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In this book, Adrian Koopman describes the complex relationship between birds, the Zulu language and Zulu culture. A number of chapters look at the underlying meaning of bird names, and here we will find that the Zulu name of the Goliath Heron means ‘what gives birth to baby crocodiles’, the dikkop (umbangaqhwa) means ‘what causes frost’, and the African Hoopoe is a party-goer who wears a colourful blanket.
The book goes further than just Zulu names, exploring the underlying meanings of bird names from other South African languages and languages from Central and East Africa. Here we find birds with names that translate as ‘cool-porridge’, ‘kiss-banana-flower’ and ‘waiter-at-the-end-of-the furrow’.
A focus on Zulu traditional oral literature details the roles birds have played in Zulu praise poetry (including the praise poems of certain birds themselves) and in proverbs, riddles and children’s games. Also considered is traditional bird lore, examining the role played by various species as omens and portents, as indicators of bad luck and evil, as forecasters of rain and storm, and as harbingers of the seasons. Here we see that the Bateleur Eagle (ingqungqulu) is linked to war, the Southern Ground Hornbill (insingizi) to thunder and heavy rain, the Red-chested Cuckoo (uphezukokhono) to the start of the ploughing season, and the Jacobin Cuckoo (inkanku) to the start of summer.
Zulu Bird Names and Bird Lore discusses the Zulu Bird Name Project, a series of Zulu bird name workshops held between 2013 and 2017 with Zulu-speaking bird guides designed to confirm (or otherwise) all previously recorded Zulu names for birds, while at the same time devising new names for those without previously recorded names. The result has been a list of species-specific names for all birds in the Zulu-speaking region. Finally, the book turns to the role such new bird names can play in conservation education and in avi-tourism.
Wat Praat Jy! bevat meer as 20 000 Afrikaanse gesegdes, vaste uitdrukkings en idiome. Hierdie vaste uitdrukkings, gesegdes en idiome word met 'n eenvoudige voorbeeldsin verklaar. Dit word verder toegelig deur aan te dui van watter taal die uitdrukking of woord afkomstig is.
C.J. Langenhoven het 'n groot bydrae tot die Afrikaanse kultuurskat gemaak en De Wet toon ook aan wanneer 'n uitdrukking van hom afkomstig is. Heelwat spreekwoorde is afkomstig van die Bybel. Wat Praat Jy! is 'n besondere naslaanwerk. Johanna de Wet het na haar aftrede as onderwyseres in 1996 'n doktorsgraad in die psigo-pedagogiek behaal.
Haar belangstelling in die Afrikaanse taal en geskiedenis het gelei tot die samestelling van 'n aantal boeke, waaronder die kinder-trilogie Dierestories, Heldestories en Afrikastories en Hoopstad se mense onthou met waardevolle herinneringe aan die geskiedenis en karakters van die dorp. Sy woon steeds op Hoopstad waar sy haar aan haar skryfwerk wy.
'This generous, useful and important book is a delight to read and will fundamentally change the way you interact with people' - Mikael Krogerus and Roman Tschappeler, authors of The Communication Book How often do you interrupt? How often do people interrupt you? Can you remember the last time someone listened to you all the way through your thinking? In her new book, Nancy Kline, bestselling author of Time To Think, makes this radical proposal: 'I won't Interrupt you' is a promise that changes everything. It deepens relationships, spawns dignity, raises the intelligence of groups, and enriches every conversation. It may, in fact, be the most important promise we ever make. And the hardest to keep. This promise matters because when we interrupt each other, we interrupt our thinking, and that interrupts the quality of everything we do. Nancy has spent the last three decades researching independent thinking and the barriers that prevent us from thinking for ourselves. In The Promise That Changes Everything Nancy shares insights into the nature of interruption, case studies and stories from her work with clients, as well as simple ways to change how we behave with each other so that this promise can change our lives. 'As living and working become more complex, the lessons and practices here will shift a sense of chaos to one of clarity and a mindset of fear to one of hope. It could not have come at a better moment' Margaret Heffernan, bestselling author of Wilful Blindness 'This timely and persuasive book shows us that the foundation for independent thinking is the promise to actually listen, without interruption, to what others have to say' Cal Newport, bestselling author of Digital Minimalism
Iimbali Zamandulo - 'Stories of the Past'- is a selection of historical testimonies produced by Xhosa-speaking residents of the Eastern Cape between 1838 and 1910. These narratives offer fresh insights into the history of the Xhosa-speaking peoples, providing their own perspectives on their own past. The volume contains recollections reaching back to seventeenth-century dynastic disputes, to a period preceding the southward migrations in the early nineteenth century into territories settled by Xhosa-speaking peoples. It passes on through those migrations, the clashes and resettlement of peoples and of individuals, the contest for land throughout the century, and on to the struggle for social control and the assertion of cultural identity by the century's end. To a remarkable extent, we are lent intimate access here to the lives of ordinary people, seeking better pastures for themselves, their families and their livestock; hunting, fighting and, above all, confronting personal conflict in their choices between mission Christianity and ancestral beliefs; between support for their chiefs or the colonial authorities; between active or passive resistance to encroachment on their territory; and between colonial distortions purveyed in the schools and their receding grasp of their own sustaining histories.
