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This well-researched book focuses on international governance of crop diversity and agricultural innovation. It highlights the implications that the future control of food, including access to agricultural resources and technologies, might have for global food security. Claudio Chiarolla analyses developmental implications of global regulatory reforms that impact on access to agricultural knowledge, science and technology for sustainable development. Current global arrangements fall short of halving the proportion of people who suffer from hunger in accordance with the Millennium Development Goals' framework. Therefore, the book proposes ways to achieve international equity in the way agricultural research is conducted, how its results are disseminated and the benefits shared. This definitive study will be appreciated by anyone interested in intellectual property, agricultural innovation, environmental policy, biotechnology and associated regulatory challenges. It will be a valuable resource for policymakers and practitioners, legislators, academic professionals, civil society activists and scholars in legal, environment and development studies.
Not many young farmers of the early nineteenth century left diaries that have come down to us, still fewer from Shropshire, at a time when country life continued much as it had since long before the Industrial Revolution. In June 1835, twenty-three-year-old Peter Davis set out from his home in the Teme valley on a mini grand tour. As befitted a son of the soil, his eye lighted first upon the current agricultural scene. Not surprisingly, however, it was the great cities of Liverpool and Edinburgh that came to take more of his attention. The young man's travel diary represents a vivid snapshot of his experiences in passing through the north of England and southern Scotland during the reign of King William IV. Complemented by Peter Davis' narrative, it describes the day-to- day events of his life at home during 1836-7, culminating in his beloved father's death. Before the advent of railways every journey from Peter's home in Burford was significant and through this diary, it has been possible to flesh out the history of a family and imagine ourselves living the lives of past generations. The diaries have been edited by one of their author's great-great grandsons. Martin Davis. He draws comparisons in his introductory essay between the changes affecting the landscape at the time of the diaries and those we face today. This wonderful book will be of interest to Shropshire residents, family historians and all those with a concern and love for country life in pre-industrial times.
This path-breaking book focuses on the law and legal doctrine within the wider policy context of water resources and analyses the concept of sustainability. To achieve the sustainable use and development of water resources is a daunting challenge for both global and local communities. It requires commitments from all groups within international, national and local communities from their own particular, possibly conflicting, perspectives. Without a set of coherent legal arrangements designed to ensure effective governance of water resources, their sustainable use and development is unlikely to be achieved. Douglas Fisher considers how legal arrangements for managing water resources have evolved across the continents over hundreds of years. He explores their relevance for contemporary society; how the norms of current international and national legal regimes are responding; and, most importantly, how legal rights and duties should be structured so as to achieve sustainability in the future. This detailed textual and linguistic analysis of legal doctrines and instruments in relation to water resources will be invaluable for international and national water resources policy analysts, water resource managers and water resource lawyers. Students of water resource management, sustainable development and sustainability will also find this book of great interest to them.
In large parts of the world, the reduction in the viability of agriculture and rural areas is an escalating problem. Sustainable Land Management offers a contemporary overview of the strategies employed to cope with the marginalisation of agriculture, through analyses of case studies and regional trends in marginalisation. The authors argue that complexities and driving forces governing marginalisation are not always the same across nations and regions due to climate, geography, economics, legislation and political status. This book illustrates in what form these complexities exist, and how these unravel at the national and regional levels. As the need to understand and cope with marginalisation processes has developed, the concept of multi-functionality has also gained a vital place in the string of coping strategies. This work contributes essential knowledge for the development of marginalisation mitigation policy actions across the globe. Informative and well-documented, this book will appeal to those researching and working in the fields of agricultural and resource economics, rural geography, environmental governance and sustainable development.
The 2019 Maria Thun biodynamic calendar, now in its 57th year, adapted for North American (Eastern Standard Time) dates and times. This useful guide shows the optimum days for sowing, pruning, and harvesting various plant-crops, as well as working with bees. It includes Thun's unique insights, which go above and beyond the standard information presented in some other lunar calendars. It is presented in colour with clear symbols and explanations. The calendar includes a pullout wallchart that can be pinned up in a barn, shed or greenhouse as a handy quick reference.
