rich blend of perspectives on the application of biomaterials in clinical practice. The book will provide clinicians with an essential review of currently available solutions in specific medical areas, also incorporating non-medical solutions and standpoints, thus offering them a broader selection of materials and implantable solutions. This work is the result of joint efforts of various academic and research institutions participating in WIMB Tempus project, 543898-TEMPUS-1-2013-1-ES-TEMPUS-JPHES, "Development of Sustainable Interrelations between Education, Research and Innovation at WBC Universities in Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials where Innovation Means Business", co-funded by the Tempus Programme of the European Union.
Natural Polymers-Based Green Adsorbents for Water Treatment focuses on the recent development of novel polymeric adsorbents that are green and eco-friendly or biodegradable in nature. The book reviews the synthesis, properties and adsorption applications of natural and green polymer-based adsorbents. It discusses adsorption processes in biopolymer systems, remediation technologies developed to remove environmental pollutants, the usage of natural polymer-based cost-effective and green novel adsorbent materials for the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants, and the efficiency of functionalized polymers, nanosorbents, hydrogels, composites, graft copolymers in the sorption of various pollutants from the environment as well as from the industrial effluents. Researchers working on environmental remediation need a single book, where all data on natural and green adsorbents for water treatment are discussed comprehensively. Natural Polymers-Based Green Adsorbents for Water Treatment addresses this need by providing world-wide leading experts' observations and research. So, this book is a valuable reference for early-career scientist, academic researchers and graduate students in chemical engineering and material science.
This text focuses on a variety of topics in mathematics in common usage in graduate engineering programs including vector calculus, linear and nonlinear ordinary differential equations, approximation methods, vector spaces, linear algebra, integral equations and dynamical systems. The book is designed for engineering graduate students who wonder how much of their basic mathematics will be of use in practice. Following development of the underlying analysis, the book takes students through a large number of examples that have been worked in detail. Students can choose to go through each step or to skip ahead if they so desire. After seeing all the intermediate steps, they will be in a better position to know what is expected of them when solving assignments, examination problems, and when on the job. Chapters conclude with exercises for the student that reinforce the chapter content and help connect the subject matter to a variety of engineering problems. Students have grown up with computer-based tools including numerical calculations and computer graphics; the worked-out examples as well as the end-of-chapter exercises often use computers for numerical and symbolic computations and for graphical display of the results.
Edited by a renowned and much cited chemist, this book covers the
whole span of molecular computers that are based on biomolecules.
The contributions by all the major scientists in the field provide
an excellent overview of the latest developments in this rapidly
Completely revised, updated, and enlarged, this second edition now contains a subchapter on biorecognition assays, plus a chapter on bioprocess control added by the new co-author Jun-ichi Horiuchi, who is one of the leading experts in the field. The central theme of the textbook remains the application of chemical engineering principles to biological processes in general, demonstrating how a chemical engineer would address and solve problems. To create a logical and clear structure, the book is divided into three parts. The first deals with the basic concepts and principles of chemical engineering and can be read by those students with no prior knowledge of chemical engineering. The second part focuses on process aspects, such as heat and mass transfer, bioreactors, and separation methods. Finally, the third section describes practical aspects, including medical device production, downstream operations, and fermenter engineering. More than 40 exemplary solved exercises facilitate understanding of the complex engineering background, while self-study is supported by the inclusion of over 80 exercises at the end of each chapter, which are supplemented by the corresponding solutions. An excellent, comprehensive introduction to the principles of biochemical engineering.
This comprehensive and thoroughly revised text, now in its third edition, continues to present the fundamental concepts of how mathematical models of chemical processes are constructed and demonstrate their applications to the simulation of three of the very important chemical engineering systems: the chemical reactors, distillation systems and vaporizing processes. The book provides an integrated treatment of process description, mathematical modelling and dynamic simulation of realistic problems, using the robust process model approach and its simulation with efficient numerical techniques. Theoretical background materials on activity coefficient models, equation of state models, reaction kinetics, and numerical solution techniques-needed for the development and simulation of mathematical models-are also addressed in the book. The topics of discussion related to tanks, heat exchangers, chemical reactors (both continuous and batch), biochemical reactors (continuous and fed-batch), distillation columns (continuous and batch), equilibrium flash vaporizer, refinery debutanizer column, evaporator, and steam generator contain several worked-out examples and case studies to teach students how chemical processes are operated, characterized and monitored using computer programming. New to this Edition The inclusion of following three new chapters on: Gas Absorption Liquid-Liquid Extraction Column Once-Through Steam Generator will further strengthen the text. This book is designed for senior level undergraduate and first-year postgraduate level courses in `Chemical Process Modelling and Simulation'. The book will also be useful for students of petrochemical engineering, biotechnology, and biochemical engineering. It can serve as a guide for research scientists and practising engineers as well.
This book deals with the most emerging aspects of algal research with special reference to microalgae viz; diversity, mutations, genomics and metagenomics study, eco-physiology, culturing, microalgae for food and feed, biofuel production, harvesting of microalgae, separation, and purification of biochemicals, techno-economical assessment, microalgal biotechnology, algal-bacterial systems for wastewater treatment. It describes the complex issues associated with the above-mentioned areas with the intervention of cutting-edge biotechnological tools and techniques like next-generation sequencing methods, metabolomics, and bioreactor design and development. The chapters provide past developments, current information and future prospects of algal technology as an alternate avenue for waste water treatment and its potential for production of biofuel and nutraceuticals.
Showcases the important role of organometallic chemistry in industrial applications and includes practical examples and case studies This comprehensive book takes a practical approach to how organometallic chemistry is being used in industrial applications. It uniquely offers numerous, real-world examples and case studies that aid working R&D researchers as well as Ph.D. and postdoc students preparing to ace interviews in order to enter the workforce. Edited by two world-leading and established industrial chemists, the book covers flow chemistry (catalytic and non-catalytic organometallic chemistry), various cross-coupling reactions (C-C, C-N, and C-B) in classical batch chemistry, conjugate addition reactions, metathesis, and C-H arylation and achiral hydrogenation reactions. Beginning with an overview of the many industrial milestones within the field over the years, Organometallic Chemistry in Industry: A Practical Approach provides chapters covering: the design, development, and execution of a continuous flow enabled API manufacturing route; continuous manufacturing as an enabling technology for low temperature organometallic chemistry; the development of a nickel-catalyzed enantioselective Mizoroki-Heck coupling; and the development of iron-catalyzed Kumada cross-coupling for the large scale production of Aliskiren intermediates. The book also examines aspects of homogeneous hydrogenation from industrial research; the latest industrial uses of olefin metathesis; and more. -Includes rare industrial case studies difficult to find in current literature -Helps readers successfully carry out their own reactions -Covers topics like flow chemistry, cross-coupling reactions, and dehydrative decarbonylation -Features a foreword by Nobel Laureate R. H. Grubbs -A perfect resource for every R&D researcher in industry -Useful for PhD students and postdocs: excellent preparation for a job interview Organometallic Chemistry in Industry: A Practical Approach is an excellent resource for all chemists, including those working in the pharmaceutical industry and organometallics.
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