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This book, based on lectures on natural and environmental resource economics, offers a nontechnical exposition of the modern theory of sustainability in the presence of resource scarcity. It applies an alternative take on environmental economics, focusing on the economics of the natural environment, including development, computation, and potential empirical importance of the concept of option value, as opposed to the standard treatment of the economics of pollution control. The approach throughout is primarily conceptual and theoretical, though empirical estimation and results are sometimes noted. Mathematics, ranging from elementary calculus to more formal dynamic optimization, is used, especially in the early chapters on the optimal management of exhaustible and renewable resources, but results are always given an economic interpretation. Diagrams and numerical examples are also used extensively. The first chapter introduces the classical economists as the first resource economists, in their discussion of the implications of a limited natural resource base (agricultural land) for the evolution of the wider economy. A later chapter returns to the same concerns, along with others stimulated by the energy and environmental "crises" of the 1970s and beyond. One section considers alternative measures of resource scarcity and empirical findings on their behavior over time. Another introduces the modern concept of sustainability with an intuitive development of the analytics. A chapter on the dynamics of environmental management motivates the concept of option value, shows how to compute it, then demonstrates its importance in an illustrative empirical example. The closing chapter, on climate change, first projects future changes and potential catastrophic impacts, then discusses the policy relevance of both option value and discounting for the very long run. This book is intended for resource and environmental economists and can be read by interested graduate and advanced undergraduate students in the field as well.
This is the 40th edition of Reference Data Series No. 2, which presents the most recent reactor data available to the IAEA. It contains summarized information as of the end of 2019 on power reactors operating, under construction and shut down as well as performance data on reactors operating in the IAEA Member States. The information is collected through designated national correspondents in the Member States and the data are used to maintain the IAEA's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).
This comprehensive new glossary presents over 3,000 terms with definitions and extra indexing for cross-referencing. Coverage includes all aspects of energy including solar, wind, electric, petroleum, natural gas as well as energy regulatory terms and concepts. The entries are easy to view and carefully arranged. This book is an essential reference.
The second edition of Sustainable Construction provides a masterclass on the principles and techniques involved in the design and delivery of practical, affordable, high quality sustainable buildings and places. It presents precedents, theory, concepts and principles alongside 120 wide ranging case studies that highlight current best practice and encourage implementation. Topics in the book include: * the history of ideas in sustainable construction * policy * materials * cost issues * appraisal techniques * environmental design * energy * water * construction processes * and urban ecology. The book is heavily illustrated in full colour and is an ideal, contemporary, accessible primer to courses in Architecture, Construction, Building Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Project Management, Landscape, Urbanism and Development.
This book presents research related to energy and environmental technologies in the context of market liberalization and global warming. It focuses on the development and efficient use of alternative energy sources, implementation of sustainable energy policies, power generation, and energy finance. Advances in Managing Energy and Climate Risks provides readers with the necessary information to use energy sources more efficiently, discover cleaner energy sources and their applications, and urge consumers and producers to make changes to reach a carbon-neutral economy through financial, technological, regulatory and tax incentives.
This book analyzes energy security through the lens of oil and natural gas and explains how geopolitics and security challenges affect India's quest for energy security. It also offers insights into India's international trade and investment in the overseas oil and natural gas markets and discusses shale energy, adopting region-specific (Africa, West Asia, Central Asia, and LAC), country-specific (Russia and the US), maritime-specific (Arctic and South China Sea), and pipeline-specific (TAPI, MBI, IPI, and RCI) approaches to analyze India's oil and natural gas trade and investment abroad. The introductory chapter examines energy perspectives in international relations and conceptualizes energy geopolitics and energy security from both international and Indian standpoints. The book also highlights the similarities and differences in the issues involved in the global oil and natural gas market, and India's approach to these, offering a roadmap for holistic and integrated energy security through oil and natural gas. Since India's energy trade and investment in the international oil and natural gas market are not free from the effects of political instability, corruption, environment crisis, militancy, terrorism, war, and geopolitical involvement and interference, the book investigates the nature and extent of the security threats and competition India faces in the oil and natural gas-producing countries while pursuing its trade and investments there. As major sources of energy, oil and natural gas are strategic assets, and energy security is one of the core areas of India's foreign policy pursuits. As such, the chapters critically assess India's energy policy and resource diplomacy, providing analyses of the issues raised, identifying the central arguments and presenting existing cooperations - with past examples where necessary. The book appeals to scholars and policymakers active in the fields of energy, political science, international relations, economics, foreign policy, peace and conflict, security and geopolitics, as well as non-experts interested in this topic.