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a unique agricultural policy worldwide. For many years, its status as the only common European Community (EC) policy governed by EC institutions put it at the heart of European integration. Today the CAP is not the only common European Union (EU) policy. Even while it remains the sole instance of a regionally integrated agricultural policy, the CAP no longer embodies the same degree of cross-national harmonization of agricultural policy among EC/EU member states that it once did. The CAP has undergone policy reforms in the past two decades and these reforms have spawned a host of questions. What has caused the CAP to reform? How path-breaking are CAP reforms? Are they consistent with founding CAP goals or do they encompass new ideas about agriculture's place in the economy and society? And what are the consequences of agricultural policy reforms: for European farmers, consumers and taxpayers; for European `public goods' such as environmental sustainability and preservation of rural communities and landscapes; and for third parties outside the EU, including the WTO? This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of European Integration.
This reissue, first published in 1995, focuses on philosophy and social science in human ecology, and includes case studies dealing with the problems of political implementation of development plans and schemes. Part One deals with theory, including a comprehensive introduction to the field and an overview of the conceptual modelling typical in human ecology. Part Two moves towards questions of human behaviour and action, exploring the relationship between environmental ethics and policy in terms of the justification and implementation of human interactions with nature and the environment on an ecologically sustainable basis. In Part Three, the author focuses on environmental policy in China since 1949 and on a regional case study in India. The final part of the book discusses the prospects for sustainable development more broadly, in terms of favouring ecological and cultural variety in agriculture and of viewing the relationship between human beings and the natural environment as a matter of overexploitation rather than crisis.
Still the Gold Standard Resource on Trace Elements and Metals in Soils This highly anticipated fourth edition of the bestselling Trace Elements in Soils and Plants reflects the explosion of research during the past decade regarding the presence and actions of trace elements in the soil-plant environment. The book provides information on the biogeochemistry of these elements and explores how they affect food quality. Incorporating data from over 1500 new resources, this edition includes the most up-to-date information on the relationship of trace elements to topics such as: * Soil natural/background contents * Sorption/desorption processes * Anthropogenic impact and soil phytoremediation * Phytoavailability and functions in plants * Contents of food plants The book discusses the assessment of the natural/background content of trace elements in soil, bioindication of the chemical status of environmental compartments, soil remediation, and hyperaccumulation and phytoextraction of trace metals from the soil. The table of contents reflects the IUPAC's recommendation for numbering element groups, giving the new edition an updated organizational flow. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants, Fourth Edition illustrates why trace elements' behavior in soil controls their transfer in the food chain, making this book an invaluable reference for agronomists, soil and plant scientists, nutritionists, and geochemists.
Commencing with a chapter which places "Physcomitrella" into phylogenetic position, this important publication then covers the following major topics. Population genetics, genome, transcripts and metabolomics, gene targeting, hormones, small RNAs, tip growth, chloroplasts, sporophyte development, desiccation and oxidative stress, sugar metabolism, and pathogenesis. With chapters contributed by many of the World's leading workers in the area, this landmark book is essential reading for all those studying plant evolutionary biology, genomics, molecular and cell biology and genetics.
The expanding membership of the EU means significant changes for accession countries' international trade relations, affecting imports, exports, tax revenues, government expenditures and domestic regulatory regimes. There are also significant ramifications for the EU budget. This book is a valuable comprehensive tool kit for analysing the economic effect of EU accession, using examples from the most complex sector for both candidate countries and the EU itself - agriculture. The authors provide a complete set of market configurations with which to analyse harmonisation with the Common Agriculture Policy in both the long and short run. It also provides insights into the questions of regulatory harmonisation in areas of food safety, animal and plant health, the environment, animal welfare, technical standards and the protection of intellectual property. Background is provided on the EU and its policies, economic developments in transition economies and the accession process. The book also provides a unique insight into how negotiating positions can be developed. A wide audience will find this book of great value and interest including policymakers and analysts in governments and related think tanks, businesses and consultancy firms trading in the EU. Scholars and researchers of European studies, international trade and agriculture will also find the book invaluable.
Land quality and land degradation affect agricultural productivity and food security, but quantifying these relationships has been difficult. Data are extremely limited and outcomes are sensitive to the choices that farmers make. The contributors to this book - including soil scientists, geographers, and economists - analyse data on soils, climate, land cover, agricultural inputs and outputs, and a variety of socio-economic factors to provide new insights into three key issues: * the extent to which differences in land quality generate differences in agricultural productivity across countries * how farmers' responses to differences or changes in land quality are influenced by economic, environmental, and institutional factors, and * whether land degradation over time threatens productivity growth and food security at local, regional, and global levels. This book can be thoroughly recommended to policymakers, public and private sector researchers, university faculty and graduate students, and non-profit organizations for use in research, education, and decision-making.
