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Anybody who reads or writes Chinese characters knows that they obey a grammar of sorts: though numerous, they are built out of a much smaller set of constituents, often interpretable in meaning or pronunciation, that are themselves built out of an even smaller set of strokes. This book goes far beyond these basic facts to show that Chinese characters truly have a productive and psychologically real lexical grammar of the same sort seen in spoken and signed languages, with non-trivial analogs of morphology (the combination of potentially interpretable constituents), phonology (formal regularities without implications for interpretation), and phonetics (articulatory and perceptual constraints). Evidence comes from a wide variety of sources, from quantitative corpus analyses to experiments on character reading, writing, and learning. The grammatical approach helps capture how character constituents combine as they do, how strokes systematically vary in different environments, how character form evolved from ancient times to the modern simplified system, and how readers and writers are able to process or learn even entirely novel characters. This book not only provides tools for exploring the full richness of Chinese orthography, but also offers new ways of thinking about the most fundamental question in linguistic theory: what is grammar?
Basic Linguistic Theory provides a fundamental characterization of the nature of human languages and a comprehensive guide to their description and analysis. In crystal-clear prose, R. M. W. Dixon describes how to go about doing linguistics. He show how grammatical structures and rules may be worked out on the basis of inductive generalisations, and explains the steps by which an attested grammar and lexicon can built up from observed utterances. He describes how the grammars and vocabulary of one language may be compared to others of the same or different families, explains the methods involved in cross-linguistic parametric analyses, and shows how to interpret the results. Volume 3 introduces and examines key grammatical topics, each from a cross-linguistic perspective. The subjects include number systems, negation, reflexives and reciprocals, passives, causatives, comparative constructions, and questions. The final chapter discusses the relation between linguistic explanation and the culture and world-view of the linguist and speakers of the language he or she is describing. The book ends with a guide to sources, a consideration of the number of languages in the world, a glossary, and indexes of authors, languages, and subjects covering all three volumes. Volume 1 addresses the methodology for recording, analysing, and comparing languages and includes chapters on analysis, typology, phonology, the lexicon, and field linguistics. Volume 2, like the present work, considers underlying principles of grammatical organization, and has chapters devoted to the word, nouns and verbs, adjectives, transitivity, copula constructions, pronouns and demonstratives, possession, relative clauses and complementation. Basic Linguistic Theory is the triumphant outcome of a lifetime's thinking about every aspect and manifestation of language. The volumes comprise a one-stop introduction for undergraduate and graduate students of linguistics, as well as for those in neighbouring disciplines, such as psychology and anthropology.
Lithuanian: A Comprehensive Grammar is a complete reference guide to modern Lithuanian grammar. It includes detailed treatment of all grammatical structures and parts of speech, and their semantic and grammatical categories: gender, number, case of nouns, adjectives, numerals and pronouns; degree of comparison of adjectives and adverbs; tense, mood, person, transitivity, aspect and voice of verbs. The morphology chapters describe the formation, inflection and use of the different forms of every part of speech. Under syntax the syntactic relations and types of sentences, the expression of questions and negation, comparison, word order and interpolation are described. All grammatical phenomena are illustrated with examples from the modern language. Descriptions of phonetics and accentuation as well as orthography and punctuation are also included. Lithuanian: A Comprehensive Grammar is an essential reference for learners and users of Lithuanian. It is suitable for independent study and use in schools, colleges, universities and adult classes of all types.
When the Gypsies first arrived in the British Isles, sometime in the second half of the fifteenth century, they brought with them their own language and, it may be assumed, a body of traditional song, little of which is preserved today. Now Shoon the Romano Gillie gathers together the largest published collection of extant traditional verse in Welsh Romani and Romani English. In his introduction, Tim Coughlan places the material firmly within its linguistic and cultural tradition, explains its characteristics and underlying modes of thought and, by drawing upon a range of related material, underlines its links with both its own European Romani roots and with other native British and Irish traditions, including those of Scottish and Irish travellers. The texts themselves are fully annotated to provide the necessary historical and cultural background. In addition to being the first attempt at a comprehensive overview of the field, Now Shoon the Romano Gillie also contributes to debates on the emergence of Romani English as a reduced form of an older inflected language. It will be an invaluable resource for students of the Gypsy language and traditional song, as well as all those with interests in Traveller communities and cultures.
