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This book investigates the phenomenon of morphological length manipulation: changes in segmental length that cannot be explained by phonological means alone but crucially rely on morphological information. Eva Zimmermann provides a unified theoretical account of these phenomena by taking into account all possible prosodically defective morpheme representations and their potential effects on the resulting surface structure. Data are drawn from a wide range of the world's languages, including Aymara, Yine, Upriver Halkomelem, Wolof, Hungarian, Tohono O'odham, and Southern Sierra Miwok, providing a through representative database of morphological length manipulation patterns in the languages of the world. The author demonstrates that alternative accounts suffer from significant problems of both under- and over-generation when tested against the full range of attested phenomena. The volume will be of interest to all researchers and graduate students working in theoretical phonology and morphology.
This book examines how word order variations in language can be regulated by various factors in cyclic syntax. In particular, it offers a valuable contribution to the current debate concerning the effect of cyclic Spell-out on the (re-)ordering of elements in scrambling. Heejeong Ko provides in-depth discussion of the interaction of the syntax-phonology interface with operations at the syntax proper, as well as examining how the semantic meaning of a structure can be correlated with certain types of orderings in cyclic edges of the syntax. The author's proposal accounts for a wide range of scrambling data in East Asian languages such as Korean and Japanese, with particular focus on the consequences of cyclic linearization for (sub-)scrambling, types of quantifier floating, variations in predicate fronting, and types of argument structure and secondary predicates. The book will be of interest to syntacticians from graduate level upwards, particularly those interested in the syntax-phonology and syntax-semantics interfaces. The range of novel data presented will make it a valuable resource for linguists studying Korean, Japanese, and scrambling languages in general.
Making New Words provides a detailed study of the 200 or so prefixes and suffixes which create new words in today's English. Alongside a systematic discussion of these forms, Professor Dixon explores and explains the hundreds of conundrums that seem to be exceptions to general rules. Why, for instance, do we say un-distinguished (with prefix un-) but in-distinguishable (with in-); why un-ceasing but in-cesssant? Why, alongside gold-en, do we say silver-y (not silver-en)? Why is it wood-en (not wood-ic) but metall-ic (not metall-en)? After short preliminary chapters, which set the scene and outline the criteria employed, there are accounts of the derivation of negative words, of other derivations which do not change word class, on making new verbs, new adjectives, new nouns, and new adverbs. The final chapter deals with combinations of suffixes, of prefixes, and of the two together. Within each chapter, derivational affixes are arranged in semantic groups, the members of which are contrasted with respect to meaning and function; for example, child-less and child-free. For each affix there is an account of its genetic origin (from Old English, Greek, Latin, French, and so on), its phonological form and implications for stress placement, the roots it can be attached to (and why), and how its range of meanings has developed over the centuries. The book is written in the author's accustomed style - clear and well-organised, with easy-to-understand explanations. The exposition is illustrated by examples, ranging from Shakespeare, W. S. Gilbert, and modern novels to what was heard on the radio. It will be an invaluable text and sourcebook for scholars and students of the English language and of general linguistics, from undergraduate level upwards. The many fascinating facts presented here, in such a lucid and accessible manner, will also appeal to the general reader interested in picking to pieces the English language to see how it works.
While other books focus on special internet registers, like tweets or texting, no previous study describes the full range of everyday registers found on the searchable web. These are the documents that readers encounter every time they do a Google search, from registers like news reports, product reviews, travel blogs, discussion forums, FAQs, etc. Based on analysis of a large, near-random corpus of web documents, this monograph provides comprehensive situational, lexical, and grammatical descriptions of those registers. Beginning with a coding of each document in the corpus, the description identifies the registers that are especially common on the searchable web versus those that are less commonly found. Multi-dimensional analysis is used to describe the overall patterns of linguistic variation among web registers, while the second half of the book provides an in-depth description of each individual register, including analyses of situational contexts and communicative purposes, together with the typical lexical and grammatical characteristics associated with those contexts.
This book presents high-quality research of a theoretical and/or empirical/experimental nature, focusing on the interface between language and cognition. This book adopts an interdisciplinary, comparative, multi-methodological approach to the study of language in the general cognitive perspective, as well as theory-based practical applications. It is open to research from the full range of subject disciplines, theoretical backgrounds, and analytical frameworks that inform the language and cognitive sciences.