This book analyses and quantifies how and where energy and water are consumed by the ceramic sanitary-ware industry and provides solutions as to how to reduce this. The whole production process is mapped, including modelling methods. The book begins by providing an introduction to ceramic sanitary-ware production and types of factories casting technology. It then moves on to discuss the process and energy modelling for the production line, analysis of energy and water consumptions and proposals for improvements. The last chapter presents the practical implementation of the selected modelling configuration. This book is of particular interest to water and energy management professionals within the ceramic industry, but the methods are of interest to those in other production industries as well.
More than 4 billion incandescent light bulbs are in use in the United States. The basic technology in these bulbs has not changed substantially in the past 125 years, despite the fact that they convert less than 10% of their energy input into light. Improving light bulb performance can reduce overall U.S. energy use. About 20% of electricity consumed in the United States is used for lighting homes, offices, stores, factories, and outdoor spaces. Lighting represents about 14% of residential electricity use. This book provides an overview of lighting industry trends; with a focus on the life-cycle and energy consumption of incandescent, compact fluorescent and LED lamps.
The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow in both the short term and the long term. It represents a significant opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. The PV industry is best regarded as two major sectors: PV products (a sector of businesses that manufacture raw materials, PV modules and other components) and PV energy generation (a sector of services centred on the purchase of components and the installation of PV systems). This book provides background on the PV industry with a focus on helping communities evaluate opportunities in the photovoltaic industry and develop a strategic approach appropriate to a specific community.
The Third Edition of the Boiler Plant and Distribution System Optimization Manual has been upgraded with ten new checklists with over 100 ways to improve performance with 50 additional illustrations to communicate specific information about applying these technologies. The new checklists serve as a handy reference for designing an energy plan for your plants. Understanding that funds for energy come directly from your bottom line, this book has been designed for those tasked with increasing profits by reducing fuel costs while also reducing pollution and carbon footprints with attention to plant safety. The author presents many complex boiler-related topics in a simple and understandable way to simplify the decision-making process.
Emerging Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage presents the state-of-art of emerging materials for energy conversion technologies (solar cells and fuel cells) and energy storage technologies (batteries, supercapacitors and hydrogen storage). The book is organized into five primary sections, each with three chapters authored by worldwide experts in the fields of materials science, physics, chemistry and engineering. It covers the fundamentals, functionalities, challenges and prospects of different classes of emerging materials, such as wide bandgap semiconductors, oxides, carbon-based nanostructures, advanced ceramics, chalcogenide nanostructures, and flexible organic electronics nanomaterials. The book is an important reference for students and researchers (from academics, but also industry) interested in understanding the properties of emerging materials.
Thoroughly revised, this book provides the reader with an understanding of the principles and practices of testing and balancing (TAB) heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) air and water systems. For the novice and the experienced testing and balancing technician, it is a field reference book of procedures, equations, and information tables.
Divided into five parts, Part I has general and specific balancing procedures for constant air volume systems, variable air volume systems, return air systems, and fans and fan performance. Part II covers testing and balancing fume hood systems and cleanrooms, commissioning HVAC systems, centrifugal pumps and pump performance, analog and digital controls and water balancing procedures using flow meters, system components, and temperatures. Part III covers fans, pumps, air distribution, water distribution, motors, electrical, fluid flow, psychrometrics, refrigeration, and instrument usage and care. Part IV includes equations and tables. New to this edition, Part V has information and additional test and balance procedures and graphics for chapters 1-7 and 13-14. TAB Data and Test forms are in the new addendum as well.
Provides the readers with revised information about the principles and practices of testing and balancing (TAB) heating
Represents a field reference guide for both the novice and experienced testing and balancing technician
Includes a new section with information and additional test and balance procedures and graphics"
This book presents current research in the diverse field of energy. Topics discussed include power supply and demand in the electricity market; energetic and exergetic characterization of a new type of polypropylene capillary heat exchanger; low energy consumption air conditioning solutions for future green data centres; closed cycle gas turbine using CF4 and the working fluid; biofuels incentives; optimum economic dispatch of real power generation in two-generator power plant and overview of U.S. energy.
