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Latin is often described as a free word order language, but in general each word order encodes a particular information structure: in that sense, each word order has a different meaning. Pragmatics for Latin provides a descriptive analysis of Latin information structure based on detailed philological evidence and elaborates a syntax-pragmatics interface that formalizes the informational content of the various different word orders. Using a slightly adjusted version of the structured meanings theory, the book shows how the pragmatic meanings matching the different word orders arise naturally and spontaneously out of the compositional process as an integral part of a single semantic derivation covering denotational and informational meaning at one and the same time.
"Cognitive English Grammar" is designed to be used as a textbook in courses of English and general linguistics. It introduces the reader to cognitive linguistic theory and shows that Cognitive Grammar helps us to gain a better understanding of the grammar of English. The notions of motivation and meaningfulness are central to the approach adopted in the book. In four major parts comprising 12 chapters, "Cognitive English Grammar "integrates recent cognitive approaches into one coherent model, allowing the analysis of the most central constructions of English. Part I presents the cognitive framework: conceptual and linguistic categories, their combination in situations, the cognitive operations applied to them, and the organisation of conceptual structures into linguistic constructions. Part II deals with the category of things and their linguistic structuring as nouns and noun phrases. It shows how things are grounded in reality by means of reference, quantified by set and scalar quantifiers, and qualified by modifiers. Part III describes situations as temporal units of various layers: internally, as types of situations; and externally, as located relative to the time of speech and grounded in reality or potentiality. Part IV looks at situations as relational units and their structuring as sentences. Its two chapters are devoted to event schemas and space and metaphorical extensions of space."Cognitive English Grammar" offers a wealth of linguistic data and explanations. The didactic quality is guaranteed by the frequent use of definitions and examples, a glossary of the terms used, overviews and chapter summaries, suggestions for further reading, and study questions. For the Key to Study Questions click here.
The Teacher's Guide to Grammar is unique in focusing directly on
the aspects of grammar that teachers need to know. Assuming little
or no formal linguistic education, this concise and accessible book
provides the necessary background knowledge required in the
classroom context. There are detailed chapters on the nuts and
bolts of language: words, morphology, sentences, phrases, verbs,
and clauses. Other important educational issues concerned in the
teaching of English are discussed: the grammatical variation that
differentiates standard and non-standard English; how grammar
varies in relation to the purpose and audience of a text; and the
different grammatical characteristics of different languages.
Throughout, illustrations are given using examples from the real
spoken and written language produced by learners.
This book is an investigation of Arabic derivational morphology that focuses on the relationship between verb meaning and linguistic form. Beginning with the ground form, the book offers a comprehensive analysis of the most common verb patterns of Arabic from a lexical semantic perspective. Peter Glanville explains why verbs with seemingly unrelated meanings share the same phonological shape, and analyses sets of words that contain the same consonantal root to arrive at a common abstraction. He uses both contemporary and historical data to explore the semantics of reflexivity, symmetry, causation, and repetition, and argues that the verb patterns of Arabic that express these phenomena have come about as the result of grammaticalization and analogical processes that are common cross-linguistically. The book adopts an approach to morphology in which rule-based derivation has created word patterns and consonantal roots, with the result that in some derivations roots may be extracted from a source word and plugged in to a pattern. It illustrates the semantic relationship between a source word and its derivative, while also offering evidence to support the view of the consonantal root as a morphological object. The volume will be a valuable resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of Arabic language and linguistics who are interested in understanding the verb patterns of Arabic, the derivational relationships between words, and the construction of meaning in the mind. It will also appeal to researchers and students in morphology, semantics, historical linguistics, and cognitive linguistics.
English is full of beauty and surprises, yet despite being the lingua franca of the globalization world, it has a reputation for being difficult to learn because its grammar has also so many quirks and contradictions. Did you know: - "Terry loves yogurt" is an example of illeism - preposition stranding is a bogus rule - sometimes it's acceptable to begin a sentence with "but" or "and" - "Could you pass the salt?" is "whimperative" - it's OK to boldly split infinitives Many of us don't even know the basics, so not only does Grammar Geek reveal obscure grammar rules and bogus ones you can safely ignore, it's also a handy primer, so in the future you'll have no excuse for dangling a modifier or misplacing a semicolon.
This book of Cantonese idioms is a pragmatic reference guide to everyday Cantonese conversation in Hong Kong. It will help learners understand speakers' intended meanings, since people do not always use the literal meaning of words or phrases in communication with others. Instead people often use metaphors and figurative language to express themselves. It is important to note that the metaphorical use of language is pervasive in all aspects of human discourse, including casual conversation as well as poetry. It provides coverage of over 1,800 entries of the most commonly-used Cantonese colloquial expressions. Entries are clearly grouped under ten different categories, with an index for ease of reference. The user-friendly Yale Romanization system is adopted, with a brief pronunciation guide.
