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Partition and Quantity: Numeral Classifiers, Measurement, and Partitive Constructions in Mandarin Chinese presents an in-depth investigation into the semantic and syntactic properties of Chinese classifiers and conducts a comprehensive examination on the use of different quantity constructions in Chinese. This book echoes a rapid development in the past decades in Chinese linguistics research within the generative framework on Chinese classifier phrases, an area that has emerged as one of the most cutting-edge themes in the field of Chinese linguistics. The book on the one hand offers a closer scrutiny on empirical data and revisits some long-lasting research problems, such as the semantic factor bearing on the formation of Chinese numeral classifier constructions, the (non-)licensing of the linker de ( ) in between the numeral classifier and the noun, and the conditions regulating the use of pre-classifier adjectives. On the other hand, particular attention is paid to the issues that have been less studied or gone unnoticed in previous studies, including a (more) fine-grained subcategorization of Chinese measurement constructions, the multiple grammatical roles played by the marker de ( ) in different numeral classifier constructions, the formation and derivation of Chinese partitive constructions, etc.
This volume explores the way in which grammaticalization processes - whereby lexical words eventually become markers of grammatical categories - converge and differ across various types of language. While grammaticalization at its core is a unidirectional phenomenon, in which the same pathways of change are replicated across languages, certain language types and language areas have distinct preferences with respect to what they grammaticalize and how. Previous work has principally addressed this question with specific reference to languages of Southeast and East Asia that do not seem to grammaticalize paradigms of categories in the same manner as Indo-European languages, or form extensive grammaticalization chains. This volume takes a broader approach and proceeds systematically area by area: specialists in the field address the processes of grammaticalization in languages of Africa, Europe, Asia and the Pacific, and the Americas, and in creole languages. The studies reveal a number of unique pathways of grammaticalization in each language area, as well as identifying the universal shared features of the phenomenon.
The Haida people make their home on the Queen Charlotte Islands in British Columbia and on Prince of Wales Island off the coast of southern Alaska. Their language, distinct from their Northwest Coast neighbors, is spoken today by a few elders and is in danger of becoming extinct, despite efforts by the community to save it. Intimately familiar with the Haida language, John Enrico bases this comprehensive description of the syntax of two Haida dialects on his twenty-five years of fieldwork in the Haida community and on the materials collected by the anthropologist John Swanton in the early twentieth century. This synthesis of the syntax of the Haida language provides an exemplary reference work of the language for the Haida community and for scholars.
Even though the range of phenomena syntactic theories intend to account for is basically the same, the large number of current approaches to syntax shows how differently these phenomena can be interpreted, described, and explained. The goal of the volume is to probe into the question of how exactly these frameworks differ and what if anything they have in common.Descriptions of a sample of current approaches to syntax are presented by their major practitioners (Part I) followed by their metatheoretical underpinnings (Part II). Given that the goal is to facilitate a systematic comparison among the approaches, a checklist of issues was given to the contributors to address. The main headings are Data, Goals, Descriptive Tools, and Criteria for Evaluation. The chapters are structured uniformly allowing an item-by-item survey across the frameworks. The introduction lays out the parameters along which syntactic frameworks must be the same and how they may differ and a final paper draws some conclusions about similarities and differences.The volume is of interest to descriptive linguists, theoreticians of grammar, philosophers of science, and studies of the cognitive science of science.
Classification of parts of speech in Chinese is tough due to the lack of morphological differences, and thus is short of in-depth investigation and exploration. Based on the analysis and research of nearly 40,000 Chinese characters, this book elaborates on the system of Chinese parts of speech and proposes a set of criteria on their classification, contributing to relevant theoretical and methodological studies. To begin with, it examines the common characteristics and internal hierarchies of parts of speech, as well as the relationship between grammatical functions and parts of speech in modern Chinese. Then it puts forward the criteria on the classification of Chinese parts of speech, with a descriptive explanation of around 20 parts of speech. Besides, it illustrates the statistical studies on Chinese parts of speech, offering data support and corpus verification to the criteria. Also, it analyses the system of Chinese parts of speech from the perspective of typology. Specifically, it elucidates the correspondence between syntactic positions and parts of speech, functional differentiation of Chinese word items, etc. This book will be a valuable reference to researchers and students in Chinese linguistics. Learners of Chinese will also be attracted by it.
Terence and the Verb 'To Be' in Latin is the first in-depth study of the verb 'to be' in Latin (esse) and some of its hidden properties. Like the English 'be' (e.g. it's), the Latin forms of esse could undergo phonetic reduction or contraction. This phenomenon is largely unknown since classical texts have undergone a long process of transmission over the centuries, which has altered or deleted its traces. Although they are often neglected by scholars and puzzling to students, the use of contracted forms is shown to be widespread and significant. These forms expose the clitic nature of esse, which also explains other properties of the verb, including its participation in a prosodic simplification with a host ending in -s (sigmatic ecthlipsis), a phenomenon which is also discussed in the volume. After an introduction on methodology, the volume discusses the linguistic significance of such phenomena, focusing in particular on analysis of their behaviour in the plays of the ancient Roman playwright, Terence. Combining traditional scholarship with the use of digital resources, the volume explores the orthographic, phonological, semantic, and syntactic aspects of the verb esse, revealing that cliticization is a key feature of the verb 'to be' in Latin, and that contractions deserve a place within its paradigm.