This book presents and analyzes various features of the morphosyntax of Borgomanerese, a Gallo-Italic dialect spoken in the town of Borgomanero, in the Piedmont region of Northern Italy. The study is highly comparative, drawing on the literature on numerous other Italian dialects and Romance languages (as well as English), to inform our understanding of the Borgomanerese phenomena. Christina Tortora takes the many unusual and understudied (and often novel) facts of Borgomanerese grammar as compelling grounds for revisiting and reformulating current analyses of syntactic phenomena in these other languages. The phenomena treated include the syntax and semantics of the weak locative in presentational sentences; the syntax of object clitics and argument prepositions; the syntax of subjects and subject clitics; the syntax of interrogatives; clausal architecture; and the relationship between orthography and theoretical analysis. The principal value of this book lies both in the rich description of the morphosyntactic phenomena of Borgomanerese, many of which have not been previously reported in the literature, and in the consequent novel analyses developed, which contribute insights for other languages and dialects, and advance our understanding of syntax and syntactic theory in general.
Good spelling is fundamental to making the right impression with any type of writing; reports, homework, CVs, and letters all require correct spelling in order to get the message across in clear and straightforward English. Adaptable or adaptible? Definite or definate? Delirious or delireous? What is the difference between assent and ascent, dual and duel, or forbear and forebear? How do you make the plural of halo? Is it halos or haloes? Actually it's both, but not so for potato, the plural of which is potatoes. Knowing the difference between easily confusable words, making plurals, and adding endings are just some of the aspects of spelling that confront us with endless pitfalls. This easy-to-use A-Z guide does what no spellchecker can do: it gives immediate access not only to individual word spellings but also to general rules that will help you develop good spelling. The book covers the topics in simple and helpful terms and also offers advice on how to use apostrophes and hyphens, and the differences between British and American spelling. The core of the book is a list of over 2,000 words laid out for quick and easy reference. Based on evidence of misspelling gathered from real situations, this guide is the most useful and comprehensive help on spelling available. This edition makes the benefits of the material explicit to the general reader: clear organization of the supplementary features, simple and transparent design, and clearly written rules. One of a mini-series of titles on spelling, grammar and punctuation, and usage.
The phenomenon of the syntactic 'island' - a clause or structure from which a word cannot be moved - is central to research and study in syntactic theory. This book provides a comprehensive overview of syntactic islands. What are they? How do they arise? Why do they exist? Cedric Boeckx discusses the pros and cons of all the major generative accounts of island effects, and focuses the discussion on whether islands are narrowly syntactic effects, are due to interface factors or are 'merely' performance effects. Thanks to the diversity of island effects, readers are given a unique opportunity to familiarize themselves with all the major research styles and types of analysis in theoretical linguistics and have the chance to reflect on the theoretical implications of concrete natural language examples, allowing them to develop their own synthesis.
In this rich reference work, Beth Levin classifies over 3,000 English verbs according to shared meaning and behavior. Levin starts with the hypothesis that a verb's meaning influences its syntactic behavior and develops it into a powerful tool for studying the English verb lexicon. She shows how identifying verbs with similar syntactic behavior provides an effective means of distinguishing semantically coherent verb classes, and isolates these classes by examining verb behavior with respect to a wide range of syntactic alternations that reflect verb meaning. The first part of the book sets out alternate ways in which verbs can express their arguments. The second presents classes of verbs that share a kernel of meaning and explores in detail the behavior of each class, drawing on the alternations in the first part. Levin's discussion of each class and alternation includes lists of relevant verbs, illustrative examples, comments on noteworthy properties, and bibliographic references. The result is an original, systematic picture of the organization of the verb inventory. Easy to use, English Verb Classes and Alternations sets the stage for further explorations of the interface between lexical semantics and syntax. It will prove indispensable for theoretical and computational linguists, psycholinguists, cognitive scientists, lexicographers, and teachers of English as a second language. Beth Levin is associate professor of linguistics at Northwestern University.