This book is an investigation of Arabic derivational morphology that focuses on the relationship between verb meaning and linguistic form. Beginning with the ground form, the book offers a comprehensive analysis of the most common verb patterns of Arabic from a lexical semantic perspective. Peter Glanville explains why verbs with seemingly unrelated meanings share the same phonological shape, and analyses sets of words that contain the same consonantal root to arrive at a common abstraction. He uses both contemporary and historical data to explore the semantics of reflexivity, symmetry, causation, and repetition, and argues that the verb patterns of Arabic that express these phenomena have come about as the result of grammaticalization and analogical processes that are common cross-linguistically. The book adopts an approach to morphology in which rule-based derivation has created word patterns and consonantal roots, with the result that in some derivations roots may be extracted from a source word and plugged in to a pattern. It illustrates the semantic relationship between a source word and its derivative, while also offering evidence to support the view of the consonantal root as a morphological object. The volume will be a valuable resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of Arabic language and linguistics who are interested in understanding the verb patterns of Arabic, the derivational relationships between words, and the construction of meaning in the mind. It will also appeal to researchers and students in morphology, semantics, historical linguistics, and cognitive linguistics.
This book explores the syntactic structures of Mainland Scandinavian, a term that covers the Northern Germanic languages spoken in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and parts of Finland. The continuum of mutually intelligible standard languages, regional varieties, and dialects stretching from southern Jutland to eastern Finland share many syntactic patterns and features, but also present interesting syntactic differences. In this volume, Jan Terje Faarlund discusses the main syntactic features of the national languages, alongside the most widespread or typologically interesting features of the non-standard varieties. Each topic is illustrated with examples drawn from reference grammars, research literature, corpora of various sorts, and the author's own research. The framework is current generative grammar, but the volume is descriptive in nature, with technical formalities and theoretical discussion kept to a minimum. It will hence be a valuable reference for students and researchers working on any Scandinavian language, as well as for syntacticians and typologists interested in Scandinavian facts and data without necessarily being able to read Scandinavian.
Drawing on work in linguistics, language acquisition, and computer
science, Adele E. Goldberg proposes that grammatical constructions
play a central role in the relation between the form and meaning of
simple sentences. She demonstrates that the syntactic patterns
associated with simple sentences are imbued with meaning--that the
constructions themselves carry meaning independently of the words
in a sentence.
Good presentation skills are key to a successful career in academia. This guide provides examples taken from real presentations given both by native and non-native academics covering a wide variety of disciplines. The easy-to-follow guidelines and tips will teach you how to: plan, prepare and practice a well-organized, interesting presentation avoid errors in English by using short easy-to-say sentences improve your English pronunciation and intonation gain confidence, and overcome nerves and embarrassment highlight the essential points you want your audience to remember attract and retain audience attention deal with questions from the audience This new edition contains several additional features, including stimulating factoids and discussion points both for self-study and in-class use. New chapters also cover: learning from talks on TED networking with potential collaborators, professors, fellow researchers interacting successfully with non-native audiences posters EAP teachers will find this book to be a great source of tips for training students, and for preparing both instructive and entertaining lessons. Other books in the series cover: writing research papers; English grammar, usage, and style; academic correspondence; interacting on campus; plus exercises books and a teacher's guide. Please visit http://www.springer.com/series/13913 for a full list of titles in the series. Adrian Wallwork is the author of more than 30 ELT and EAP textbooks. He has trained several thousand PhD students and academics from 35 countries to write research papers, prepare presentations, and communicate with editors, referees and fellow researchers.
This book explores the many factors that influenced syntactic change in English. Aimed at advanced students, this book discusses a number of approaches to charting the major developments in the syntax of English. It does not assume any knowledge of Old or Middle English or of formal syntax, although students should be familiar with traditional syntactic concepts such as verbs and nouns, subjects and objects, and linguistic concepts such as morphology and case. Bettelou Los draws on explanations from both formal and functional approaches to explore how syntactic changes are the product of the interaction of many internal and external factors. It discusses internal factors such as the loss of morphology and pressure from analogy. It covers external factors such as the sociolinguistic impact of language and dialect contact. It strikes a balance between theoretical explanation and accessibility to readers with no background in formal syntax. It contains 26 tables and 5 figures. It features 2 old English text extracts as appendices. Each chapter finishes with a summary of main points.
