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Drawing for Civil engineering Second Edition has been revised and now includes computer applications and free Internet-downloadable software that can be used by students. The core function of this book is to cover the fundamentals of civil engineering drawing, draughting practice and conventions. Aimed mainly at second-level students at universities of technology and other tertiary institutions, the book outlines reinforced concrete drawings, steel structure drawings and surveying drawings. With its improved design, Drawing for Civil Engineering Second Edition is more accessible and comprehensive.
While the construction process still requires traditional skills, the dynamic nature of construction demands of its managers improved understanding of modern business, production and contractual practices. This well established, core undergraduate textbook reflects current best practice in the management of construction projects, with particular emphasis given to supply chains and networks, value and risk management, BIM, ICT, project arrangements, corporate social responsibility, training, health and welfare and environmental sustainability. The overall themes for the Eighth Edition Modern Construction Management are: Drivers for efficiency: lean construction underpinning production management and off-site production methods. Sustainability: reflecting the transition to a low carbon economy. Corporate Social Responsibility: embracing health & safety and employment issues. Modern contractual systems driving effective procurement Building Information Modelling directed towards the improvement of collaboration in construction management systems
This exciting new textbook introduces the concepts and tools essential for upper-level undergraduate study in water resources and hydraulics. Tailored specifically to fit the length of a typical one-semester course, it will prove a valuable resource to students in civil engineering, water resources engineering, and environmental engineering. It will also serve as a reference textbook for researchers, practicing water engineers, consultants, and managers. The book facilitates students' understanding of both hydrologic analysis and hydraulic design. Example problems are carefully selected and solved clearly in a step-by-step manner, allowing students to follow along and gain mastery of relevant principles and concepts. These examples are comparable in terms of difficulty level and content with the end-of-chapter student exercises, so students will become well equipped to handle relevant problems on their own. Physical phenomena are visualized in engaging photos, annotated equations, graphical illustrations, flowcharts, videos, and tables.
Highly regarded for its clarity and depth of coverage, the bestselling Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis provides a comprehensive introduction to the highway-related problems civil engineers encounter every day. Emphasizing practical applications and up-to-date methods, this book prepares students for real-world practice while building the essential knowledge base required of a transportation professional. In-depth coverage of highway engineering and traffic analysis, road vehicle performance, traffic flow and highway capacity, pavement design, travel demand, traffic forecasting, and other essential topics equips students with the understanding they need to analyze and solve the problems facing America's highway system. This new Seventh Edition features a new e-book format that allows for enhanced pedagogy, with instant access to solutions for selected problems. Coverage focuses exclusively on highway transportation to reflect the dominance of U.S. highway travel and the resulting employment opportunities, while the depth and scope of coverage is designed to prepare students for success on standardized civil engineering exams.
In one of the greatest engineering feats of his time, Claudius Crozet led the completion of Virginia's Blue Ridge Tunnel in 1858. Two centuries later, the National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark still proudly stands, but the stories and lives of those who built it are the true lasting triumph. Irish immigrants fleeing the Great Hunger poured into America resolute for something to call their own. They would persevere through life in overcrowded shanties and years of blasting through rock to see the tunnel to completion. Prolific author Mary E. Lyons follows three Irish families in their struggle to build Crozet's famed tunnel and their American dream.
Integrated Deliberative Decision Processes for Water Resources Planning and Evaluation is part of the ADVISOR (Integrated Evaluation for Sustainable River Basin Governance) research project funded by the European Commission, under the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development theme of the 5th Framework Research Programme. The aim of ADVISOR is to improve the understanding of evaluation processes as part of river basin planning and management and to provide a framework supported by a toolkit for the conduct of integrated and participatory evaluations. Integrated Deliberative Decision Processes for Water Resources Planning and Evaluation is Work Package 4 of the project and helps to transfer the experience and lessons learned during the ADVISOR project to policy makers, contributing especially to the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive. An Integrated Deliberative Decision Process (IDDP) is proposed to be adopted as the platform to achieve integrated evaluations and this book explains and provides a step-by-step guidance on how to design and run such a process.Integrated Deliberative Decision Processes for Water Resources Planning and Evaluation has been written especially for policy makers, with theoretical reflections also provided where these bear importance to practical implementation.