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a unique agricultural policy worldwide. For many years, its status as the only common European Community (EC) policy governed by EC institutions put it at the heart of European integration. Today the CAP is not the only common European Union (EU) policy. Even while it remains the sole instance of a regionally integrated agricultural policy, the CAP no longer embodies the same degree of cross-national harmonization of agricultural policy among EC/EU member states that it once did.
The CAP has undergone policy reforms in the past two decades and these reforms have spawned a host of questions. What has caused the CAP to reform? How path-breaking are CAP reforms? Are they consistent with founding CAP goals or do they encompass new ideas about agriculture's place in the economy and society? And what are the consequences of agricultural policy reforms: for European farmers, consumers and taxpayers; for European ?public goods? such as environmental sustainability and preservation of rural communities and landscapes; and for third parties outside the EU, including the WTO?
This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of European Integration.
This book had its genesis in Alexandria, Egypt in March 2002, at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, when the new library hosted a conference on Biotechnology and Sustainable Development: "Voices of the South and North." Here, a group of modern scholars met to review the state of the art in relation to the applications of biosciences in human health, food and agriculture and the environment, and address the ethical, institutional, regulatory and socio-economic issues that affect their use. The goal was to identify ways and means by which the new life sciences could be mobilized in the service of humanity and especially to improve the livelihoods of poor people.
Techniques and systems for processing food scraps, manure, yard debris, paper, and more Turning waste into wealth sounds too good to be true, but many worm farmers are finding that vermicomposting is a reliable way to do just that. Vermicast--a biologically active, nutrient-rich mix of earthworm castings and decomposed organic matter--sells for $400 or more per cubic yard. Compare that to regular compost, sold at about $30 a cubic yard, and you'll see why vermicomposting has taken root in most countries and on every continent but Antarctica. Vermicomposting is also one of the best sustainable solutions for organic waste management. Vermicomposting manure and crop wastes on farms improves crop yields while reducing demand for off-farm inputs. Vermicast has higher nutrient levels and lower soluble salt content than regular compost, and it improves soil aeration, porosity, and water retention. Plus, vermicast suppresses plant diseases and insect attacks. Municipalities, businesses, community gardens, schools, and universities can set up vermicomposting operations to process food residuals and other waste materials. The Worm Farmer's Handbook details the ins and outs of vermicomposting for mid- to large-scale operations, including how to recycle organic materials ranging from food wastes and yard trimmings to manure and shredded office paper. Vermicomposting expert Rhonda Sherman shares what she has learned over twenty-five years working with commercial worm growers and researchers around the world. Her profiles of successful worm growers across the United States and from New Zealand to the Middle East and Europe describe their proven methods and systems. This book digs into all the details, including: Choosing the right production system Regulatory issues and developing a business and marketing plan Finding and managing feedstocks Pre-composting: why and how to do it Monitoring an active worm bed Harvesting, screening, testing, packaging, and storing vermicast Markets for earthworms and vermicast Food security: how vermicast benefits soils and plants Keys to success: avoiding common pitfalls From livestock farms and restaurants to colleges, military bases, and prisons, Sherman details why and how commercial-scale vermicomposting is a fast-growing, sustainable solution for organic waste management. The Worm Farmer's Handbook is the first and only authoritative how-to guide that goes beyond small-scale operations and demystifies the science and logistics of the fascinating process that is vermicomposting.
Nature and agriculture both shape the European countryside and one of the main challenges for the years to come will be to strengthen their interaction for the future development of rural areas. In this valuable and highly topical book, the authors demonstrate how economics and ecology can play a critical role in maintaining and sustaining this relationship. The book identifies the dilemmas facing European agriculture and explores their economic and ecological consequences. The authors believe a better understanding of these problems will be crucial in recognising the potential options for the future role of agriculture and nature policy and will guide the identification of suitable policy instruments. They highlight current threats to the relationship between agriculture and nature - such as abandonment and intensification - and demonstrate how these problems can be resolved by a rational policy mix. The book also provides extensive empirical evidence from four case studies and concludes by scrutinising the major changes in market conditions and the Common Agricultural Policy which could upset this important but fragile balance between agriculture and nature. Providing a state-of-the-art overview of current thinking on the relationship between agriculture and nature in the context of EU policy, this book will be welcomed by policymakers and those studying and working in the fields of agricultural and resource economics, geography, and agri-business.