Amagama Izinyoni: Zulu Names of Birds lists all the bird species found in KwaZulu-Natal and surrounds, gives the proposed standardised Zulu name for each species, and explains the underlying meaning and how the name came into being. All earlier names for these birds, even if no longer in current use, have been recorded here, making this a historical repository of Zulu bird names as well. This book is the result of the six-year Zulu Bird Name Project. Between 2013 and 2018, annual workshops, organised and facilitated by the three authors, brought together a total of eighteen mother-tongue Zulu-speaking bird experts to research the names of bird species present in the Zulu-speaking area of South Africa. At the start of the project, only approximately 40 per cent of the bird species of this area had species-specific Zulu names; by the end of the project all 550 species had unique names. The comprehensive introduction explains the methodology used in the Zulu bird name workshops, providing a template for linguists and ornithologists who might wish to do similar bird-naming exercises in the other African languages of southern Africa. The introduction also provides some linguistic and onomastic insights into bird naming generally and Zulu bird names in particular.
The fascinating history of French words that have entered the English language and the fertile but fraught relationship between English- and French-speaking cultures across the world English has borrowed more words from French than from any other modern foreign language. French words and phrases-such as a la mode, ennui, naivete and caprice-lend English a certain je-ne-sais-quoi that would otherwise elude the language. Richard Scholar examines the continuing history of untranslated French words in English and asks what these words reveal about the fertile but fraught relationship that England and France have long shared and that now entangles English- and French-speaking cultures all over the world. Emigres demonstrates that French borrowings have, over the centuries, "turned" English in more ways than one. From the seventeenth-century polymath John Evelyn's complaint that English lacks "words that do so fully express" the French ennui and naivete, to George W. Bush's purported claim that "the French don't have a word for entrepreneur," this unique history of English argues that French words have offered more than the mere seasoning of the occasional mot juste. They have established themselves as "creolizing keywords" that both connect English speakers to-and separate them from-French. Moving from the realms of opera to ice cream, the book shows how migrant French words are never the same again for having ventured abroad, and how they complete English by reminding us that it is fundamentally incomplete. At a moment of resurgent nationalism in the English-speaking world, Emigres invites native Anglophone readers to consider how much we owe the French language and why so many of us remain ambivalent about the migrants in our midst.
In early Pennsylvania, translation served as a utopian tool creating harmony across linguistic, religious, and ethnic differences. Patrick Erben challenges the long-standing historical myth--first promulgated by Benjamin Franklin--that language diversity posed a threat to communal coherence. He deftly traces the pansophist and Neoplatonist philosophies of European reformers that informed the radical English and German Protestants who founded the ""holy experiment."" Their belief in hidden yet persistent links between human language and the word of God impelled their vision of a common spiritual idiom. Translation became the search for underlying correspondences between diverse human expressions of the divine and served as a model for reconciliation and inclusiveness. Drawing on German and English archival sources, Erben examines iconic translations that engendered community in colonial Pennsylvania, including William Penn's translingual promotional literature, Francis Daniel Pastorius's multilingual poetics, Ephrata's ""angelic"" singing and transcendent calligraphy, the Moravians' polyglot missions, and the common language of suffering for peace among Quakers, Pietists, and Mennonites. By revealing a mystical quest for unity, Erben presents a compelling counternarrative to monolingualism and Enlightenment empiricism in eighteenth-century America.
This textbook provides a step-by-step introduction to the history of the English language (HEL), offering a fresh perspective on the process of language change. Aimed at undergraduate students, The Emergence and Development of English is accessibly written, and contains a wealth of pedagogical tools, including chapter openers, key terms, chapter summaries, end-of-chapter exercises and suggestions for further reading. A central theme of the book is 'emergence', the key term from the study of complex systems, which describes how massive numbers of random verbal interactions give rise to regularities that 'emerge' without specific causes. This unique approach encourages readers to incorporate complex systems into the mainstream coverage of HEL. Additional resources include examples of language from each period, as well as appendices on terminology, online resources and audio samples.
This support text for the National Diploma in Adult Basic Education and Training examines the history of Afrikaans and the role it has in the multicultural environment of South Africa. It discusses how the language is used in contexts such as media, literature and popular culture.
