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This brief explores the business and global implications of the American shale energy, or natural gas, revolution. Specifically, it provides a rational, comprehensive look at the major business themes and management implications that surround the new abundance of natural gas in the United States and identifies some of the most significant geopolitical considerations globally. While acknowledging some of the controversies and hazards surrounding the extraction techniques, commonly known as "fracking", the author also looks at the hopes this technique poses and details how shale energy will impact supply chains for firms. The discovery of new sources of domestic natural gas in recent years - coupled with innovations that facilitated their extraction - has altered the global landscape. However, the vast majority of the information out there for business students, faculty, and practitioners about the natural gas revolution is focused on the impact of "longer and lower" energy prices; and, secondarily, opportunities within the domestic energy sector. Each of these is crucial for business people to understand, however, the natural gas revolution is about much more. Companies of all sizes, whether they see it or not, are having new opportunities open up for their products and services. Further, the globalization of shale energy will have far reaching influence beyond simply economic factors. Geopolitical considerations and the re-structuring of international relations around shale energy will impact supply chains in a myriad of ways. This book aims to examine these opportunities. Featuring case studies from contemporary companies, this book will be of interest to students, academics, researchers, professionals and policy makers who are seeking to understand the business and global implications of the shale energy revolution.
This book systematically describes and evaluates the impact of energy cooperatives as a key driving force in the German energy transition toward a sustainability-oriented energy sector. Based on a comprehensive survey and three case studies, it provides an instructive overview of the overall dimensions and scope of energy cooperatives in Germany, and of their history, structure and current investment projects. The book not only contributes to the energy policy discourse in Germany, but also highlights the role of energy cooperatives to enable an international readership to explore their potential in other countries. Further, it makes a theoretical contribution toward substantially supplementing actor research in general, and enterprise research in particular, in the field of sustainability transitions science.
This book covers the important aspects of greenery in buildings, both in the landscape and within buildings, examining how greenery improves comfort and appeal in sustainable buildings. The book is part of the World Renewable Energy Network's drive to encourage architects and builders to use greenery as much as possible in their design to reduce energy consumption and provide a pleasant appearance and pleasing aspect to their buildings. It shows and demonstrates how widespread the use of greenery is in buildings, and the books 17 chapters were chosen from 12 different countries representing a truly global look at the use and benefit of using greenery in buildings. This book is aimed at architects, building construction authorities, urban planners, and policymakers to encourage the use of greenery in their future buildings and explain why it is important to do so.
This book explores key techniques and methods in electromagnetic compatibility management, analysis, design, improvement and test verification for spacecraft. The first part introduces the general EMC technology of spacecraft, the electromagnetic interference control method and management of electromagnetic compatibility. The second part discusses the EMC prediction analysis technique and its application in spacecraft, while the third presents the EMC design of spacecraft modules and typical equipment. The final two parts address spacecraft magnetic design testing technologies and spacecraft testing technologies. The book also covers the program control test process, the special power control unit (PCU), electric propulsion, PIM test and multipaction testing for spacecraft, making it a valuable resource for researchers and engineers alike.
The book is a compilation of selected papers from 2020 International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICEEE 2020) held in National Power Training Institute HQ (Govt. of India) on February 21 - 22, 2020. The work focuses on the current development in the fields of electrical and electronics engineering like power generation, transmission and distribution, renewable energy sources and technology, power electronics and applications, robotics, artificial intelligence and IoT, control, and automation and instrumentation, electronics devices, circuits and systems, wireless and optical communication, RF and microwaves, VLSI, and signal processing. The book is beneficial for readers from both academia and industry.
This book discusses sustainable housing issues in urban areas throughout the Global South, revealing their complexity in terms of urban dynamics, housing markets and human interactions with the environment. Its main focus is on the location of graves within private residences, cemeteries in the immediate vicinity of private residences, and the implications of these factors for renters' choices and rents. The book addresses the economics of land use for graves in connection with housing choices and the implications for the rented sector of the property market. By means of several model-based simulations, it demonstrates that the neoclassical economics remedy to the negative externality of graves in or near private residences remains generally unacceptable. Providing readers with a clear understanding of tenants' priorities in their choice of housing, as well as a new approach to the negative externality of graves in the rented sector, the book will be of interest to policymakers, urban planners, investors in residential housing and land economists alike.