Holistic management is a systems-thinking approach developed by biologist Allan Savory to restore the world's grassland soils and minimize the damaging effects of climate change and desertification on humans and the natural world. This third edition of Holistic Management Handbook: Regenerating Your Land and Growing Your Profits is the long-awaited companion volume to the classic text Holistic Management, Third Edition. Crafted under the direction of Savory's longtime collaborator Jody Butterfield, this handbook is the key to developing a comprehensive holistic land plan based on Savory's principles that will help you to restore health to your land and ensure a stable, sustainable livelihood from its bounty. This new edition, thoroughly revised, updated, and streamlined, explains the planning procedures described in Holistic Management, and offers step-by-step instructions for running a ranch or farm using a holistic management approach. Butterfield and her coauthors describe how to use the handbook in conjunction with the textbook to tailor a management plan for your unique combination of land, livestock, and finances. Their mantra is "plan, monitor, control, and replan." Using a four-part approach, the authors walk readers through basic concepts and techniques, help them put a plan onto paper, monitor the results, and adjust the details as needed. Appendixes provide updated worksheets, checklists, planning and monitoring forms, and detailed examples of typical scenarios a user might encounter. The handbook includes a comprehensive glossary of terms. Ranchers, farmers, pastoralists, social entrepreneurs, government agencies, and NGOs working to address global environmental degradation will find this comprehensive handbook an indispensable guide to putting the holistic management concept into action with tangible results they can take to the bank.
This book explores the relationship between the land use choices of small-scale farmers and the rate of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Although sustainable agriculture was introduced to the Amazon area about 10 years ago, it has been adopted by only a few farmers. Jill L. Caviglia analyses why this practice has not been more widely adopted and offers policy prescriptions to address this. The major source of deforestation in the Amazon is the use of slash-and-burn agriculture by small-scale farmers. The adoption of sustainable agriculture by these farmers could reduce the rate of deforestation dramatically. The author uses new, original case studies of farms in the area to estimate the probability of the adoption of sustainable agriculture and, once the adoption decision has been made, the intensity of adoption. The author finds that this is influenced greatly by farmer organizations and by providing the farmers with the knowledge that sustainable agriculture is a viable alternative to slash-and-burn practices. This book will be of great interest to scholars and policymakers in the areas of environmental economics, environmental policy and Latin American studies.
Globalisation of the world economy portends a wide range of benefits to citizens of all countries. However, this ground-breaking book finds that the impacts of trade liberalisation and globalisation appear to have a negative impact on agricultural sustainability in developing countries. This book explores the proposition that globalisation and trade liberalisation is an international win-win game and finds that there is substantial evidence to suggest that there could be a range of agricultural problems and negative impacts on rural communities and the environment in poorer countries. The authors use cutting-edge research from Brazil, Bolivia, Burkino Faso, Indonesia, The Philippines and Thailand to suggest that special attention needs to be paid to local issues in poor countries in the face of globalisation. Sustainable Agriculture and Environment will prove invaluable to scholars and policymakers in the areas of environmental and ecological economics.
Global Environmental Change and Agriculture offers a comprehensive perspective on the causes, consequences and possible policy solutions for climatic change as we move into the twenty-first century. It assesses the impact of potential future global climate change on agriculture and the need to sustain agricultural growth for economic development. The book begins by examining the role of international research institutions in overcoming environmental constraints on sustainable agricultural growth and economic development. The authors then discuss how agricultural research systems may be restructured to respond to global environmental problems such as climate change and loss of genetic diversity. The discussion then extends to consider environmental accounting and indexing, to illustrate how environmental quality can be included formally in measures of national income, social welfare and sustainability. The third part of the book focuses on the effects of and policy responses to climate change. Chapters examine the effect of climate change on production, trade, land use patterns and livelihoods. They consider impacts on the distribution of income between developed and developing countries and between different social classes within the developing world, where agriculture remains a major economic activity. Authors take on an economy-wide perspective to draw lessons for agricultural, trade, land use and tax policy. This book will be of special interest to agricultural, development and environmental economists as well as policy analysts in government and at international agencies confronting practical problems of environmental and economic assessment.
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