New Edition now available - click hereIt is well recognized everywhere that management of sludge derived from wastewater treatment is one of the most critical environmental issues, due to the very fast increase in sludge production as a result of sewerage extension, new installations and upgrading of existing facilities. Within this general picture, sludge is produced under different technical, economic and social contexts, thus requiring different approaches. This report is intended to give an overview of the sludge field in different parts of the world by summarising: current wastewater and sludge treatment provision; current and anticipated legislation; current research horizons; anticipated evolution of management approaches; and prospects for use of innovative and / or simple technologies. The report has been prepared for the Water21 Market Briefing Series in collaboration with the International Water Association's Specialist Group on Sludge Management. It is based on contributions from: Western Europe (Johannes Mueller); Eastern Europe (Pavel Jenicek); North America (Steve Dentel); Latin America and the Caribbean (Jose Barrios); East Asia (Nagaharu Okuno); South Asia and China (Duu-Jong Lee); Africa (Heidi Snyman); and Australasia (David Dixon and Terry Anderson). There is also an introduction and overview section (Ludovico Spinosa).
Russia is going through a complicated period of transforming its economy with a focus on the expansion of private sector activity. This includes reforms in the field of municipal water supply and wastewater disposal. This report presents an analysis of the condition of the municipal water supply and wastewater systems in Russia in the early part of the 21st Century and tries to provide answers to the eternal questions: what are the causes of problems faced and what needs to be done to solve them? The objectives of the reform of Russia's Vodokanals are described, along with the regulatory framework governing the sector, including the way tariffs are regulated. The current condition of water and wastewater infrastructure is assessed. The most prominent examples of private sector involvement to date are examined. The report concludes with a short-range forecase of developments. The report will be of interest to those wanting to understand the transformation processes taking place in Russia in the field of municipal water supply and wastewater disposal. It will also be of value to potential investors who are looking to take advantage of the favourable investment climate created recently in the country and who are considering possible long-term investment in the management, reconstruction and development of municipal water-related infrastructure.
In most network industries, new dynamics are leading to an unprecedented opening up to competition and private sector participation. With the development of a single European market, the in-stages liberalisation process of public utilities has spread to almost all sectors. However, the water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector is considered somehow different and it has been excluded until recently from the restructuring processes achieved in other sectors. Water and Liberalisation: European Water Scenarios presents a better understanding of the specific demands of the WSS sector. Covering the operators' strategies, the regulatory dynamics as well as their interactions on the evolution of the sector, it addresses the likelihood, the nature, and the forms the WSS sector may take in Europe in the foreseeable future. Adopting a neutral political stance, the book analyses the implications of alternative scenarios in economic, ecological, social, legal, and institutional terms. Key Sections include: 1. In depth introduction to the current situation in the WSS sector. 2. The European Water Supply and Sanitation Markets; The Institutional Framework of the Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in the EU: a Comparative Analysis; Analysis of the EU Explicit and Implicit Policies and Approaches in the Sector; Analysis of the Strategies of the Water Operators in Europe 3. Scenarios on the Evolution of the Water Sector in Europe 4. Economic, Environmental, & Social Implications of the Scenarios; Major implications per scenario.
Dual water supply systems are two water supply distribution systems in a city, consisting of one fresh water system for potable use, and another system of seawater (or untreated raw fresh water, or treated/reclaimed wastewater) for toilet flushing purpose. In Hong Kong, dual water supply systems have been used for fifty years. The authors have done research projects in this area. The subject of the book is to discuss the use of dual water supply systems in their engineering and cost aspects. Fresh water is becoming a valuable and scarce resource nowadays. Any method or approach that can contribute to the saving of fresh water resource is good to our society and to the whole world. The book is suitable for use as a text book or reference book at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. University undergraduate students and postgraduate students in water science, civil engineering, environmental engineering and environmental science or management will be the principal audience. Practicing engineers, managers and other practitioners in these fields will also be potential audience for the book. The book is suitable for teaching, research and professional reference. There is no such book at all at present, and the authors think that it is badly needed in every part of the world.