Joan Bybee and her colleagues present a new theory of the evolution
of grammar that links structure and meaning in a way that directly
challenges most contemporary versions of generative grammar. This
study focuses on the use and meaning of grammatical markers of
tense, aspect, and modality and identifies a universal set of
grammatical categories. The authors demonstrate that the semantic
content of these categories evolves gradually and that this process
of evolution is strikingly similar across unrelated languages.
This book offers in-depth qualitative case studies of 70 acts of quoting verbatim performed by 16 US speakers across a range of public settings. While their written versions unequivocally index the other voice via quotation marks, the video data drawn from the internet largely lack any non-verbal cues. Contrary to expectation, the quotations' verbatimness is hardly ever translated into the gradient media: It neither stands out by vocal parameters (pauses, pitch, or intensity) when analyzed acoustically with Praat; nor are (manual) gestures, shift of gaze or body posture called on to serve as regular discriminating quoting practices. In general, the other voice is effectively found backgrounded, if not suppressed, in its oral performance, unless explicitly introduced by a digital quotative.
This book aims at bridging language research and language teaching and contains four sections. It opens with two papers which relate language to literature: one exploring childlike language, the second investigating the distinction between literary and non-literary text categorization principles. Next are the papers on multicultural and sociolinguistic topics, including a paper on English as an international language, and two papers on the perception of bilingualism in education. The third thematic section explores semantics, with two papers on prefixes and one on metaphor. The final thematic section is dedicated to syntax, with one paper on complex predicates, one on syntactic complexity in spontaneous spoken language and one of Croatian null and overt subject pronouns.
The past quarter of a century has seen a surge in Chinese syntactic research that has produced a sizeable literature on the analysis of almost every construction in Mandarin Chinese. This guide to Chinese syntax analyses the majority of constructions in Chinese that have featured in theoretical linguistics in the past 25 years, using the authors" own analyses as well as existing or potential alternative treatments. A broad variety of topics are covered, including categories, argument structure, passives and anaphora. The discussion of each topic sums up the key research results and provides new points of departure for further research. This book will be invaluable both to students wanting to know more about the grammar of Chinese, and graduate students and theoretical linguists interested in the universal principles that underlie human languages.
In this book, Ljiljana Progovac proposes a gradualist, adaptationist approach to the evolution of syntax, subject to natural selection. She provides a specific framework for its study, combining the fields of evolutionary biology, theoretical syntax, typology, neuroscience, and genetics. The author pursues an internal reconstruction of the stages of grammar based on the syntactic theory associated with Chomskyan Minimalism and arrives at specific, testable hypotheses, which are then corroborated by an abundance of theoretically analysed 'living fossils' drawn from a variety of languages. Her approach demonstrates that these fossil structures do not just coexist alongside more modern structures, but are in fact built into the very foundation of more complex structures, leading to quirks and complexities that are suggestive of a gradualist evolutionary scenario. By reconstructing a particular path along which syntax evolved, Evolutionary Syntax sheds light on the crucial properties of language design itself, as well as on the major parameters of crosslinguistic variation. As a result, this reconstruction can be meaningfully correlated with both the hominin timeline and the ever-growing body of genetic evidence that is available.
This volume provides the most comprehensive treatment of phonological weight to date, bringing together traditional notions of categorical, rime-based weight and new developments in statistical prosodic phonology. The book demonstrates that while some systems treat weight as a simple (heavy vs. light) distinction, others treat it as a rich continuum of heaviness. Following an introduction to weight-sensitive systems in phonology, Kevin Ryan explores the range of phenomena that interact with prosodic weight. Chapters examine the analysis of scales in terms of prominence rather than moraic coercion; prosodic minimality in the context of larger prosodic constituents; syllable weight in metrics; and the relationship between prosodic end-weight and stress. Throughout, the analysis is based on a survey of weight systems both within and across the world's languages, which yields a number of valuable generalizations and points towards a universal theory of weight in human language.
Examines patterns of use in the news, fiction and academic English Takes grammar and vocabulary together and looks at how they interact Is based on the analysis of 40-million words of British and American, written and spoken corpus text Uses over 3000 examples of real, corpus English to illustrate the points Uses frequency tables and graphs to make the new findings of this grammar clear
ENGLISH 2200, ENGLISH 2600, and ENGLISH 3200 are the original programmed courses in grammar, usage, sentence-building, capitalization, and punctuation.