IAEA work in the area of research reactor operation and maintenance is aimed at enhancing the capabilities of Member States to utilize good engineering and management practices to improve research reactor reliability and availability. In particular, the IAEA supports activities addressing ageing management of research reactor instrumentation and control (I&C) systems. The purpose of this publication is to provide engineering guidance on the design, and operational aspects of digital I&C systems for the refurbishment of existing facilities and for new research reactors. Key areas addressed include codes and standards applicability, licensing issues, dealing with the change in human-system interface from analogue to digital technology, software verification and validation activities, periodic testing and inspection, and configuration management. The publication contains technical descriptions and summaries of available digital systems that have been utilized in both new research reactor designs, and in the upgrading of older analogue safety and control systems. This guidance is foreseen for the broad spectrum of research reactors types existing today.
This book provides an in-depth assessment of the modern geopolitics of hydrocarbon resources in the territorial waters of the Eastern Mediterranean, highlighting the current conflicts and disputes in the maritime territories of Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Cyprus, and Turkey. Further, these geopolitical aspects are analyzed within the broader context of the tensions between and competing interests of big powers such as the USA, Russia, and the European Union. To what extent can major powers influence regional actors and guide them toward rational outcomes? To what extent can economic self-interest contain nationalistic impulses? What are the most practical and sustainable ways of promoting win-win scenarios? This book focuses on such questions and presents a number of clear policy guidelines to help the conflict-laden Eastern Mediterranean region gain a more peaceful and sustainable footing for the greater benefit of the peoples living there.
The growth of power electronics, centering on inverters and converters as its key system topology, has accelerated recently due to the demand for efficient power conversion. This growth has also been backed up by several evolutionary changes and breakthroughs achieved in the areas of power semiconductor device physics, process technology, and design. However, as power semiconductor technology remains a highly specialized subject, the literature on further research, development, and design in related fields is not adequate. With this in view, two specialists of power semiconductors, well known for their research and contributions to the field, compiled this book as a review volume focusing on power chip and module technologies. The prime purpose is to help researchers, academia, and engineers, engaged in areas related to power devices and power electronics, better understand the evolutionary growth of major power device components, their operating principles, design aspects, application features, and trends. The book is filled with unique topics related to power semiconductors, including tips on state-of-the-art and futuristic-oriented applications. Numerous diagrams, illustrations, and graphics are included to adequately support the content and to make the book extremely attractive as a practical and user-friendly reference book for researchers, technologists, and engineers, as well as a textbook for advanced graduate-level and postgraduate students.
This book focuses on the assessment of different coal gasification technologies for the utilization of Russian coals with analyses of economically feasible process chains for preparation of marketable products from high-ash coals. The work presented is important in view of the general competitiveness that marks the future of coal in the world. As the cheapest form of fuel (in comparable terms) coal will undoubtedly be in demand resources in the world. The book consists of parts which include an overview about the major coal characteristics, detailed discussion of fundamental aspects of gasification technologies and gasifiers, an introduction into annex concepts, an overview about different technologies of syngas utilization, technical and economic assessment of several coal-to-liquid and coal-to-chemicals routes, and feasibility demonstration for selected process chains. This book is addressed to the management and engineers of Russian coal companies and scientific staff of Russian research institutions working in the field of coal utilization.
Biofuels: Advances in Research and Applications first explores previously studied supercritical processes for the production of biodiesel. Two of the main drawbacks of said processes are discussed: the high energy requirements and the hazards due to the conditions under which the processes are operated. The authors present a review of the experimental excess enthalpy of mixtures of dibutyl ether or butanol, with representative hydrocarbons. The most relevant functional groups of gasoline hydrocarbon types are considered: heptane, iso-octane, 1-hexene, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, benzene, and toluene. Continuing, this compilation briefly explores the production of biofuel from different edible and non-edible feedstock, mentioning the various types of homogeneous and heterogeneous acid or base catalysts applied for reactions. The benefits and drawbacks of biodiesel as compared to diesel fuel are also described. Several yeasts are examined for their capability to produce xylanolytic enzymes that degrade xylan, the major polysaccharide in the hemicellulose structure. The production of hydrolytic enzymes for the enzymatic hydrolysis process is reported by optimizing lignocellulose degradation and increasing the yield of simple sugars.
This book examines the issue of capacity withdrawals in the electricity wholesale market. Electricity generators can exercise market power in the wholesale market either by withdrawing generation capacity, or by pricing above competitive levels in order to achieve a higher market price and, thereby, increase revenues. After a comprehensive explanation of capacity withdrawal practices and the issues that arise when proceeding under competition law, the book analyses whether an increased state of transparency, as provided for in the REMIT and Regulation 543/2013, could facilitate the efficient functioning of electricity wholesale markets and the investigation of capacity withdrawal practices. It also examines the effect of the prohibition of market manipulation as prescribed in the REMIT in dealing with abusive capacity withdrawals in the electricity wholesale market.