For anyone who wants to become a more effective writer, a more perceptive reader, and a more precise thinker, an understanding of English sentence structure is indispensable. This book shows you how to begin. Using clear and engaging examples from English, it introduces the basic concepts of syntactic structure to readers with no background in linguistics. Starting with simple, familiar phrases, and progressing to more complex sentences, it builds on what we already intuitively know, to provide a step-by-step account of why we understand these examples as we do. It then shows how that understanding can be applied to writing, helping us to avoid some of the common hallmarks of 'bad writing', such as ambiguity, redundancy, and vagueness. A unique and valuable resource, this book will enrich your understanding of English in ways that will make you a more effective user of the language. Publisher's note: The e-book edition of this title, like the print editions, contains color. For those e-reader devices and applications that cannot display color, the color material is available in pdf format as an online resource: www.cambridge.org/Freidin
In the two volumes of Prosodic Syntax in Chinese, the author develops a new model, which proposes that the interaction between syntax and prosody is bi-directional and that prosody can not only constrains syntactic structures but also activates syntactic operations. All of the facts investigated in Chinese provide new perspectives for linguistic theories as well as the insights into the nature of human languages. The subtitles of the two volumes are Theory and Facts and History and Change respectively, with each focusing on different topics (though each volume has both theoretical and historical descriptive concerns). In this volume, the author first introduces the relevant theories and concepts of Metrical Phonology, Prosodic Phonology and Formal Syntax, and formulates the Government-based Nuclear Stress Rule in Chinese which can explain how and why Mandarin Chinese sentences are structured in a particular way. It is proposed that prosody can not only blocks the legitimate syntactic structures but also activates the potential syntactic operations. The former can be seen from the ungrammatical sentences that are caused by the inoperable NSR in these structures while the latter can be seen from sentences that are derived from syntactic movements which, however, are operable only when being motivated by prosody.
This volume provides a detailed account of the syntax of expressive language, that is, utterances that express, rather than describe, the emotions and attitudes of the speaker. While the expressive function of natural language has been widely studied in recent years, the role that grammar plays in the interpretation of expressive items has been largely neglected in the semantic and pragmatic literature. Daniel Gutzmann demonstrates that expressivity has strong syntactic reflexes that interact with the semantic and pragmatic interpretation of these utterances, and argues that expressivity is in fact a syntactic feature on a par with other established features such as tense and gender. Evidence for this claim is drawn from three detailed case studies of expressive adjectives, intensifiers, and vocatives; their puzzling properties are accounted for through a minimalist approach to syntactic features and agreement, which shows that expressivity can partake in agreement operations, trigger movement, and be selected for syntactically. The analysis not only supports the hypothesis of expressive syntax, but also highlights the hidden role that grammar may play in phenomena that are traditionally considered to be solely semantic in nature.
This volume offers theoretical and descriptive perspectives on the issues pertaining to ergativity, a grammatical patterning whereby direct objects are in some way treated like intransitive subjects, to the exclusion of transitive subjects. This pattern differs markedly from nominative/accusative marking whereby transitive and intransitive subjects are treated as one grammatical class, to the exclusion of direct objects. While ergativity is sometimes referred to as a typological characteristic of languages, research on the phenomenon has shown that languages do not fall clearly into one category or the other and that ergative characteristics are not consistent across languages. Chapters in this volume look at approaches to ergativity within generative, typological, and functional paradigms, as well as approaches to the core morphosyntactic building blocks of an ergative construction; related constructions such as the anti-passive; related properties such as split ergativity and word order; and extensions and permutations of ergativity, including nominalizations and voice systems. The volume also includes results from experimental investigations of ergativity, a relatively new area of research. A wide variety of languages are represented, both in the theoretical chapters and in the 16 case studies that are more descriptive in nature, attesting to both the pervasiveness and diversity of ergative patterns.
This book presents new research into the great structural diversity found in Sinitic languages. While many studies focus principally on Standard Mandarin, this work draws on extensive empirical data from lesser-known languages, and seeks to dispel many recurrent linguistic myths about the Sinitic language family. Part I presents findings that show the important interplay of research into diachronic linguistics and typology in China, beginning with a discussion of how to tackle the issue of linguistic diversity in Sinitic languages. Chapters in Part II examine the Sinitic languages from a crosslinguistic perspective with pan-Sinitic explorations of demonstrative paradigms; bare classifier phrases in relation to the coding of definiteness; and of the diachronic development of two main structures for comparatives of inequality with respect to issues in language contact. Part III is devoted to individual studies of linguistic micro-areas in China: Pinghua and the Guangxi Autonomous Region in the far South of China; Shaowu Min in the northwestern corner of Fujian province; the Wu dialect of Fuyang; and the Hui'an Southern Min dialect in the South of Fujian province.