Following the success of its predecessor, this second edition of The Future of Energy Use provides essential analysis of the use of different forms of energy and their environmental and social impacts. It examines conventional, nuclear and renewable sources and technologies, using relevant case studies and providing a vital link between technology and related policy issues. The new edition has been comprehensively developed and updated, including new text, diagrams and tables, with entire new sections that reflect the significant changes that have occurred since the first edition. New material includes: a stronger focus on climate change policy and energy security; a discussion of the long run marginal costs of oil; coverage of the biofuels debate in both the developed and developing worlds; an outline of developments in the built environment (including transport issues); and the relationship between behaviour and energy use. It reviews policy shifts with relation to energy efficiency, carbon capture and storage, combined heat and power, and combined cycle gas turbines. There is new coverage of nuclear waste, storage and proliferation, and new material on microgeneration and biofuels, as well as essential new information on carbon markets and the hydrogen economy. The result is a unique introduction and guide to all the vital issues within energy for students, academics and professionals new to the field.
This Safety Report provides guidance on the safe use of radiation for imaging and treatment in veterinary medicine with the objective of ensuring the safety and radiation protection of workers and members of the public. The publication addresses occupational exposure and public exposure in the use of radiation in veterinary medicine and safety issues that should be considered in order to be compliant with the International Basic Safety Standards (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3). Consideration is given to the topics of source security and emergency response that might arise with the use of radioactive material in veterinary medicine. Although primarily intended for regulators and workers in veterinary medicine, the publication will also be relevant for professional bodies, ethics committees, and suppliers of equipment and software.
Fulfilling the need for a classical approach, Experimental Combustion: An Introduction begins with an overview of the key aspects of combustion-including chemical kinetics, premixed flame, diffusion flame, and liquid droplet combustion-followed by a discussion of the general elements of measurement systems and data acquisition and analysis. In addition to these aspects, thermal flow measurements, gas composition measurements, and optical combustion diagnostics are covered extensively. Building upon this foundation in the fundamentals, the text addresses measurements, instruments, analyses, and diagnostics specific to combustion experiments, as well as: Describes the construction, working principles, application areas, and limitations of the necessary instruments for combustion systems Familiarizes the reader with the procedure for uncertainty analysis in combustion experiments Discusses advanced optical techniques, namely particle image velocimetry (PIV), laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methods From stoichiometry to smoke meters and statistical analysis, Experimental Combustion: An Introduction provides a solid understanding of the underlying concepts and measurement tools required for the execution and interpretation of practical combustion experiments.
Changes to energy behaviour - the role of people and organisations in energy production, use and efficiency - are critical to supporting a societal transition towards a low carbon and more sustainable future. However, which changes need to be made, by whom, and with what technologies are still very much under discussion. This book, developed by a diverse range of experts, presents an international and multi-faceted approach to the sociotechnical challenge of engaging people in energy systems and vice versa. By providing a multidisciplinary view of this field, it encourages critical thinking about core theories, quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and policy challenges. It concludes by addressing new areas where additional evidence is required for interventions and policy-making. It is designed to appeal to new entrants in the energy-efficiency and behaviour field, particularly those taking a quantitative approach to the topic. Concurrently, it recognizes ecological economist Herman Daly's insight: what really counts is often not countable.
Water and energy are resources that are reciprocally and mutually linked, because meeting energy needs requires water, often in large quantities, for mining, fuel production, hydropower, and power plant cooling, and energy is needed for pumping, treatment, and distribution of water and for collection, treatment, and discharge of wastewater. This interrelationship is often referred to as the energy-water nexus, or the water-energy nexus. There is growing recognition that "saving water saves energy". Energy efficiency initiatives offer opportunities for delivering significant water savings, and likewise, water efficiency initiatives offer opportunities for delivering significant energy savings. In addition, saving water also reduces carbon emissions by saving energy otherwise generated to move and treat water. This book provides background on energy for facilities that treat and deliver water to end users and also dispose of and discharge wastewater.
This Handbook has proven to be helpful to plant designers and operators for engineering and production of aluminium recycling plants. The book deals with aluminium as material and its recovery from bauxite, the various process steps and procedures, melting and casting plants, metal treatment facilities, provisions and equipment for environmental control and workforce safety, cold and hot recycling of aluminium including scrap preparation and remelting, operation and plant management. Due to more and more stringent regulations for enviornmental control and fuel efficiency as well as quality requirements sections about salt slag recycling, oxy-fuel heating and heat treatment processes are now incorporated in the new edition. The reader is thus provided with a detailed overview of the technology of aluminium recycling.