This project aims at the evaluation of eight various routes that potentially may allow wastewater treatment plants to produce less sludge (from 5% to 100%). It has been possible to define several routes that could be applied efficiently with knowledge of possible side-effects (risk management) and an estimation of associated costs (OPEX/CAPEX), which are quite comparable to those used in conventional sludge treatment and disposal.
The expanding use of decentralized wastewater management has resulted in an increased interest in small-scale wetland treatment systems. However, there is limited information available on the use, distribution of and performance of these small-scale systems. The purpose of this study was to address this knowledge gap by developing criteria for the feasibility, design, operation, and maintenance of small-scale wetland treatment systems. Information on 1,789 existing small-scale wetland treatment systems in 19 countries was collected. This data indicates that 81% of small-scale constructed wetlands use subsurface flow. The median size range for free water surface (FWS) wetlands was 389 m DEGREES3/day (103,000 gpd), while for vegetated submerged bed (VSB) wetlands it was only 2.6 m DEGREES3/day (687 gpd). Monitoring data from the assembled small-scale wetland database was used to develop sizing criteria for FWS and VSB wetlands. Loading rates and corresponding effluent quality were developed for BOD, TSS, TKN, phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria. Where there was adequate data, the variation in monthly vs. annual average effluent concentration was assessed to provide a factor-of-safety approach to wetland sizing. Information on internal processes, hydraulic design, operation, maintenance, cost, and industrial applications of constructed wetlands is also presented in t
Polymer demand varies considerably for different digestion processes as well as the same digestion processes at different locations and the reasons for these differences are not known. The objectives of this research were to develop a mechanistic understanding for these differences. The differences were hypothesized to depend on both the amount of charge in a sludge sample and the characteristics of the polymer. The first phase of the research was aimed at establishing the component of the sludge that creates the polymer demand and the second phase was aimed at understanding the interactions of polymers with the components of sludge. A number of samples were collected and analyzed for factors affecting polymer demand. The samples incluced MLSS, RAS, conventional aerobically and anaerobically digested, thermophilic anaerobically digested, temperature phased anaerobically digested, and an auto-thermal aerobically digested sample. Results from the first phase showed a good linear correlation between the optimum polymer dose (OPD) and biocolloid concentration as measured by soluble protein and polysaccharide concentration. In other words, these small particles (less than 4.2 mm created a significant portion of the polymer demand, especially for digested sludges. Conditioning samples with different polymers (varying charge density and configuration, linear, branched and hydrophobic) showed that the key characteristic in determining OPD is the charge density of the polymer. The shear associated with several full-scale dewatering devices was measured and quantified using the unitless Gt term. In addition, several field trials were performed to show the impact of Fe addition on polymer demand as well as methods to reduce the shear associated with high solids centrifuges.
Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) has been used for decades to remove phosphorus from municipal wastewater because it allows facilities to meet water quality goals while minimizing chemical consumption and sludge production. However, there is still substantial variability in both the practices applied to achieve EBPR and the level of soluble phosphorus removal achieved. The objective of this research project was to develop information that can be used to help municipal wastewater treatment plants more efficiently and cost effectively remove phosphorus through EBPR processes. This project included detailed analysis of routine water quality and operating data, field testing observations, and special studies conducted over the course of the project to evaluate the variability of EBPR, factors influencing EBPR performance, and the relationship between EBPR and the presence of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs). The study showed that EBPR is capable of achieving very low effluent phosphate concentrations. When operating well, it is possible to achieve soluble phosphate concentrations under 0.1 mg/L. However, many facilities struggle to routinely achieve soluble phosphate concentrations under 1.0 mg/L. For this reason, most facilities experience significant variability in EBPR performance, requiring augmentation of EBPR through the use of substrate addition or polishing with iron- or aluminum-containing chemicals.