Parameters have lain at the core of linguistic research in the generative tradition for decades. The theoretical questions they have raised are deep and broad: this reference text investigates how contemporary linguistics has best tried to answer them. This book looks at how parameters might be properly defined and what their locus might be :lexical information, functional heads, the computational system, the phonological branch of the grammar. What kind of data forms trigger acquisition of a parameter? Are parameters necessary or can we study languages without making reference to them? The questions looked at are not just theoretical: how can a theory of parameters be used to help understand second language acquisition, and what contributions can it make to the study of language typology? This is the right time to gather all this information, dispersed in many different kinds of publications by single authors and groups, into one comprehensive volume.
This is the latest addition to a group of handbooks covering the field of morphology, alongside The Oxford Handbook of Case (2008), The Oxford Handbook of Compounding (2009), and The Oxford Handbook of Derivational Morphology (2014). It provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of work on inflection - the expression of grammatical information through changes in word forms. The volume's 24 chapters are written by experts in the field from a variety of theoretical backgrounds, with examples drawn from a wide range of languages. The first part of the handbook covers the fundamental building blocks of inflectional form and content: morphemes, features, and means of exponence. Part 2 focuses on what is arguably the most characteristic property of inflectional systems, paradigmatic structure, and the non-trivial nature of the mapping between function and form. The third part deals with change and variation over time, and the fourth part covers computational issues from a theoretical and practical standpoint. Part 5 addresses psycholinguistic questions relating to language acquisition and neurocognitive disorders. The final part is devoted to sketches of individual inflectional systems, illustrating a range of typological possibilities across a genetically diverse set of languages from Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Australia, Europe, and South America.
This textbook provides a critical introduction to major research topics and current approaches in linguistic typology, the study of structural variation in human language and of the limits on that variation. Jae Jung Song draws on a wide range of cross-linguistic data to describe what linguistic typology has revealed both about language in general and about the rich variety of ways in which meaning and expression are achieved in the world's languages. Following an introduction to the subject matter and its history, the first part of the book explores theoretical issues and approaches, as well as practical considerations such as sampling methods and data collection. In the second part, chapters examine variation in particular phenomena, such as word order, case alignment, and evidentiality marking. Each chapter concludes with study questions and suggestions for further reading. The volume will be suitable for undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of linguistic typology and language universals, and as secondary reading for cross-linguistically focused courses in phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics.
Modern Irish is a VSO language, in common with the other Celtic languages, and the order of elements in the structure of transitive sentences is verb-subject-object. This book provides a characterisation of the nominal, verb, clause and information structure of the Irish language from a functional perspective based on Role and Reference Grammar. We include in this analysis the layered structure of the noun phrase of Irish and the various NP operators, the layered structure of the clause and the verbal system at the syntax-semantic interface along with a number of verb valence behaviours as mediated by event and argument structure. Additionally, we survey previous treatments of Irish within a functionalist approach. The verbal noun has a special place within the Irish language and its deployment is particularly productive. We examine the derivation of the verbal noun and the contexts in which it is used. We also provide an account of light verbs and complex predicates as they occur within Irish and link this to a characterisation of the information structure of Irish. We will, in addition, provide an analysis of certain linguistically interesting phenomena that are particular to Irish (and the other Celtic languages) including the two verbs of 'to be'. Within the verbal system our concern is with the relationship between the semantic representation of a verbal predicate in the context of a clause and its syntactic expression through the argument structure of the verb. We will suggest that lexical specification is via a logical representation that reflects the aspectual decomposition of the verbal predicate and that this determines, with an actor-undergoer hierarchy, the operation of the mapping into syntax via the linking system. This book will be of interest to all linguists operating within the broad functional paradigm, along with scholars, researchers and postgraduate students interested in Irish, in particular, and the Celtic languages in general.
Comprehensive reference grammar of Ingush, a language of the Nakh
branch of the Nakh-Daghestanian or East Caucasian language family
of the central Caucasus (southern Russia). Ingush is notable for
its complex phonology, prosody including minimal tone system,
complex morphology of both nouns and verbs, clause chaining,
long-distance reflexivization, and extreme degree of syntactic
This book presents the most complete exposition of the theory of
head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG), introduced in the
authors' "Information-Based Syntax and Semantics," HPSG provides an
integration of key ideas from the various disciplines of cognitive
science, drawing on results from diverse approaches to syntactic
theory, situation semantics, data type theory, and knowledge
representation. The result is a conception of grammar as a set of
declarative and order-independent constraints, a conception well
suited to modelling human language processing.