This title examines current research relating to energy efficiency opportunities in select Chinese industries with a focus on the pulp and paper industry; and CO2 emission reduction potentials in the iron, steel and cement industries.
This book evaluates the potential of the combined use of district heating networks and cogeneration in the European Union (EU). It also proposes measures to remove barriers hindering their widespread implementation, formulates policies for their implementation, and evaluates their economic, energy, and environmental consequences. The book presents a preliminary assessment of the likely cost and the impact of widespread adoption of district heating networks and cogeneration carried out in three cities that represent the variety of climatic conditions in the EU. Based on this assessment, it is estimated that by undertaking the maximum economically feasible implementation across the EU, fuel savings of EURO95M/year would be achieved, representing energy savings of 6,400 petajoules (PJ), which is around 15% of the total final energy consumption in the EU in 2013 (46,214.5 PJ). Using simple and quick calculations and not specific software, the method used allows the evaluation of the potential benefits of retrofitting existing power plants into cogeneration plants and connecting them to nearby heating networks. In light of increasing energy costs and environmental concerns, the book is of interest to heating engineers, city planners, and policy-makers around the globe.
This book provides several up-to-date empirical policy-oriented studies on assessing the impacts of climate change on various economic sectors and the role of renewable energy resources in mitigating pollution and climate change. It suggests various policy recommendations on how to increase the share of renewable energy resources in the energy baskets of the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the rest of the world to ensure energy sustainability. As of 2020, most of the world's energy investment still went to carbon-emitting sources, namely, fossil fuels. On the other hand, the Covid-19 pandemic and the economic Project Overview 20 March 2021 08:39 Page 6 of 9 downturns shrank the global energy demand, including fossil fuels, resulting in a sharp drop in their prices. Low fossil fuel prices are harmful to developing renewable energy projects, making solar, wind, and other renewable energy resources less competitive as sources of electricity. This is endangering the Paris agreement and the "Climate Action" goal of the United Nations. Given the high share of fossil fuels in the energy mix of the members of ASEAN, tremendous challenges must be faced for their energy transition in the post-Covid-19 world. The authors call for sound policy and applicable technologies to ensure sustainable energy availability, accessibility, and affordability to reach emission reduction targets.
This book explores China's low-carbon consumption in the context of residential behaviour, corporate practices and policy Implication. It first calculates the carbon and ecological footprints of residential consumption, including both direct and indirect emissions, before discussing Chinese residential behavioural aspects and determinants of electricity saving, low-carbon transportation, low-carbon product purchasing, and e-waste recycling. The authors then investigate the relationship between industrial growth and carbon emissions, using the example of the iron and steel industry to examine the motivation for energy intensive industries to reduce carbon emissions. They also consider energy efficiency and inter-company collaboration on carbon emission reduction. Lastly, the book describes the major low-carbon policies in China and their impact, economic cost and public acceptance.
Wind energy has been the fastest growing source of U.S. electric power generation in recent years. The increase in federal funding for wind technologies and involvement of multiple agencies has raised questions about fragmented, overlapping, or duplicative federal support. This book examines federal wind-related initiatives; programs or groups of agency activities that promoted wind energy through a specific emphasis or focus. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) identifies wind-related initiatives implemented by federal agencies in fiscal year 2011; assesses the extent of fragmentation, overlap, and duplication, if any, among these initiatives, and the extent to which they were co-ordinated; and examines how agencies allocate support to projects through their initiatives and the extent to which they assess applicant need for support.
Performance Contracting is a must-read for those concerned about energy and the environment. It examines state-of-the-art facts and pragmatic realities from financing to measurement and verification, and includes up-to-date "how-to's" for both end users and energy service companies. Readers will find expert advice on RFPs and RFQs, tips on making an energy project investment worthy, and guidelines for effectively negotiating and developing energy services agreements. They will also learn the key strategies for managing risks, both from a user's and a service provider's point of view, as well as ways to expand business and serve customers more effectively.