The primary objective of this project was to identify and communicate the benefits and risks of disinfecting wet weather flows by evaluating available disinfection technologies and identifying disinfection by-products and their potential risks to aquatic and human life. A decision-making framework was developed that could be used as a model to guide combined sewer overflow (CSO), sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) and stormwater (SW) disinfection control policies. This project was implemented as a case study in collaboration with the Onondaga County Department of Water Environment Protection (Syracuse, NY). A literature review was completed that identified appropriate disinfection technologies and the associated disinfection by-products. A disinfection demonstration was conducted to verify findings of the literature review and fill data gaps. The data collected during this project were used by local stakeholders to select the most appropriate technologies. Information regarding the benefits and risks of disinfecting wet weather flows was also presented to the public during a public workshop. All four technologies that were piloted achieved the United States Environmental Protection Agency's bacterial criteria. Ozonation and UV produced no measurable residuals or by-products and resulted in no effluent aquatic toxicity as measured through WET testing. Chlorination/dechlorination and chlorine dioxide did produce residuals and disinfection by-products including chlorate, chlorite, trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. With the exception of chlorite, these by-product concentrations were less than drinking water standards. Chlorination/dechlorination and chlorine dioxide did result in effluent aquatic toxicity as measured through WET testing. In the case of chlorination/dechlorination the toxicity appeared to be related to residual chlorine and in the case of chlorine dioxide the toxicity appeared to be related to residual chlorine dioxide and/or chlorite. Residuals can easily be controlled through proper dechlorination in a full-scale application. The chlorite was a by-product of the particular chlorine dioxide production method; this could be avoided by a generation method that produces a chlorite-free product, which would be more appropriate for a full-scale application. Based on findings from the literature review and disinfection demonstration, hazards associated with wet weather flow disinfection appear low, but the potential for public opposition can be high. Therefore, proper communication planning to include stakeholders in the decision-making process and conduct public outreach is required. Stakeholders were included throughout the project through workshops.
CARE-W was a joint European initiative to develop a framework for water network rehabilitation. The project was supported by the European Commission under the Fifth Framework Programme for Research and Development. The aim of CARE-W was to support European water companies in their decisions on upgrading their water supply. The system has been developed for and tested by cities representing all parts of Europe. CARE-W consists of software dealing with fundamental instruments for estimating the current and future condition of water networks, including tools to assess performance indicators (PI), to predict pipe failures (FAIL) and to calculate water supply reliability (REL). Based on the results of these tools, annual rehabilitation projects are selected and ranked (ARP tool). Information of network is further used for the estimation of long-term investments needs (LTP). The tools are operated jointly within the "CARE-W Manager", which also contains facilities for using pipe network databases, geographical information systems (GIS) and input/output routines. The results from using the procedures are presented by reports, in tables and graphically. Aimed at planning engineers, water utilities and municipalities and consultants working in the increasingly growing field of the planning of rehabilitation of water networks in cities.
Treatment of drinking water was once considered sufficient for reducing the risk of infection from pathogenic organisms. However, as our knowledge of established and emerging pathogens in water has expanded, so has the need to examine their occurrence, distribution, risk to humans, and control through treatment. The increased need for wastewater reuse has resulted in attention now being focused on wastewater treatment processes and their ability to reduce the numbers of pathogenic organisms to acceptable levels. A public health concern with wastewater is the potential for transmission of infectious agents that may be present in human and animal feces. Depending upon the diseases in the contributing communities, sewage can contain varying numbers of pathogenic organisms including viruses, bacteria, helminths, and protozoa. This study focused on one pathogen, Cryptosporidium parvum, and its occurrence in wastewater. In order to conduct an occurrence study, it was firstly necessary to develop methods for recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts from wastewater matrices. Due to the differences in matrix composition from raw sewage to tertiary effluents, different methods for recovery and enumeration of oocysts were developed based on matrix quality. A single method was developed for raw sewage and primary influents; a second method for secondary and tertiary effluents; and a third method for biosolids. These methods were used in a survey of Cryptosporidium occurrence at 10 wastewater plants in the U.S. over a 15-month period. To determine if oocysts found in wastewater samples represented a public health risk, cell culture methods were employed to examine infectivity of recovered oocysts.
