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Insha collections compiled in India during the medieval period are an important source of information for the history of the medieval state and society. But scholars working in the area were severely handicapped in their attempts to use this potential source because properly edited texts of the majority of these collections were not available. Munshaat-i-Namakin is one such Insha collection that was compiled during the last years of Akbars reign. It covers the period 1556 to 1598. Its compiler, Abul Qasim Namakin, was a nobleman of eminence and served under Akbar and Jahangir. It is one of the largest collections dating from the Mughal period. The documents provide extremely valuable information on a wide range of subjects relating to the political, institutional, social, cultural, legal and even religious aspects of Akbars reign. Besides, it contains scores of appointment orders relating to different branches of the central as well as provincial administration, providing specific information about the duties and functions of state officials. It also contains copies of important diplomatic correspondence some of which are not available anywhere else. Insha was a popular branch of literature during the medieval period. in addition to those who were interested in it as a matter of taste, it was an essential reference tool for those who aspired to enter government service. Insha collections, which contained specimen documents and drafts for various occasions served as guides for acquiring the necessary skill in the art of drafting, which was an important requirement for government servants. Apparently many of the documents in the collection were received by the compiler when he was a Mughal officer working in different capacities. Selections from the writings of other distinguished writers have also been included. Munshaat-i-Namakin is a unique source of history as well as a book of great literary interest for it contains the only available specimen, of a number of documents for various categories.
This volume explores the many ways by which natural languages categorize nouns into genders or classes. A noun may belong to a given class because of its logical or symbolic similarities with other nouns, because it shares a similar morphological form with other nouns, or simply through an arbitrary convention. The aim of this book is to establish which functional or lexical categories are responsible for this type of classification, especially along the nominal syntactic spine. The book's contributors draw on data from a wide range of languages, including Amharic, French, Gitksan, Haro, Lithuanian, Japanese, Mi'kmaw, Persian, and Shona. Chapters examine where in the nominal structure gender is able to function as a classifying device, and how in the absence of gender, other functional elements in the nominal spine come to fill that gap. Other chapters focus on how gender participates in grammatical concord and agreement phenomena. The volume also discusses semantic agreement: hybrid agreement sometimes arises due to a distinction that grammars encode between natural gender on the one hand and grammatical gender on the other. The findings in the volume have significant implications for syntactic theory and theories of interpretation, and contribute to a greater understanding of the interplay between inflection and derivation. The volume will be of interest to theoretical linguists and typologists from advanced undergraduate level upwards.
This book analyzes events and narratives from the points of view of literature, grammar, discourse, and semantics. The contributors explore the issues related to the ways of portraying stories and their events within a cultural and literary framework. They also examine the role of prefixes in construing events and asymmetries that exist in time-creating event markers from a contrastive perspective. The contributions focus on narrativity as a semantic category, and on how events are described in signed languages. They place the event and narrative categories at the center of interest and their specific goals are pursued by applying different, both qualitative and quantitative, research methods.
When it comes to understanding one of your most intimidating courses--English Grammar--even good students can be confused. This guide is a must-have for everyone, from students taking the GED to professionals writing business plans, as it explores the structures of English grammar and how to use them easily and proficiently.. .
English grammar is explained in an easy-to-use format that gets the student comfortable with communication quickly and easily. The message of "English Grammar for the Utterly Confused" is simple: You don't have to be confused anymore. With the wealth of expert advice from the author, who has taught thousands of confused students, English grammar is demystified once and for all, as you acquire the ability to speak and write competently, correctly, and confidently. Don't wait another minute--get on the road to higher grades and greater confidence, and go from utterly confused to totally prepared in no time!. .
Laurie Rozakis, Ph.D., a recipient of the Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Teaching, is an associate professor of English at the State University of New York College of Technology at Farmingdale and has taught grammar and usage for more than 25 years..