This new edition of Andrew Radford's outstanding resource for students is a step-by-step, practical introduction to English syntax and syntactic principles, written by a globally-renowned expert in the field. Assuming little or no prior background in syntax, Radford outlines key concepts and how they can be used to describe various aspects of English sentence structure. Each chapter contains core modules focusing on a specific topic, a summary recapitulating the main points of the chapter, and a bibliographical section providing references to original source material. This edition has been extensively updated, with new analyses, exercise materials, references and a brand-new chapter on adjuncts. Students will benefit from the online workbook, which contains a vast amount of exercise material for each module, including self-study materials and a student answerbook for these. Teachers will value the extensive PowerPoints outlining module contents and the comprehensive teacher answerbook, which covers all workbook and PowerPoint exercises.
Everyone likes to think they know a bit about language:There's a term in Portuguese you simply can't translate The origin of a word tells you how it should be used Standards of grammar have taken a nosedive recently The real meaning of 'disinterested' is 'unbiased' Computers will soon be able to speak like human beings A dialect is inferior to a language The problem is, none of these statements is true. Over the past few decades, we have reached new frontiers of linguistic knowledge. Linguists can now explain how and why language changes, describe its structures, and map its activity in the brain. But most of us know as much about language today as we did about physics before Galileo, and the little we know is still largely based on folklore, instinct or hearsay. In DON'T BELIEVE A WORD linguist David Shariatmadari takes us on a mind-boggling journey through the science of language, urging us to abandon our prejudices in a bid to uncover the (far more interesting) truth about what we do with words. Exploding nine widely-held myths about language while introducing us to some of the fundamental insights of modern linguistics, David Shariatmadari is an energetic guide to the beauty and quirkiness of humanity's greatest achievement.
"The Syntax Workbook" was written as a response to the students and instructors who, over the years, have requested more problem sets that give greater experience in analyzing syntactic structure. Aligned chapter-by-chapter with Carnie's bestselling textbook, this workbook provides over 120 new exercises on all of the major topics in generative syntax.An all-new workbook to accompany the bestselling syntax textbook, " Syntax: A Generative Introduction," which answers the need for a practical text in this fieldFeatures over 120 problem sets with answers, designed to give students greater experience of analyzing syntactic structureExercises and topics covered includes phrase structure, the lexicon, Case theory, ellipsis, auxiliaries, movement, covert movement, locality conditions, VP shells, and controlSupported by expanded online student and instructor resources, including extra chapters on HPSG, LFG and time-saving materials for lecturers, including problem sets, PowerPoint slides, and an instructors' manual Structured to reflect the style and chapter-by-chapter coverage of the textbook, but its practical, reader-friendly layout also makes it suitable for use as a stand-alone Workbook
This volume presents a crosslinguistic survey of the current theoretical debates around copular constructions from a generative perspective. Following an introduction to the main questions surrounding the analysis and categorization of copulas, the chapters address a range of key topics including the existence of more than one copular form in certain languages, the factors determining the presence or absence of a copula, and the morphology of copular forms. The team of expert contributors present new theoretical proposals regarding the formal mechanisms behind the behaviour and patterns observed in copulas in a wide range of typologically diverse languages, including Czech, French, Korean, and languages from the Dene and Bantu families. Their findings have implications beyond the study of copulas and shed more light on issues such as agreement relations, the nature of grammatical categories, and nominal predicates in syntax and semantics.
The Oxford Guide to Middle High German is the most comprehensive self-contained treatment of Middle High German available in English. It covers the language, literature, history, and culture of German in the period from 1050 to 1350 and is designed for entry-level readers, advanced study, teaching, and reference. The book includes a large sample of texts, not only from Classical works such as Erec, the Nibelungenlied, Parzival, and Tristan, but also from mystical writing, chronicles, and legal documents; the selection represents all major dialects and the full time span of the period. The volume begins with an introduction that defines Middle High German linguistically, geographically, and chronologically. Chapter 2 then provides a detailed exploration of the grammar, covering sounds and spelling, inflectional morphology, syntax, and lexis. Each section in this chapter begins with a summary of the main points, followed by detailed paragraphs for in-depth study and reference. Chapter 3 deals with versification, discussing metre, rhyme, lines of verse in context, and verse forms, and includes practical tips for scansion. Chapter 4 offers an account of the political and social structures of Medieval Germany and a survey of the principal types of texts that originated in the period. The final chapter of the book comprises over forty texts, each placed in context and provided with explanatory footnotes; the first two texts, to be taken together with the introductory grammar sections, are aimed at newcomers. A glossary provides full coverage of the vocabulary appearing in the texts and throughout the book.