An expanded and updated new edition of this best-selling introduction to linguistic morphology. The text guides the reader from the very first principles of the internal structure of words through to advanced issues of current controversy. The first part of the book introduces basic concepts, with the help of examples from a range of familiar and exotic languages. The second section highlights particularly important topics, and discusses them in more detail. These include the definition of the word-form, productivity, the vexed problems of inflection versus derivation and the nature of the morpheme, and the position of morphology in relation to phonology and syntax. The third section looks at the theory of morphology, considering fundamental problems such as the nature of morphological universals, how the brain deals with morphologically complex words and how morphology changes over time, but also with individual ways of looking at morphology, including natural morphology, word-and-paradigm and level-ordered models. Features: * New chapters on morphology and the brain and diachronic morphology * Exercises added at the end of each chapter * Includes a glossary of key terms
This book adopts a generative framework to investigate the diachronic syntax of Hungarian, one of only a handful of non-Indo-European languages with a documented history spanning more than 800 years. Professor E. Kiss and several internationally recognized experts in the field bring together the best in traditional descriptive linguistics and the state-of-the-art in theoretical linguistics to offer an indepth and original survey of some of the most important structural changes in the history of Hungarian. The book specifically focuses on the restructuring of Hungarian syntax from head-final to head-initial, which started in the Proto-Hungarian age. This development led to fundamental structural changes, resulting in the evolution of functional left peripheries on various levels of syntactic structure by the 16th century. Chapters examine a number of related topics, including the emergence of focus, topic, and negative quantifiers, the marking of definiteness, universal quantifiers, and non-finite and finite subordination. The mechanisms of change are those observed in Indo-European languages (reanalysis, grammaticalization, cyclicity), but the paths of change have often been different. The book will be of interest to researchers and graduate students working in historical and diachronic linguistics, as well as all those interested in the mechanisms and theory of linguistic change.
This book looks at the relationship between the structure of the sentence and the organization of discourse. While a sentence obeys specific grammatical rules, the coherence of a discourse is instead dependent on the relations between the sentences it contains. In this volume, leading syntacticians, semanticists, and philosophers examine the nature of these relations, where they come from, and how they apply. Chapters in Part I address points of sentence grammar in different languages, including mood and tense in Spanish, definite determiners in French and Bulgarian, and the influence of aktionsart on the acquisition of tense by English, French, and Chinese children. Part II looks at modes of discourse, showing for example how discourse relations create implicatures and how Indirect Discourse differs from Free Indirect Discourse. The studies conclude that the relations between sentences that make a discourse coherent are already encoded in sentence grammar and that, once established, these relations influence the meaning of individual sentences.
"English Sentence Analysis: An introductory course" is designed as a 10-week course for students of English Language and Literature, Linguistics, or other language related fields. In 10 weeks the student will be proficient in English analysis at sentence, clause and phrase level and have a solid understanding of the traditional terms and concepts of English syntax. This introduction prepares for practical courses in grammar and writing skills and for theoretical courses in syntactic argumentation. The package consists of a Course Book with 8 Chapters and a CD-Rom with the interactive Practice Program.The Course Book provides sentence structures in clear graphics; logically structured chapters with Introductions and Summaries; exercises with quotations and excerpts from English, American and Australian literature and pop songs.The Practice Program contains over 800 interactive exercises; over 700 authentic quotations and excerpts from literature and popular music to analyze; detailed feedback with hyperlinks to the comprehensive theory module; an on-screen score count; adapts to the individual student s problem areas."English Sentence Analysis: An introductory course" has been classroom tested at various universities. The students seem to enjoy the dreaded syntax course and pass rates have gone up significantly from 50 to 70%.The Practice Program is based on Hologram, designed and adapted by the University of Groningen, Fac. of Arts, Centre for ICT and Learning. Institutes interested in a Network version for Windows can contact email@example.com.Practice Program download page.
This handbook deals with research into the nature of events, and how we use language to describe events. The study of event structure over the past 60 years has been one of the most successful areas of lexical semantics, uniting insights from morphology and syntax, lexical and compositional semantics, cognitive science, and artificial intelligence to develop insightful theories of events and event descriptions. This volume provides accessible introductions to major topics and ongoing debates in event structure research, exploring what events are, how we perceive them, how we reason with them, and the role they play in the organization of grammar and discourse. The chapters are divided into four parts: the first covers metaphysical issues related to events; the second is concerned with the relationship between event structure and grammar; the third is a series of crosslinguistic case studies; and the fourth deals with links to cognitive science and artificial intelligence more broadly. The book is strongly interdisciplinary in nature, with insights from linguistics, philosophy, psychology, cognitive science, and computer science, and will appeal to a wide range of researchers and students from advanced undergraduate level upwards.