Solar ready design is important if photovoltaic (PV) or solar hot water (SHW) technologies are to be installed on a building at any time during the building's lifespan. Solar ready also allows owners to take advantage of a changing energy market. The economics for installing solar on a new building are not always compelling, but, in the future, that picture could change with rising electricity prices and/or falling solar technology costs. It is important to recognise that solar ready itself does not reduce energy use or replace conventional energy with green energy. Solar ready does not contribute toward carbon emissions reduction until actual solar capacity is installed. Instead, solar ready has the potential to act as a catalyst for future installations and market expansion by reducing balance of system costs at the time of installation. In order to see this benefit, solar ready must become a widespread practice. This book explores the mechanisms for encouraging solar ready design and construction.
The third edition of the landmark book on power system stability and control, revised and updated with new material The revised third edition of Power System Control and Stability continues to offer a comprehensive text on the fundamental principles and concepts of power system stability and control as well as new material on the latest developments in the field. The third edition offers a revised overview of power system stability and a section that explores the industry convention of q axis leading d axis in modeling of synchronous machines. In addition, the third edition focuses on simulations that utilize digital computers and commercial simulation tools, it offers an introduction to the concepts of the stability analysis of linear systems together with a detailed formulation of the system state matrix. The authors also include a revised chapter that explores both implicit and explicit integration methods for transient stability. Power System Control and Stability offers an in-depth review of essential topics and: Discusses topics of contemporary and future relevance in terms of modeling, analysis and control Maintains the approach, style, and analytical rigor of the two original editions Addresses both power system planning and operational issues in power system control and stability Includes updated information and new chapters on modeling and simulation of round-rotor synchronous machine model, excitation control, renewable energy resources such as wind turbine generators and solar photovoltaics, load modeling, transient voltage instability, modeling and representation of three widely used FACTS devices in the bulk transmission network, and the modeling and representation of appropriate protection functions in transient stability studies Contains a set of challenging problems at the end of each chapter Written for graduate students in electric power and professional power system engineers, Power System Control and Stability offers an invaluable reference to basic principles and incorporates the most recent techniques and methods into projects.
Communication within project-based environments presents special challenges. Many of the problems that develop in construction projects are a result of both the temporary and inter-disciplinary nature of project teams. Each player having a different employer complicates the situation further.This book offers practical guidance on possible solutions to communication problems, featuring a number of examples related to the construction industry. Several non-typical perspectives on the process of communication are introduced, to encourage the reader to think about communication in a new way. 'Thinking with diagrams', for example, is useful for those such as architects who work primarily with visual communication media. This can be contrasted with the 'visual perception' approach, which emphasises the rational and scientific aspects of human biology. The combination of different perspectives highlights the diversity of communication problems facing those working within project-based environments.
In its second volume, this book aims to link the academic research with development in the real world and provide a historical and institutional background that can enrich more formal research. The first section will include an assessment of the evolution and the state of the nascent second-generation biofuel as well as a perspective on the evolution of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol in Brazil. It will also include a historical and institutional background on the biofuel industry in Brazil that has global lessons, and later, provide a technical overview of major analytical tools used to assess the economic, land use and greenhouse gas implications of biofuel policies at a regional and global level. Additionally, the book analyzes the various drivers for land use change both at a micro-economic level and at a macro-economic level. It presents studies that apply regional and global economic models to examine the effects of biofuel policies in the US, EU and Brazil on regional and global land use, on food and fuel prices and greenhouse gas emissions. These papers illustrate the use of partial and general equilibrium modeling approaches to simulate the effects of various biofuel policies, and includes studies showing the effects of risk aversion, time preferences and liquidity constraints on farmers decision to grow energy crops for biofuel production. By presenting the tools of lifecycle analysis for assessing the direct greenhouse gas intensity of biofuels, this handbook investigates the types of indirect or market mediated effects that can offset or strengthen these direct effects. It will include tools to assess the direct and indirect effects of biofuel production on greenhouse gas emissions in the US and Brazil, and ultimately provide a comprehensive background to understand the state of biofuel in the present and how to analyze their implication.
It is certain that energy production and, particularly, the generation and sustained growth of electricity constitute indispensable elements for the economic and social progress of any country. Energy, undoubtedly, constitutes the motive force of civilisation and it determines, to a high degree, the level of the future economic and social development of that country. This book examines energy power in Latin America and the Caribbean and the future role of renewable and nuclear energy sources in the region's electricity generation.
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