In general, the concept of Energy refers to 'the potential for causing changes'. Production and consumption of energy resources in very important to the global economy. All economic activity requires energy resources. Whether to manufacture goods, provide transportation, run computers and other machines or to grow food, to feed workers, or even to harvest new fuel. Organisations need to manage and optimise their energy usage well and in the process make sure that the environment is not impacted negatively. Waste management recycling of resources, renewable sources of energy, non-toxic wastes, etc are rising concerns for business houses. These concerns have become part and parcel of business management, either due to legal pressures or to attain efficiency and remain competitive. The energy business is on steroids. One needs a whole new vocabulary even to discuss it. The market is experiencing 'convergence'. Utility companies are 'energy providers' and they provide 'energy solutions'. The end of the regulated, vertically organised and monopolised energy environment kicked off a megawatt transition-and technology is a key player in the outcome. From fuel cells to 'smart' appliances, energy technology raises high expectations and attracts high rollers, who look for high payoffs. But, as always, there are high science, engineering and technology challenges to meet before you get the brass ring. This book discusses energy, its different sources, energy management for optimum utilisation, environmental issues and cases regarding the same.
Updated with chapters on ventilating and exhausting systems and HVAC systems, this third edition of a bestseller covers the range of HVAC systems. The coverages is into components and controls for air, water, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning and readers will learn why one component or system may be chosen over another. New information is included on occupancy comfort, process function, thermodynamics, heat transfer, building envelope conditioned space, heating and cooling load calculations, air duct fundamentals, water pipe fundamentals, variable flow water systems, refrigeration components, piping fundamentals, central plant water chiller optimization, and the latest heat recovery technologies.
Fuel Flexible Energy Generation: Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Fuels provides updated information on flexible fuel energy generation, the process by which one or more fuels can be combusted in the same boiler or turbine to generate power. By adapting or building boilers and turbines to accept multiple fuel sources, they can be co-fired with biomass and waste derived fuels, allowing a reduction in carbon output, thus providing cleaner energy. Fuel flexibility is becoming more important in a world of diminishing fossil fuel stocks. Many countries are investing in the development of more efficient fuel flexible boilers and turbines, and their use is becoming more prevalent in industry as well. This book provides comprehensive coverage of flexible fuel energy generation across all potential fuel types, and was written by a selection of experts in the field who discuss the types of fuels which can be used in fuel flexible energy generation, from solid fuels to biomass fuels, the preparation of fuels to be used in fuel flexible operations, that includes their handling and transport, and combustion and conversion technologies with chapters ranging from large-scale coal gasification to technology options and plant design issues.
A reduction in the energy demand of buildings can make a major contribution to achieving national and international carbon reduction goals, in addition to addressing the interlinked issues of sustainable development, fuel poverty and fuel security. Despite improvements in thermal efficiency, the energy demand of buildings stubbornly remains unchanged, or is only declining slowly, due to the challenges posed by growing populations, the expectations of larger, more comfortable and better equipped living spaces, and an expanding commercial sector. Building Futures offers an interdisciplinary approach to explore this lack of progress, combining technical and social insights into the challenges of designing, constructing and operating new low energy buildings, as well as improving the existing, inefficient, building stock. The twin roles of energy efficiency, which is predominantly concerned with technological solutions, and energy conservation which involves changing peoples' behaviour, are both explored. The book includes a broad geographical range and scale of case studies from the UK, Europe and further afield, including Passivhaus in Germany and the UK, Dongtan Eco City in China and retrofit houses in Denmark. This book is a valuable resource for students and academics of environmental science and energy-based subjects as well as construction and building management professionals.
Energy Management Principles: Applications, Benefits, Savings, Second Edition is a comprehensive guide to the fundamental principles and systematic processes of maintaining and improving energy efficiency and reducing waste. Fully revised and updated with analysis of world energy utilization, incentives and utility rates, and new content highlighting how energy efficiency can be achieved through 1 of 16 outlined principles and programs, the book presents cost effective analysis, case studies, global examples, and guidance on building and site auditing. This fully revised edition provides a theoretical basis for conservation, as well as the avenues for its application, and by doing so, outlines the potential for cost reductions through an analysis of inefficiencies.
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