An introduction to contemporary Welsh grammar.
This book examines the cross-linguistic expression of changes of location or state, taking as a starting point Talmy's typological generalization that classifies languages as either 'satellite-framed' or 'verb-framed'. In verb-framed languages, such as those of the Romance family, the result state or location is encoded in the verb. In satellite-framed languages, such as English or Latin, the result state or location is encoded in a non-verbal element. These languages can be further subdivided into weak satellite-framed languages, in which the element expressing result must form a word with the verb, and strong satellite-framed languages, in which it is expressed by an independent element: an adjective, a prepositional phrase or a particle. In this volume, Victor Acedo-Matellan explores the similarities between Latin and Slavic in their expression of events of transition: neither allows the expression of complex adjectival resultative constructions and both express the result state or location of a complex transition through prefixes. They are therefore analysed as weak satellite-framed languages, along with Ancient Greek and some varieties of Mandarin Chinese, and stand in contrast to strong satellite-framed languages such as English, the Germanic languages in general, and Finno-Ugric. This variation is expressed in terms of the morphological properties of the head that expresses transition, which is argued to be affixal in weak but not in strong satellite-framed languages. The author takes a neo-constructionist approach to argument structure, which accounts for the verbal elasticity shown by Latin, and a Distributed Morphology approach to the syntax-morphology interface.
Recent research on the syntax of Arabic has produced valuable literature on the major syntactic phenomena found in the language. This guide to Arabic syntax provides an overview of the major syntactic constructions in Arabic that have featured in recent linguistic debates, and discusses the analyses provided for them in the literature. A broad variety of topics are covered, including argument structure, negation, tense, agreement phenomena, and resumption. The discussion of each topic sums up the key research results and provides new points of departure for further research. The book also contrasts Standard Arabic with other Arabic varieties spoken in the Arab world. An engaging guide to Arabic syntax, this book will be invaluable to graduate students interested in Arabic grammar, as well as syntactic theorists and typologists.
Prosody is one of the core components of language and speech, indicating information about syntax, turn-taking in conversation, types of utterances, such as questions or statements, as well as speakers' attitudes and feelings. This edited volume takes studies in prosody on Asian languages as well as examples from other languages. It brings together the most recent research in the field and also charts the influence on such diverse fields as multimedia communication and SLA. Intended for a wide audience of linguists that includes neighbouring disciplines such as computational sciences, psycholinguists, and specialists in language acquisition, Prosodic Studies is also ideal for scholars and researchers working in intonation who want a complement of information on specifics.
Written by a team led by a world authority in English grammar, English Grammar for Today has established itself as a rich educational experience for both native- and non-native-speaking students. This engaging and stimulating coursebook enables students to learn grammar not just for its own sake, but also for the pleasure of exploring, appreciating and understanding the way language communicates in written text and spoken discourse. Throughout, the emphasis is on using grammar in present-day English. After an introduction placing grammar in its educational and cultural context, the authors present a 'toolkit' for analysing sentences. The second part of the book demonstrates how to apply this toolkit to spoken and written language, using a wide range of real textual materials. Each chapter ends with a set of carefully-designed exercises and tasks to aid understanding, with answers provided at the end of the volume. Now thoroughly revised and updated to meet the needs of today's students, this new edition features: - a new Foreword by the English Association - an additional introductory chapter, 'Getting Started with Grammar', which introduces the subject for those with no prior knowledge - improved and extended diagrams, exercises and answers - up-to-date textual passages and examples Lively and approachable, this indispensable guide is ideal for both students and teachers who are looking for their first serious engagement with - or wishing to rediscover- English grammar.
