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Korean has proven to be an invaluable language to theoretical linguists, providing abundant examples of, and counterexamples to, key theoretical issues at the forefront of modern linguistic theories. Exploring the Korean language from both a syntactic and semantic perspective, this book provides an up-to-date linguistic analysis of its structure, combining Minimalist Syntax with accompanying compositional formal semantics. EunHee Lee's detailed chapters cover the core architecture and phenomena of Korean, looking at the lexical layer, the functional layer, nominal structure, movements and complex clauses. A broad range of empirically and theoretically important phenomena are discussed, enabling students and professional linguists alike to understand the workings of the language in current theoretical frameworks. The book also includes discussion questions, exercises and a list of further reading to solidify the theoretical concepts, stimulate thinking and develop the ability to analyze Korean using theoretical tools.
In syntactic analysis, as in linguistics generally, the skills required to first identify, and then make sense of, complex patterns in linguistic data involve a certain specific kind of reasoning, where various alternatives are entertained and modified in light of progressively broader empirical coverage. Rather than focus on transmitting the details of complex theoretical superstructures, this textbook takes a practical, analytical approach, starting from a small set of powerful analytic tools, applied first to simple phenomena and then to the passive, complement and raising/control constructions. The analytic tools are then applied to unbounded dependencies, via detailed argumentation. What emerges is that syntactic structure, and intricate networks of dependencies linking different parts of those structures, are straightforward projections of lexical valence, in tandem with very general rules regulating the sharing of feature values. Featuring integrated exercises and problems throughout each chapter, this book equips students with the analytical tools for recognizing and assessing linguistic patterns.
A clear introduction to lexical-functional grammar (LFG), this outstanding textbook sets out a formal approach to the study of language using a step-by-step approach and rich language data. Data from English and a range of other languages is used to illustrate the main concepts, allowing those students not accustomed to working with cross-linguistic data to familiarize themselves with the theory, while also enabling those interested in how the theory can account for more challenging data sets to extend their learning. Exercises ranging from simple technical questions to analyses of a data set, as well as a further resources section with a literature review complete each chapter. The book aims to equip readers with the skills to analyze new data sets and to begin to engage with the primary LFG literature.
Highly readable and eminently practical, Syntactic Analysis: The Basics focuses on bringing students with little background in linguistics up to speed on how modern syntactic analysis works. * A succinct and practical introduction to understanding sentence structure, ideal for students who need to get up to speed on key concepts in the field * Introduces readers to the central terms and concepts in syntax * Offers a hands-on approach to understanding and performing syntactic analysis and introduces students to linguistic argumentation * Includes numerous problem sets, helpfully graded for difficulty, with model answers provided at critical points * Prepares readers for more advanced work with syntactic systems and syntactic analyses
Much of today's communication is carried out through various kinds of humor, and we therefore need to be able to understand its many aspects. Here, two of the world's leading pioneers in humor studies, Alleen and Don Nilsen, explore how humor can be explained across the numerous sub-disciplines of linguistics. Drawing on examples from language play and jokes in a range of real-life contexts, such as art, business, marketing, comedy, creative writing, science, journalism and politics, the authors use their own theory of 'Features, functions and subjects of Humor' to analyze humor across all disciplines. Each highly accessible chapter uses a rich array of examples to stimulate discussion and interaction even in large classes. Supplemental PowerPoints to accompany each of the 25 chapters are available online, taking many of the insights from the chapters for further interactional discussions with students.
Morphology is the study of how words are put together. A lively introduction to the subject, this textbook is intended for undergraduates with relatively little background in linguistics. Providing data from a wide variety of languages, it includes hands-on activities such as 'challenge' boxes, designed to encourage students to gather their own data and analyze it, work with data on websites, perform simple experiments, and discuss topics with each other. There is also an extensive introduction to the terms and concepts necessary for analyzing words. Unlike other textbooks it anticipates the question 'is it a real word?' and tackles it head on by looking at the distinction between dictionaries and the mental lexicon. This second edition has been thoroughly updated, including new examples and exercises as well as a detailed introduction to using linguistic corpora to find and analyze morphological data.
In both Romance and English literature, relational adjectives have received special attention due to their apparently idiosyncratic behaviour, as both nouns and adjectives at the same time. Stepping away from the usual analyses that concentrates generally on their noun-like properties, this pioneer work explains their peculiar behaviour that has so far represented a challenge for current morphological theories. Mihaela Marchis Moreno takes an empirical approach to their distribution, and the syntactic and semantic conditions that govern their use. Drawing upon key findings from previous literature she proposes a new model of how relational adjectives work both cross-linguistically, and across the various interfaces of language.