Insha collections compiled in India during the medieval period are an important source of information for the history of the medieval state and society. But scholars working in the area were severely handicapped in their attempts to use this potential source because properly edited texts of the majority of these collections were not available. Munshaat-i-Namakin is one such Insha collection that was compiled during the last years of Akbars reign. It covers the period 1556 to 1598. Its compiler, Abul Qasim Namakin, was a nobleman of eminence and served under Akbar and Jahangir. It is one of the largest collections dating from the Mughal period. The documents provide extremely valuable information on a wide range of subjects relating to the political, institutional, social, cultural, legal and even religious aspects of Akbars reign. Besides, it contains scores of appointment orders relating to different branches of the central as well as provincial administration, providing specific information about the duties and functions of state officials. It also contains copies of important diplomatic correspondence some of which are not available anywhere else. Insha was a popular branch of literature during the medieval period. in addition to those who were interested in it as a matter of taste, it was an essential reference tool for those who aspired to enter government service. Insha collections, which contained specimen documents and drafts for various occasions served as guides for acquiring the necessary skill in the art of drafting, which was an important requirement for government servants. Apparently many of the documents in the collection were received by the compiler when he was a Mughal officer working in different capacities. Selections from the writings of other distinguished writers have also been included. Munshaat-i-Namakin is a unique source of history as well as a book of great literary interest for it contains the only available specimen, of a number of documents for various categories.
This volume explores the many ways by which natural languages categorize nouns into genders or classes. A noun may belong to a given class because of its logical or symbolic similarities with other nouns, because it shares a similar morphological form with other nouns, or simply through an arbitrary convention. The aim of this book is to establish which functional or lexical categories are responsible for this type of classification, especially along the nominal syntactic spine. The book's contributors draw on data from a wide range of languages, including Amharic, French, Gitksan, Haro, Lithuanian, Japanese, Mi'kmaw, Persian, and Shona. Chapters examine where in the nominal structure gender is able to function as a classifying device, and how in the absence of gender, other functional elements in the nominal spine come to fill that gap. Other chapters focus on how gender participates in grammatical concord and agreement phenomena. The volume also discusses semantic agreement: hybrid agreement sometimes arises due to a distinction that grammars encode between natural gender on the one hand and grammatical gender on the other. The findings in the volume have significant implications for syntactic theory and theories of interpretation, and contribute to a greater understanding of the interplay between inflection and derivation. The volume will be of interest to theoretical linguists and typologists from advanced undergraduate level upwards.
When it comes to understanding one of your most intimidating courses--English Grammar--even good students can be confused. This guide is a must-have for everyone, from students taking the GED to professionals writing business plans, as it explores the structures of English grammar and how to use them easily and proficiently.. .
English grammar is explained in an easy-to-use format that gets the student comfortable with communication quickly and easily. The message of "English Grammar for the Utterly Confused" is simple: You don't have to be confused anymore. With the wealth of expert advice from the author, who has taught thousands of confused students, English grammar is demystified once and for all, as you acquire the ability to speak and write competently, correctly, and confidently. Don't wait another minute--get on the road to higher grades and greater confidence, and go from utterly confused to totally prepared in no time!. .
Laurie Rozakis, Ph.D., a recipient of the Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Teaching, is an associate professor of English at the State University of New York College of Technology at Farmingdale and has taught grammar and usage for more than 25 years..
This book analyzes events and narratives from the points of view of literature, grammar, discourse, and semantics. The contributors explore the issues related to the ways of portraying stories and their events within a cultural and literary framework. They also examine the role of prefixes in construing events and asymmetries that exist in time-creating event markers from a contrastive perspective. The contributions focus on narrativity as a semantic category, and on how events are described in signed languages. They place the event and narrative categories at the center of interest and their specific goals are pursued by applying different, both qualitative and quantitative, research methods.
This book considers the syntax and semantics of non-verbal predicates (i.e., nominal, adjectival and prepositional predicates) in copular sentences. Isabelle Roy explores how a single structure for predication can account for the different interpretations of non-verbal predicates. The book departs from earlier studies by arguing in favor of a ternary distinction between defining / characterizing / situation-descriptive predicates rather than the more common stage-level/individual distinction. The distinction is based on two semantic criteria, namely maximality (i.e., whether the predicate describes an eventuality that has spatio-temporal properties or not) and density (i.e. whether the spatio-temporal properties are perceived as atomic or not). The author argues in favor of a strong correlation between the semantics properties of predicates and their internal syntactic structure. Her analysis accounts for seemingly unrelated cross-linguistic data: the indefinite article in French, the distribution of the two copulas 'ser'/'estar' in Spanish, and case marking on Russian predicates.
This book is a collection of seven articles published in the past decade by the author. These articles are concerned with various issues including possessor raising, null subject, null object, pied-piping in logical form, focus marker, question formation, and adverbial reflexive. Each article has made a contribution to its topic. More importantly, these seven articles, taken as a whole, also constitute a window through which readers may look at the issues from a formal syntactic perspective and get a sense as how works have been conducted in the framework concerned, how arguments have been constructed, and how justifications have been provided in the field.
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