Routledge's Modern Grammar series is an innovative reference guide combining traditional and function-focused grammar in a single volume, with an accompanying workbook. The aim of the Modern Korean Grammar Workbook is to strengthen the reader's understanding of the main volume, Modern Korean Grammar.. Designed for those who have already acquired the basics of the language, this workbook provides abundant innovative exercises for both essential grammatical features and everyday usage and functions (e.g., giving advices, greetings, requesting, etc.). The Modern Korean Grammar Workbook is an ideal practice tool for Korean-as a foreign/second (KFL) learners. No prior knowledge of grammatical terminology is assumed and it can be used both independently and alongside Modern Korean Grammar.
This volume is a collection of studies on various aspects of word order variation in Turkish. As a head-final, left-branching 'free' word order language, Turkish raises a number of significant theory-internal as well as language-particular questions regarding linearization in language. Each of the contributions in the present volume offers a fresh insight into a number of these questions, thus, while expanding our knowledge of the language-particular properties of the word order phenomena, also contribute individually to the theory of linearization in general. Turkish is a configurational language. It licenses constructions in which constituents can occur in non-canonical presubject as well as postverbal positions. Presented within the assumptions of the generative tradition, the discussion and analyses of the various aspects of the linearization facts of the language offer a novel treatment of the issues therein. The authors approach the word order phenomena from a variety of perspectives, ranging from purely syntactic treatments, to accounts as syntax-PF interface or syntax-discourse interface phenomena or as output of base generation.
"Move! A Minimalist Theory of Construal" provides an accessible, in-depth, and empirically oriented look at Chomsky's Minimalist Program.
This volume facilitates understanding of the concepts of the Minimalist Program framework and presents a theory which eliminates construal processes from Universal Grammar. In its place, this book generalizes movement to promote a rather homogeneous-looking Universal Grammar, bereft of many of the modules characteristic of GB-inspired proposals for the structure of Universal Grammar.
"Move!" articulates a far greater empirical range than any other single work in the Minimalist Program. It successfully explains the concepts of the framework, unifies many phenomena in new ways, and enables readers to understand several long-standing puzzles.
This book tackles morphology from a cognitive viewpoint and links theory and practice. Its practical aim is to provide a comprehensive description of the two essential areas of vocabulary building: derivation and compounding. It develops skills in analyzing morphological expressions, familiarizing readers with the mechanisms used in forming complex words. It highlights the impact on form of the three theories of word meanings alongside coverage of Langacker's cognitive grammar. Category theory, domain theory and construal theory are introduced and described, with exercises and questions to develop practical skills. Hamawand brings insights from the semantics of cognitive linguistics into a field that lacks a book from this viewpoint. The book features a companion website with further exercises and questions, and will provide an innovative perspective for students on linguistics courses looking at grammar and morphology.
What do you know, if you know that a language has 'Object Verb' structure rather than 'Verb Object'? Answering this question and many others, this book provides an essential guide to the syntactic structure of German. It examines the systematic differences between German and English, which follow from this basic difference in sentence structure, and presents the main results of syntactic research on German. Topics covered include the strict word order in VO vs word order variation in OV, verb clustering, clause union effects, obligatory functional subject position, and subject-object asymmetries for extractions. Through this, a cross-model and cross-linguistic comparison evolves, highlighting the immediate implications for non-Germanic OV languages, and creating a detailed and comprehensive description of the syntactic differences that immediately follow from an OV type in contrast with a VO type like English. It will be of interest to all those interested in syntax and Germanic languages.
This book investigates the lexico-grammatical complementarity in language in its construal of person as a semantic system. Given the vast and wide spectrum of resources for expressing distinctions in the assignment of person roles in language, this book presents person-related system networks covering a rich range of semantic features. It also studies the system of person in relation to other major semantic systems instead of regarding it as one isolated component of language parallel to gender, number, case, etc. Systemic features of person are in turn realized by lexicogrammar, whose components, lexis and grammar form a relationship of complementarity in the process of transforming human experience into meaning. Person-related meaning can be either realized by lexical means, i.e. entity, process, quality, or grammatical means, i.e. pronouns, clitics, affixes, zero forms. Besides, such meaning is also found to be realized at some indeterminate areas along the lexis-grammar continuum. A special feature of this book is that it observes the lexicalization and grammaticalization of person based on evidence from a variety of languages. Readers will be presented a comprehensive look into the meaning of person and will be encouraged to reflect on its realization in their own languages.
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