This book considers the syntax and semantics of non-verbal predicates (i.e., nominal, adjectival and prepositional predicates) in copular sentences. Isabelle Roy explores how a single structure for predication can account for the different interpretations of non-verbal predicates. The book departs from earlier studies by arguing in favor of a ternary distinction between defining / characterizing / situation-descriptive predicates rather than the more common stage-level/individual distinction. The distinction is based on two semantic criteria, namely maximality (i.e., whether the predicate describes an eventuality that has spatio-temporal properties or not) and density (i.e. whether the spatio-temporal properties are perceived as atomic or not). The author argues in favor of a strong correlation between the semantics properties of predicates and their internal syntactic structure. Her analysis accounts for seemingly unrelated cross-linguistic data: the indefinite article in French, the distribution of the two copulas 'ser'/'estar' in Spanish, and case marking on Russian predicates.
The Oxford Guide to the Transeurasian Languages provides a comprehensive account of the Transeurasian languages, and is the first major reference work in the field since 1965. The term 'Transeurasian' refers to a large group of geographically adjacent languages that includes five uncontroversial linguistic families: Japonic, Koreanic, Tungusic, Mongolic, and Turkic. The historical connection between these languages, however, constitutes one of the most debated issues in historical comparative linguistics. In the present book, a team of leading international scholars in the field take a balanced approach to this controversy, integrating different theoretical frameworks, combining both functional and formal linguistics, and showing that genealogical and areal approaches are in fact compatible with one another. The volume is divided into five parts. Part I deals with the historical sources and periodization of the Transeurasian languages and their classification and typology. In Part II, chapters provide individual structural overviews of the Transeurasian languages and the linguistic subgroups that they belong to, while Part III explores Transeurasian phonology, morphology, syntax, lexis, and semantics from a comparative perspective. Part IV offers a range of areal and genealogical explanations for the correlations observed in the preceding parts. Finally, Part V combines archaeological, genetic, and anthropological perspectives on the identity of speakers of Transeurasian languages. The Oxford Guide to the Transeurasian Languages will be an indispensable resource for specialists in Japonic, Koreanic, Tungusic, Mongolic, and Turkic languages and for anyone with an interest in Transeurasian and comparative linguistics more broadly.
This book is a collection of seven articles published in the past decade by the author. These articles are concerned with various issues including possessor raising, null subject, null object, pied-piping in logical form, focus marker, question formation, and adverbial reflexive. Each article has made a contribution to its topic. More importantly, these seven articles, taken as a whole, also constitute a window through which readers may look at the issues from a formal syntactic perspective and get a sense as how works have been conducted in the framework concerned, how arguments have been constructed, and how justifications have been provided in the field.
This textbook provides a detailed introduction to the study of Latin from the perspective of contemporary linguistics. It adopts some basic tenets of generative grammar in an in-depth analysis of the main phonological, morphological, and syntactic properties of Latin, and offers a step-by-step guide to the universal principles and specific parameters which shape the language, along with comparative data from English and other languages. Latin: A Linguistic Introduction is a user-friendly and essential guide to the synchronic study of Latin as a natural language. The clarity of exposition and the richness of the examples cited provide a new approach to Latin as a topic of linguistic research: although the general structure of the book is like that of a traditional Latin grammar, the discussion of grammatical rules is both more straightforward and more theoretically informed. This textbook is principally suitable for students of Latin and Romance linguistics at undergraduate level and above, but also for teachers and researchers interested in new ways of looking at the study of Latin. It differs from many other textbooks in the field by striking a valuable balance between the longstanding tradition of classical philology and the innovations of contemporary linguistics.
This volume brings together distinguished scholars from all over the world to present an authoritative, thorough, and yet accessible state-of-the-art survey of current issues in pragmatics. Following an introduction by the editor, the volume is divided into five thematic parts. Chapters in Part I are concerned with schools of thought, foundations, and theories, while Part II deals with central topics in pragmatics, including implicature, presupposition, speech acts, deixis, reference, and context. In Part III, the focus is on cognitively-oriented pragmatics, covering topics such as computational, experimental, and neuropragmatics. Part IV takes a look at socially and culturally-oriented pragmatics such as politeness/impoliteness studies, cross- and intercultural, and interlanguage pragmatics. Finally, the chapters in Part V explore the interfaces of pragmatics with semantics, grammar, morphology, the lexicon, prosody, language change, and information structure. The Oxford Handbook of Pragmatics will be an indispensable reference for scholars and students of pragmatics of all theoretical stripes. It will also be a valuable resource for linguists in other fields, including philosophy of language, semantics, morphosyntax, prosody, psycholinguistics, and sociolinguistics, and for researchers and students in the fields of cognitive science, artificial intelligence, computer science, anthropology, and sociology.