This highly accessible introduction explores the core systems and subsystems of the languages of mainland Southeast Asia, applying the main concepts of language typology, phonology, morphology, syntax, sociolinguistics, language variation, and language contact, to this diverse language area. Written by a leading expert in the languages of this region, N. J. Enfield draws upon nearly a thousand data examples from over a hundred languages from Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam to show the many ways in which these languages resemble each other, and differ from each other, in the context of what is known globally about the diversity of human language. The book highlights the diversity of the area's languages, with a special emphasis on the minority languages, which outnumber the national languages by nearly a hundred to one. The result is a welcome corrective to widespread beliefs about the nature of a 'typical' Southeast Asian language.
Heralded as "required reading" (Geoff Nunberg) and "the book" (Anne Fadiman) for anyone interested in the conversation swirling around gender-neutral and nonbinary pronouns, What's Your Pronoun? is a classic in the making. Providing much-needed historical context and analysis to the debate around what we call ourselves, Dennis Baron brings new insight to a centuries-old topic and illuminates how-and why-these pronouns are sparking confusion and prompting new policies in schools, workplaces, and even statehouses. Enlightening and affirming, What's Your Pronoun? introduces a new way of thinking about language, gender, and how they intersect.
Roughly half the world's population speaks languages derived from a shared linguistic source known as Proto-Indo-European. But who were the early speakers of this ancient mother tongue, and how did they manage to spread it around the globe? Until now their identity has remained a tantalizing mystery to linguists, archaeologists, and even Nazis seeking the roots of the Aryan race. "The Horse, the Wheel, and Language" lifts the veil that has long shrouded these original Indo-European speakers, and reveals how their domestication of horses and use of the wheel spread language and transformed civilization.
Linking prehistoric archaeological remains with the development of language, David Anthony identifies the prehistoric peoples of central Eurasia's steppe grasslands as the original speakers of Proto-Indo-European, and shows how their innovative use of the ox wagon, horseback riding, and the warrior's chariot turned the Eurasian steppes into a thriving transcontinental corridor of communication, commerce, and cultural exchange. He explains how they spread their traditions and gave rise to important advances in copper mining, warfare, and patron-client political institutions, thereby ushering in an era of vibrant social change. Anthony also describes his fascinating discovery of how the wear from bits on ancient horse teeth reveals the origins of horseback riding.
"The Horse, the Wheel, and Language" solves a puzzle that has vexed scholars for two centuries--the source of the Indo-European languages and English--and recovers a magnificent and influential civilization from the past.
With this new book Alice Honig addresses a neglected area in child development - how to help low literacy parents and parents for whom English is a second language enchance the literacy and cognitive development of their children in the home environment and through daily routines. In learning to choose appropriate songs and books for children, adults will feel comfortable with storytime long before their children begin to talk. Honig and coauthor Holly E. Brophy focus on language as a fundamental family activity. Through the use of songs and stories, the authors show how rich language interaction enhances an infant's feelings of love and security and how it helps toddlers and young children learn more about objects, rules, daily experiences and people. Rather than through more formal dialogue or an educational setting, ideas on how to talk to children are anchored to activities and comfortable personal chats between caregivers and child. With its emphasis on the roles both parents play in talking with babies during daily activities - such as diapering, bath time, feedings and walks - parents should find it an easily understood and valuable resource. In addition, the book reassures caregivers that, as children begin to experiment with language power, newly acquired behaviours are perfectly natural. For example, parents for whom disciplining their child is difficult, will learn to manage a child's new-found willfulness as well as the need to experiment with behaviour, even bad behaviour. The authors have included an entire section on discipline, which further illustrates ways to communicate effectively with children to improve cooperation. The book should be of interest to those in child development and psychology and literacy education, as well as a general manual for low-literacy parents.
Written by an international team of leading scholars, this engaging textbook on the study of English historical linguistics is uniquely organized in terms of theoretical approaches and perspectives. Each chapter features textboxes, case studies, suggestions for further reading and exercises, enabling students to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each approach and guiding them on undertaking further research. The case studies and exercises guide students in approaching and manipulating empirical data, providing them with hands-on experience of conducting linguistic research. An extensive variety of approaches, from traditional to contemporary, is treated, including generative approaches, historical sociolinguistic and pragmatic approaches, psycholinguistic perspectives, grammaticalization theory, and discourse-based approaches, as well as perspectives on standardization and language variation. Each chapter applies the concepts discussed to data from the history of English, and a glossary of key terms enables easy navigation and quick cross-referencing. An essential resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of the history of English linguistics.