This Technical Brief summarizes the information that is currently available from scientific research on Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs), sometimes known as hormonally active agents. It was prepared in response to concerns over the potential for EDCs to enter the environment in treated wastewater and reuse of biosolids. This document provides a primer on the endocrine system, the nature and sources of EDCs, and their potential effects on human health and the environment. The potential for man-made chemicals to cause endocrine disrupting effects came to light as early as the 1960s. The first observed effects resulted from exposure to chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, since banned in the United States. Concern became more widespread in the 1990s, and scientists began to look at the potential effects from dozens of naturally occurring and man-made chemicals. Researchers are still working to define the scope of the problem. Thus the information presented in this Technical Brief represents still-evolving science and regulations. It is based on some three dozen publications, many of them review articles that summarize the state of the science on a particular topic. This publication can be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below
Outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis throughout the world, especially the massive outbreak in Milwaukee in 1993 drew public attention to the quality of drinking water supplies and to the efficiency of water treatment methods. Cryptosporidiosis is a severe gastrointestinal disease caused by the transmissive form of Cryptosporidium parvum protozoan - its oocysts. Digestion of as few as 30 oocysts may be fatal to infants, elderly and immunocompromized persons. C. parvum oocysts are ubiquitous in untreated water and extremely resistant to harsh environmental conditions including standard water treatment procedures. We have developed an integrated modeling strategy to quantify the risk of surface drinking water contamination by water borne pathogens, in particular the oocysts of C. parvum, from agricultural non-point pollution sources. This project is comprised of both a modeling and an experimental effort. The main experimental effort focused on the measurement of C. parvum oocysts partitioning in the soil/water systems with the objective of parameterizing the transport model. The pathogen transport model is based on the behavior of a single microorganism and inherently predicts the random variability of pathogen transport. The behavior of large numbers of pathogens is derived from the single-microorganism model. The risk assessment is conducted using the first- and second-order reliability methodology. Currently the modeling framework is formulated for single hillslope simulations, however we demonstrated that it can be easily extended to watershed scale.
Internet of Things (IoT) products and cyber-physical systems (CPS) are being utilized in almost every discipline and there continues to be significant increases in spending on design, development, and deployment of IoT applications and analytics within every domain, from our homes, schools, government, and industry. This practical text provides an introduction to IoT that can be understood by every engineering discipline and discusses detailed applications of IoT. Developed to help engineers navigate this increasingly important and cross-disciplinary topic, this work: Offers research-based examples and case studies to facilitate the understanding of each IoT primitive Highlights IoT's connection to blockchain Provides and understanding of benefits and challenges of IoT and its importance to a variety of engineering disciplines Written to be accessible to non-experts in the subject, What Every Engineer Should Know About the Internet of Things communicates the importance of this technology and how it can support and challenge all interrelated actors as well as all involved assets across many domains.
Dispels the confusion between project management success and project success, showing how project sponsors can govern their projects to succeed in delivering the strategic benefits originally envisaged Project management success does not automatically lead to project success. Many large projects fail to live up to expectations, with between half and two-thirds of large projects either failing to deliver or delivering few strategic benefits. Traditional project management resources focus on delivering a project on time and on budget, yet they fail to supply top managers, many of whom find themselves in the role of accidental project sponsors, with guidance on how to govern their projects to succeed. Project Benefit Realisation and Project Management: The 6Q Governance Approach bridges the strategy to performance gap by providing boards, senior managers and project sponsors with the six critical questions necessary to diagnose the health of any project. Presenting a systematic framework developed from research cases of successful and unsuccessful projects in various types of organisations, this practical guide enables those in top management to determine if their strategy or policy is on track and to assess whether a project is likely to deliver the expected benefits. The text features real-world examples illustrating how concepts can be applied to different types of projects in engineering, construction, information technology, business transformation and many others. This must-have guide is designed to help top managers and other stakeholders: Clarify the link between business outcomes, benefits, and strategy to evaluate where effort should be directed Assess how much behavioural change is required to effectively implement strategy and realise desired benefits Select a project sponsor committed to influencing key stakeholders to make necessary changes and intercede to resolve issues as they arise Establish how success will be measured before a project begins, to gauge sponsor commitment and ensure project goals are not changed to match whatever is achieved Ask if the right culture is in place to ensure all relevant information is being reported Determine teams' ability to adapt and change plans in response to issues arising in the project Monitor if the project is on track to realising the benefits and have a process in place to cancel failing projects Project Benefit Realisation and Project Management: The 6Q Governance Approach is an indispensable volume for board members, project sponsors, project advisors and those in senior positions who find themselves in the role of accidental project sponsors.
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