French Grammar Practice on CD-ROM. Features: 124 pages of activities; Fully interactive; Designed for school or individual use; Works instantly, no manual required! Requires only minimal ICT skills. Runs on both PC (including XP) and MAC (Classic or OSX).
This new edition of Andrew Radford's outstanding resource for students is a step-by-step, practical introduction to English syntax and syntactic principles, written by a globally-renowned expert in the field. Assuming little or no prior background in syntax, Radford outlines key concepts and how they can be used to describe various aspects of English sentence structure. Each chapter contains core modules focusing on a specific topic, a summary recapitulating the main points of the chapter, and a bibliographical section providing references to original source material. This edition has been extensively updated, with new analyses, exercise materials, references and a brand-new chapter on adjuncts. Students will benefit from the online workbook, which contains a vast amount of exercise material for each module, including self-study materials and a student answerbook for these. Teachers will value the extensive PowerPoints outlining module contents and the comprehensive teacher answerbook, which covers all workbook and PowerPoint exercises.
The last decade has seen a rise in popularity in construction-based approaches to grammar. The various approaches within the rubric 'construction grammar' all see language as a network of constructions-pairings of form and meaning. Construction Grammar, as a kind of cognitive linguistics, differs significantly from mainstream generative grammar as espoused by Chomsky and his followers. Advocates of Construction Grammar see it as a psychologically plausible theory of human language. As such, it is capable of providing a principled account of language acquisition, language variation and language change. Research in Construction Grammar also includes multidisciplinary cognitive studies in psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, and computational linguistics. The Oxford Handbook of Construction Grammar is the first authoritative reference work solely dedicated to Construction Grammar. Divided into five sections, the book will be an invaluable resource that students and scholars alike can turn to for a comprehensive account of current work on Construction Grammar, its theoretical foundations, and its applications to and relationship with other kinds of linguistic enquiry.
The volume contains twenty-eight studies of various aspects of the case systems of Sumerian, Hurrian, Elamite, Eblaite, Ugaritic, Old Aramaic, Biblical Hebrew, Indo-European, the languages of the Bisitun inscription, Hittite, Armenian, Sabellic, Gothic, Latin, Icelandic, Slavic, Russian, Ouralien, Tokharian and Etruscan. The volume concludes with a paper on future directions.
This collection of essays, covering nearly every aspect of Biblical Hebrew studies, testifies to the invigorating joy of studying that language-a joy that is richly exemplified in the life of the volume's honoree, George Klein. Paying tribute to a colleague who has devoted his academic career to teaching Biblical Hebrew, this book presents fresh explorations of topics related to Biblical Hebrew linguistics. The opening chapters explore grammatical issues and delve into matters of diachrony. Subsequent essays address significant syntactical constructions, such as "at the end of days," and matters of lexicography. The final two chapters address issues of pedagogy, including a call to comprehensively rethink how to teach Biblical Hebrew according to linguistic principles. Researchers, teachers, and students of Hebrew alike will benefit greatly from consulting the essays in this volume. Distinctive for its diverse content, this volume features contributions from an international cohort of academics, including Scott N. Callaham, Stephen Dempster, Stephen A. Geller, Holger Gzella, N. Blake Hearson, Ernst Jenni, Ethan C. Jones, Tracy McKenzie, Eugene H. Merrill, Alviero Niccacci, Perry J. Oakes, Mark F. Rooker, Richard A. Taylor, Heath A. Thomas, and Gary R. Williams.