Abstract concepts are often embodied through metaphor. For example, we talk about moving through time in metaphorical terms, as if we were moving through space, allowing us to 'look back' on past events. Much of the work on embodied metaphor to date has assumed a single set of universal, shared bodily experiences that motivate our understanding of abstract concepts. This book explores sources of variation in people's experiences of embodied metaphor, including, for example, the shape and size of one's body, one's age, gender, state of mind, physical or linguistic impairments, personality, ideology, political stance, religious beliefs, and linguistic background. It focuses on the ways in which people's experiences of metaphor fluctuate over time within a single communicative event or across a lifetime. Combining theoretical argument with findings from new studies, Littlemore analyses sources of variation in embodied metaphor and provides a deeper understanding of the nature of embodied metaphor itself.
Creoles have long been the subject of debate in linguistics, with many conflicting views, both on how they are formed, and what their political and linguistic status should be. Indeed, over the past twenty years, some creole specialists have argued that it has been wrong to think of creoles as anything but language blends in the same way that Yiddish is a blend of German and Hebrew and Slavic. Here, John H. McWhorter debunks the most widely accepted idea that creoles are created in the same way as 'children', taking characteristics from both 'parent' languages, and its underlying assumption that all historical and biological processes are the same. Instead, the facts support the original, and more interesting, argument that creoles are their own unique entity and are among the world's only genuinely new languages.
Taking off from the ideas in our best-selling book, Getting Started with English Language Learners, here's a book that helps teachers in every subject area become expert teachers of English language learners (ELL). Using classroom scenarios that depict common challenges in elementary, middle, and high school content area classes, the authors describe the basics that every teacher needs to begin teaching both content and the English language, inlcuding:
Learning environments that provide ELLs with multiple opportunities to practice activities and connect learning to personal and cultural experiences.
Lesson plans that identify core ideas, tap students' background knowledge, and use visuals, think-alouds, and other ways to engage ELLs.
Small-group configurations that include ELLs in mainstream instruction by involving them in activities with their fellow students.
2019 Choice Outstanding Academic Title In Clues to Lower Mississippi Valley Histories David V. Kaufman offers a stunning relational analysis of social, cultural, and linguistic change in the Lower Mississippi Valley from 500 to 1700. He charts how linguistic evidence aids the understanding of earlier cultural and social patterns, traces the diaspora of indigenous peoples, and uncovers instances of human migration. Historical linguistics establishes evidence of contact between indigenous peoples in the linguistic record where other disciplinary approaches have obscured these connections. The Mississippi Valley is the heartland of early North American civilizations, a rich and diversified center of transportation for every part of eastern North America and to Mesoamerica. The Lower Mississippi Valley region emerged as the home of the earliest mound-building societies in the Americas and was home to some of the most impressive kingdoms encountered by Spanish and French explorers. The languages of the region provide the key to the realities experienced by these indigenous peoples, their histories, and their relationships. Clues to Lower Mississippi Valley Histories focuses on relationships that constitute what linguists call a sprachbund (language union), or language area. Kaufman illuminates and articulates these linguistic relationships through a skillful examination of archaeological and ethnohistorical data. Clues to Lower Mississippi Valley Histories examines the relationship between linguistics and archaeology to elucidate the early history of the Lower Mississippi Valley.
The beginning Greek student faces a vexing dilemma: a myriad of vocabulary words to learn and little time to learn them. One of the century's leading Greek scholars offers a solid solution by organizing Greek words according to their frequency of appearance in the New Testament. This text helps students maximize their study by concentrating on the words that appear most often in the Greek New Testament. (67)
This work offers students the most current discussion of the major issues in Greek and linguistics by leading authorities in the field. Featuring an all-star lineup of New Testament Greek scholars--including Stanley Porter, Constantine Campbell, Stephen Levinsohn, Jonathan Pennington, and Robert Plummer--it examines the latest advancements in New Testament Greek linguistics, making it an ideal intermediate supplemental Greek textbook. Chapters cover key topics such as verbal aspect, the perfect tense, deponency and the middle voice, discourse analysis, word order, and pronunciation.
This accessibly written and pedagogically rich text delivers the most comprehensive examination of its subject, carefully drawing on the most up-to-date research and covering a breadth of the central topics including communication, language acquisition, language processing, language disorders, speech, writing, and development. This book also examines an array of other progressive areas in the field neglected in similar works such as bilingualism, sign language as well as comparative communication. Based on her globally-orientated research and academic expertise, author Shelia Kennison innovatively applies psycholinguistics to real-world examples through analysing the hetergenous traits of a wide variety of languages. With its engaging easy-to-understand prose, this text guides students gently and sequentially through an introduction to the subject. The book is designed for undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in psycholinguistics.
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