One of the most intriguing features of languages is that speakers can produce novel grammatical utterances that they have never heard before. Consequently, most linguists agree that the mental grammars of speakers are complex systems that must be more abstract than the input they are exposed to. Yet, linguists differ as to how general and abstract speakers' mental representations have to be to allow this grammatical creativity. This book addresses this issue by empirically investigating one specific construction, English comparative correlatives (e.g., the more you eat, the fatter you get). Drawing on authentic corpus data from Old English to Present-day English varieties around the world, it shows how input frequency and domain-general cognitive principles affect the complex mental network of constructions that underlies speakers' linguistic behaviour. This pioneering and original study will be of interest to scholars and students of English syntax and English historical linguistics.
Surveying over 300 languages, this typological study presents new theoretical insights into the nature of agreement, as well as empirical findings about the distribution of agreement patterns in the world's languages. Focussing primarily on agreement in gender, number and person, but with reference to agreement in other smaller categories, Ranko Matasovic aims to discover which patterns of agreement are widespread and common in languages, and which are rather limited in their distribution. He sheds new light on a range of important theoretical questions such as what agreement actually is, what areal, typological and genetic patterns exist across agreement systems, and what problems in the analysis of agreement remain unresolved.
In its 1500-year history, the English language has seen dramatic grammatical changes. This book offers a comprehensive and reader-friendly account of the major developments, including changes in word order, the noun phrase and verb phrase, changing relations between clausal constituents and the development of new subordinate constructions. The book puts forward possible explanations for change, drawing on the existing and most recent literature, and with reference to the major theoretical models. The authors use corpus evidence to investigate language-internal and language-external motivations for change, including the impact of language contact. The book is intended for students who have been introduced to the history of English and want to deepen their understanding of major grammatical changes, and for linguists in general with a historical interest. It will also be of value to literary scholars professionally engaged with older texts.
Most studies on Arabic have dealt exclusively with either regional dialects of the language found in classic texts such as the Holy Quran. In "A Transformational Grammar of Modern Literary Arabic," Mohammad Ziad Kebbe provides the most thorough syntactic analysis available of the language used by modern writers and journalists. Drawing on Chomsky's model of linguistic theory, Kebbe provides an in-depth generative account of three major types of Arabic sentences: the coordinate, the negative, and the interrogative. He also focuses on significant transformations frequently found in modern Arabic, such as pronominalization, clitic movement, and dative movement.
"A Transformational Grammar of Modern Literary Arabic" will appeal to all language specialists and promote further appreciation of the structural subtleties of written Arabic.
Gestures are central to the way people use language when they interact. This book places our impulse to gesture at the very heart of linguistic structure: grammar. Based on the phenomenon of negation - a linguistic universal with clear grammatical and gestural manifestations - Simon Harrison argues that linguistic concepts are fundamentally multi modal and shows how they lead to recurrent bindings between grammar and gesture when people speak. Studying how speakers express negation multi modally in a range of social and professional contexts, Harrison explores how and when people gesture, what people achieve linguistically and discursively with their gestures, and why we find similar uses of gesture in different languages (including spoken and signed language). Establishing the inseparability of grammar and gesture, this book is an important reference for any researcher interested in the relation between language, gesture, and cognition.
Written in Spanish by an experienced instructor, this textbook introduces students with no prior background in linguistics to the syntax of Spanish, exploring the building blocks of complex linguistic expressions. Variations across Spanish are highlighted and varieties spoken by bilinguals are included. New concepts are clearly presented through a gradual progression from simpler to more complex concepts, with definitions of key terms highlighted in boxes. Recent theoretical developments are presented in a theory-neutral framework, offering students a balanced perspective. Chapter learning objectives, numerous detailed examples, and summaries, enable students to build a solid knowledge and understanding of syntactic ideas from scratch. Both advanced and introductory exercises are included in every chapter, allowing students at all levels to put concepts into practice. Further reading suggestions, and expansion boxes highlight more complex developments, providing students with a platform for further exploration. This is an essential resource for introductory courses on Spanish syntax and linguistics.
This book provides a pioneering introduction to heritage languages and their speakers, written by one of the founders of this new field. Using examples from a wide range of languages, it covers all the main components of grammar, including phonetics and phonology, morphology and morphosyntax, semantics and pragmatics, and shows easy familiarity with approaches ranging from formal grammar to typology, from sociolinguistics to child language acquisition and other relevant aspects of psycholinguistics. The book offers analysis of resilient and vulnerable domains in heritage languages, with a special emphasis on recurrent structural properties that occur across multiple heritage languages. It is explicit about instances where, based on our current knowledge, we are unable to reach a clear decision on a particular claim or analytical point, and therefore provides a much-needed resource for future research.