This volume is the first handbook devoted entirely to the multitude of frameworks adopted in the field of morphology, including Minimalism, Optimality Theory, Network Morphology, Cognitive Grammar, and Canonical Typology. Following an introduction from the editors, the first part of the volume offers critical discussions of the main theoretical issues within morphology, both in word formation and in inflection, as well as providing a short history of morphological theory. In the core part of the handbook, part II, each theory is introduced by an expert in the field, who guides the reader through its principles and technicalities, its advantages and disadvantages, and its points of agreement and disagreement with alternative theories. Chapters in part III explore the bigger picture, connecting morphological theory to other subdisciplines of linguistics, such as diachronic change, language acquisition, psycholinguistics, and sign language theory. The handbook is intended as a guide for morphologists from all theoretical backgrounds who want to learn more about frameworks other than their own, as well as for linguists in related subfields looking for theoretical connections with the field of morphology.
Contents: Introduction; The House of My Pilgrimage; The Personal Interrogative -- Arjuna and the Gita; 'So Help Me -- Who?'; Pronounal Jewry -- God's Own People; The Self-Encounter in Judaism; The Muslim Personal Pronoun Singular; The Muslim Personal Pronoun Plural; The 'We' and the 'I' in the New Testament; Two Great Sexes Animate the World; Our Dividual Being -- The Irony of Mystical Union; Faiths' Pronoun-Users Now; Notes; Index of Names and Terms.
Extensively revised and updated, this second edition provides, in an A-Z format, an analysis of the most important generalizations that have been made on the unidirectional change of grammatical forms and constructions. Based on the analysis of more than 1,000 languages, it reconstructs over 500 processes of grammatical change in the languages of the world, including East Asian languages such as Chinese, Korean and Japanese. Readers are provided with the tools to discover how lexical and grammatical meanings can be related to one another in a principled way, how such issues as polysemy, heterosemy, and transcategoriality are dealt with, and why certain linguistic forms have simultaneous lexical and grammatical functions. Definitions of lexical concepts are provided with examples from a broad variety of languages, and references to key relevant research literature. Linguists and other scholars will gain a better understanding of languages on a worldwide scale.
This introductory textbook of Sahidic Coptic is intended especially for college and seminary students in the New Testament, but also will be of much interest to Egyptologists and Papyrologists. It is the first carefully graded introductory textbook of Sahidic Coptic to appear in English: no other grammar is designed specifically as a textbook, with lessons and drill exercises, nor does any other grammar feature such a complete glossary. Included are a series of carefully graded lessons with copious exercises covering the essential grammar and vocabulary, a selection of annotated texts, and a comprehensive glossary of Sahidic Coptic. The glossary will be to use not only to beginning students but also to those at the intermediate or advanced level engaged in reading or using source material in the Sahidic dialect. The textbook presumes no prior knowledge of Egyptian, Coptic, or Greek. It is written in a simple style, avoiding unnecessary technical language, and should offer no difficulties to the student who may want to use it for self-study. Controversial and theoretical issues are likewise avoided on the assumption that such matters need not be taken up during the first stage of one's studies. A thorough mastery of the lessons and the texts will enable the student to read Sahidic texts of average difficulty with ease and ready comprehension.
Taking both an empirical and a theoretical view of the prosodic phrasing of parentheticals in English, this book reviews the syntactic and prosodic literature on parentheticals along with relevant theoretical work at the syntax-prosody interface. It offers a detailed prosodic analysis of six types of parentheticals - full parenthetical clauses, non-restrictive relative clauses, nominal appositions, comment clauses, reporting verbs, and question tags, all taken from the spoken part of the British Component of the International Corpus of English. To date, the common assumption is that, by default, parentheticals are prosodically phrased separately, an assumption which, as this study shows, is not always in line with the predictions made by current prosodic theory. The present study provides new empirical evidence for the prosodic phrasing of parentheticals in spontaneous and semi-spontaneous spoken English, and offers new implications for a theory of linguistic interfaces.