This book provides the first comprehensive overview of the syntax of old Romanian written in English and targeted at a non-Romanian readership. It draws on an extensive new corpus analysis of the period between the beginning of the sixteenth century, the date of the earliest attested Romanian texts, and the end of the eighteenth century, generally considered to mark the start of the modernization of Romanian. Gabriela Pana Dindelegan and her co-authors adopt both a synchronic and diachronic approach by providing a detailed corpus analysis in a given period, while also comparing old and modern Romanian. They examine the evolution of a variety of syntactic phenomena, including the elimination or diminishing of certain facts or generalization of others, the total or partial grammaticalization of phenomena, competition between structures, and cases of syntactic variation. The book takes a typological and comparative perspective, focusing on those phenomena that are considered specific to Romanian (either on the Romance or in the Balkan area), and adopts a modern framework while still remaining accessible to readers from any background.
This volume contains a new critical edition of Pseudo-Arcadius' Epitome of Herodian's De Prosodia Catholica, including an extensive introduction, critical apparatus, apparatus of parallel passages, and full commentary. Misattributed to Arcadius, this epitome is one of the two main sources for Herodian's highly influential lost work, which was the first systematic treatment of ancient Greek prosody to have a substantial and lasting impact on ancient and medieval Greek scholarship and teaching. It is also responsible to a large extent for our knowledge of the ancient rules of Greek accentuation, which we still attempt to follow today, and was also widely used by grammatical and lexicographical writers, not only on accentuation but also on a variety of other aspects of grammar. This new edition employs for the first time two manuscripts which thorough examination of all the surviving sources has revealed to be of primary importance, enabling the text to be improved to a considerable degree in comparison to earlier editions. This ground-breaking research is apparent in the apparatus of parallel passages, which contains a collection of texts that have derived material from Herodian, often enabling us to reconstruct the text of Pseudo-Arcadius' Epitome and illustrating the extent of Herodian's influence on later studies of grammar. Corrupt passages and features of the text that have never been examined before are also discussed in detail in the first full commentary on the work, cementing this edition as a definitive and authoritative contribution to modern Herodianic studies.
English Grammar for International Studies is designed for students taking international programmes in higher vocational education, such as Business and Management Studies, International Marketing, International Finance, Business Administration, International Communication and Media, Finance and Banking, Hotel and Facility, and Tourism. Such programmes often have an international student body and therefore the language of instruction is English. English Grammar for International Studies caters precisely for these programmes since the instruction, examples and exercises are offered in English.
Offering grammar instruction based on problem-oriented learning, the grammatical principles in the book are rehearsed in a variety of exercises and assignments using primary source texts, such as newspaper headlines, advertisements and internet texts. This book is eminently suitable for self-study, because of its step-by-step approach to English grammar, its transparent instruction, wide range of exercises and the possibility to check answers to questions on the accompanying website (www.englishgrammarforinternationalstudies.noordhoff.nl) which also provides a self-assessment test allowing students to monitor their grammar deficiencies.
This volume explores the many ways by which natural languages categorize nouns into genders or classes. A noun may belong to a given class because of its logical or symbolic similarities with other nouns, because it shares a similar morphological form with other nouns, or simply through an arbitrary convention. The aim of this book is to establish which functional or lexical categories are responsible for this type of classification, especially along the nominal syntactic spine. The book's contributors draw on data from a wide range of languages, including Amharic, French, Gitksan, Haro, Lithuanian, Japanese, Mi'kmaw, Persian, and Shona. Chapters examine where in the nominal structure gender is able to function as a classifying device, and how in the absence of gender, other functional elements in the nominal spine come to fill that gap. Other chapters focus on how gender participates in grammatical concord and agreement phenomena. The volume also discusses semantic agreement: hybrid agreement sometimes arises due to a distinction that grammars encode between natural gender on the one hand and grammatical gender on the other. The findings in the volume have significant implications for syntactic theory and theories of interpretation, and contribute to a greater understanding of the interplay between inflection and derivation. The volume will be of interest to theoretical linguists and typologists from advanced undergraduate level upwards.
In Case, Mark Baker develops a unified theory of how the morphological case marking of noun phrases is determined by syntactic structure. Designed to work well for languages of all alignment types - accusative, ergative, tripartite, marked nominative, or marked absolutive - this theory has been developed and tested against unrelated languages of each type, and more than twenty non-Indo-European languages are considered in depth. While affirming that case can be assigned to noun phrases by function words under agreement, the theory also develops in detail a second mode of case assignment: so-called dependent case. Suitable for academic researchers and students, the book employs formal-generative concepts yet remains clear and accessible for a general linguistics readership.
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