Hands-on, theory-neutral and non-technical, this textbook is a basic introduction to the structure of English words and sentences. Assuming no prior knowledge of linguistic analysis, it presents the facts in a straightforward manner and offers a step-by-step guide from small to large building blocks of language. Every chapter contains numerous exercises and discussion questions, which provide essential self-study material, as well as in-chapter tasks which lead students to a more comprehensive understanding of linguistic issues. The book also features concise chapter summaries, suggestions for further reading, an inclusive glossary and two consolidation chapters which encourage students to secure their understanding of the English language. The dedicated companion website includes further exercises, answers and solutions to the exercises, as well as useful links.
This volume, first published in 1960 to commemorate the one hundredth birthday of Jespersen, collects together as many of his writings as possible in order to allow students of the English language, or indeed of language in general, to read those shorter papers which have hitherto escaped their notice. The layout of the book largely follows the nature of the subjects dealt with: English grammar, phonetics, history of English, language teaching, language in general, international language and miscellaneous papers.
What is the real status of English in the world, and in South Africa in particular? South Africa has eleven official languages, and purports to uphold equal rights for all. However, English continues to wield immense official and unofficial power.
Many English second- or additional-language speakers in South Africa are sacrificing or 'diluting' their primary languages and cultures in the quest to take up and use the power of a world language.
English In Perspective uses a wealth of local texts to explore how English is spoken and written. It questions the dominance of English and wrestles with some of the complexities arising from language use and change in a multilingual society.
In a systematic and analytical approach to the study of South African English discourse, English In Perspective:
This accessible and unique approach to grammar comes in two parts: the first section consists of a practical guide on how to understand and use grammar successfully, and the second is an extensive A-Z glossary of grammatical terms. Ideal for both language students and anyone wanting to improve their use of English, it demystifies and explains these terms, while giving expert advice on how to construct sentences. * Chapters on sentences and clauses, nouns and pronouns, verbs, clause patterns, adverbials, multiple sentences, and more * Factboxes and writing tips give examples and clear explanations of problem topics such as adverb formation and the use of 'I and me' or 'so and such' * Diagrams break down passages of text, giving clear explanations on their sentence construction * Glossary terms include conjunction, future perfect 'tense', interrogative clause, is/are, passive voice, simple aspect, split infinitive, uncountable noun
When originally published in 1873 one of the aims was to protest against an idea that the Japanese language was very imperfect, and therefore it should be exterminated! The second was to give a general idea of the Japanese language as it is spoken.
This grammar has been written to help the student to think in the Japanese way. Part One contains several introductory notes on Nomenclature, Syntax, Verbs, Aru, Iru, Oru, on Adjectives and on Foreign Words. Part Two concentrates on connectives - the particles and suffixes which modify the sense of other words or show the relationship of these words to each other. These connectives, the heart of Japanese grammar, present unusual difficulty to foreign students. Arranged alphabetically in dictionary form, each word is followed by a textual explanation of how it is used and of its various meanings, with cautions as to its translation. The forms covered include not only those of the "standard" colloquial literary or bungo styles, but also the more common colloquialisms and provincial forms, whether or not these are strictly grammatical. No other text available makes as through or as complete a classification.
Following crucial insights on the functional structure of the clause and recent developments within the cartographic projects and minimalism, this book addresses various central themes in Italian and Romance syntax ranging from verb syntax and the syntax of verb related phenomena of agreement and cliticization, to word order issues and their status in discourse contexts. It illustrates a research program where the basic formal components of grammar, the rich cartographic syntactic structures, are directly implicated in morphosyntactic computations proper as well as in the articulation of discourse strategies.
First published in 1987. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
This highly accessible introduction explores the core systems and subsystems of the languages of mainland Southeast Asia, applying the main concepts of language typology, phonology, morphology, syntax, sociolinguistics, language variation, and language contact, to this diverse language area. Written by a leading expert in the languages of this region, N. J. Enfield draws upon nearly a thousand data examples from over a hundred languages from Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam to show the many ways in which these languages resemble each other, and differ from each other, in the context of what is known globally about the diversity of human language. The book highlights the diversity of the area's languages, with a special emphasis on the minority languages, which outnumber the national languages by nearly a hundred to one. The result is a welcome corrective to widespread beliefs about the nature of a 'typical' Southeast Asian language.
This monograph offers a comprehensive reassessment of the dominant German grammarian of the 17th century J.G. Schottelius, and examines his legacy both in Germany and Europe. * Offers comprehensive documentation of Schottelius s numerous sources to show the range and limits of scholarly knowledge in 17th-century Germany * Introduces new data that provides insight into whether a grammarian like Schottelius could have any impact on how people actually wrote * Provides an accessible reading of Schottelius s landmark study (with quotations translated into English) that does not assume prior knowledge of the seventeenth-century German context * Traces Schottelius s influence on Dutch, Danish, Swedish, and Russian grammar
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