The processes of gemination, lenition, and vowel lengthening are central to the study of phonology, as they reveal much about the treatment of quantity in a given language. Using data from older language stages, modern dialects and standard languages, this study examines the interdependence of vowel and consonant quantity in the history of the Germanic branch of Indo-European. Kurt Goblirsch focusses on the various geminations in Old Germanic languages (West Germanic gemination, glide strengthening, and expressive gemination), open syllable lengthening in German, Dutch, Frisian, English, and Scandinavian languages, and the major lenitions in High German, Low German, and Danish, as well as minor lenitions in Bavarian, Franconian, and Frisian dialects. All of these changes are related to the development of the Germanic languages from distinctive segmental length to complementary length to syllable cut. The discussion challenges traditional theoretical assumptions about quantity change in Germanic languages to argue for a new account whereby, gemination, lenition, and vowel lengthening are interrelated.
Direct object omission is a general occurrence, observed in varying degrees across the world's languages. The expression of verbal transitivity in small children begins with the regular use of verbs without their object, even where object omissions are illicit in the ambient language. Grounded in generative grammar and learnability theory, this book presents a comprehensive view of experimental approaches to object acquisition, and is the first to examine how children rely on the lexical, structural and pragmatic components to unravel the system. The results presented lead to the hypothesis that missing objects in child language should not be seen as a deficit but as a continuous process of knowledge integration. The book argues for a new model of how this aspect of grammar is innately represented from birth. Ideal reading for advanced students and researchers in language acquisition and syntactic theory, the book's opening and closing chapters are also suitable for non-specialist readers.
Maku: A Comprehensive Grammar is a comprehensive reference grammar of the Maku language, spoken by the jukudeitse who once lived in Venezuela and Brazil. Based on fieldwork with the final two speakers of the language, it describes all core aspects of the grammatical system as they have been recorded; presented through lexical items, example sentences and texts. This book offers a description of the now-extinct language. It was written in response to the loss of linguistic information generally and the significance this language has for the study of the sociolinguistic history of the region specifically. This information contributes to our understanding of linguistic diversity and the indigenous linguistic ecologies in the Americas. Also included is data about language contact via loanwords with other indigenous language spoken in the Northern Amazonian region. The resources in this book are essential for language comparisons and language histories in Venezuela and Brazil. Maku: A Comprehensive Grammar is an important reference for researchers and students in the fields of linguistics, anthropology, sociology, history and the study of Amazonian languages.
Impersonal constructions in the history of English form a puzzling category, in that there has been uncertainty as to why some verbs are attested in such constructions while others are not, even though they look almost synonymous. In this book, Ayumi Miura tackles this under-discussed question with special reference to verbs of emotion in Middle English. Through a careful study of the behaviour of impersonal and near-synonymous non-impersonal verbs, she identifies the factors that determined the presence, absence, and spread of impersonal usage with the verbs concerned. Miura utilizes modern linguistic approaches, including theories and methodologies adopted in the study of psych-verbs in modern languages, which bear close relevance to impersonal verbs of emotion but have traditionally been researched separately. She also draws on categorizations in the Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary and harnesses the online Middle English Dictionary in a novel way, demonstrating that dictionary materials are in fact a valuable tool in the study of early English syntax and semantics. Miura concludes that a range of factors - such as causation, transitivity, animacy of the target of emotion, and duration of the emotion - influenced the choice of impersonal constructions with Middle English verbs of emotion. We can therefore make reasonable generalizations about when impersonal usage was licensed in these verbs. This careful analysis of the correlation between Middle English verbs of emotion and use or non-use in impersonal constructions represents a new empirical and theoretical contribution to the busy research area of impersonal constructions in the history of English.
Russian Function Words: Meanings and Use is a collection of 463 prepositions, conjunctions, particles, interjections, and parenthetical words. This book provides a semantic, syntactic, and stylistic analysis of each word, accompanying the explanation with examples of the word's usage in discourse in contemporary, everyday Russian and analogous translations into English. Consequently, it allows users to develop an understanding of contemporary grammatical, lexical, and stylistic norms, with the aim of mastering these critical words. This book also includes a multitude of idioms and sayings that users will learn to use in the appropriate context. Intermediate and advanced students, instructors, and translators will find this a useful supplement to their existing resources. It also serves as a helpful reference for independent learners at all levels.
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