This book examines the evidential status and use of linguistic intuitions, a topic that has seen increased interest in recent years. Linguists use native speakers' intuitions - such as whether or not an utterance sounds acceptable - as evidence for theories about language, but this approach is not uncontroversial. The two parts of this volume draw on the most recent work in both philosophy and linguistics to explore the two major issues at the heart of the debate. Chapters in the first part address the 'justification question', critically analysing and evaluating the theoretical rationale for the evidential use of linguistic intuitions. The second part discusses recent developments in the domain of experimental syntax, focusing on the question of whether gathering intuitions experimentally is epistemically and methodologically superior to the informal methods that have traditionally been used. The volume provides valuable insights into whether and how linguistic intuitions can be used in theorizing about language, and will be of interest to graduate students and researchers in linguistics, philosophy, and cognitive science.
Latent semantic mapping (LSM) is a generalization of latent semantic analysis (LSA), a paradigm originally developed to capture hidden word patterns in a text document corpus. In information retrieval, LSA enables retrieval on the basis of conceptual content, instead of merely matching words between queries and documents. It operates under the assumption that there is some latent semantic structure in the data, which is partially obscured by the randomness of word choice with respect to retrieval. Algebraic and/or statistical techniques are brought to bear to estimate this structure and get rid of the obscuring ""noise."" This results in a parsimonious continuous parameter description of words and documents, which then replaces the original parameterization in indexing and retrieval. This approach exhibits three main characteristics: Discrete entities (words and documents) are mapped onto a continuous vector space This mapping is determined by global correlation patterns; and Dimensionality reduction is an integral part of the process. Such fairly generic properties are advantageous in a variety of different contexts, which motivates a broader interpretation of the underlying paradigm. The outcome (LSM) is a data-driven framework for modeling meaningful global relationships implicit in large volumes of (not necessarily textual) data. This monograph gives a general overview of the framework, and underscores the multifaceted benefits it can bring to a number of problems in natural language understanding and spoken language processing. It concludes with a discussion of the inherent tradeoffs associated with the approach, and some perspectives on its general applicability to data-driven information extraction.
The linker introduces ("links") a variety of expressions into the verb phrase, including locatives, the second object of a double object construction, the second object of a causative, instruments, subject matter arguments, and adverbs. This volume collects together Chris Collins's published work on the linker in the Khoisan languages. Here, Collins offers a systematic description of the linker in Hoa, Ju|'hoan, N|uu, and to a lesser extent !Xoo and |Xam. For each language, Collins illustrates various uses of the linker, drawing attention to cross-linguistic generalizations as well as to variation between the languages. The work presented in this volume should be of interest to researchers working in a wide variety of syntactic frameworks on different languages of the world.
First published privately in 1885 and reissued in 1959, this
grammar text employs the inductive method of Hebrew instruction
developed by William Rainey Harper and practiced by him at the
University of Chicago.
Routledge Language Workbooks provide absolute beginners with practical introductions to core areas of language study. Books in the series provide comprehensive coverage of the area as well as a basis for further investigation. Each Language Workbook guides the reader through the subject using 'hands-on' language analysis, equipping them with the basic analytical skills needed to handle a wide range of data. explained, Language Workbooks can be used for independent study or as part of a taught class. Sentence Structure *introduces the evidence for sentence structure and reveals its purpose *is based on a problem-solving approach to language *teaches the reader how to identify word classes, such as noun, preposition and demonstrative *uses simple tree structures to analyse sentences *contains numerous exercises to encourage practical skills of sentence analysis *includes a database and exercises that compare the structure of English with other languages. The second edition of Sentence Structure has been revised and updated throughout.
This book contains papers that were written to honor Professor Lyn Frazier on the occasion of her retirement from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Some were presented at the Lynschrift on May 19-20, 2018; others were written especially for this volume. The papers report original research on, or research-based theoretical analyses of, several of the domains that Professor Frazier contributed to during her career. The volume begins with a brief overview of Professor Frazier's research contributions and an appreciation of the contributions she has made to the field of psycholinguistics and to her students and colleagues. The next several chapters discuss the roles that prosody plays in language processing, and the volume continues with chapters on the topic that established Professor Frazier as a major psycholinguistic theorist, syntactic processing. The volume then explores the roles semantics and pragmatics play in language comprehension, and concludes with reports of applications and extensions of research on language processing. All chapters were contributed by current and former students and colleagues of Professor Frazier in gratitude for the impact she has had on their lives and careers.
It is not entirely clear if modern Chinese is a monosyllabic or disyllabic language. Although a disyllabic prosodic unit of some sort has long been considered by many to be at play in Chinese grammar, the intuition is not always rigidly fleshed out theoretically in the area of Chinese morphology. In this book, Shengli Feng applies the theoretical model of prosodic morphology to Chinese morphology to provide the theoretical clarity regarding how and why Mandarin Chinese words are structured in a particular way. All of the facts generated by the system of prosodic morphology in Chinese provide new perspectives for linguistic theory, as well as insights for teaching Chinese and studying of Chinese poetic prosody.
This book examines diachronic change and diversity in the morphosyntax of Romance varieties spoken in Italy. These varieties offer an especially fertile terrain for research into language change, because of both the richness of dialectal variation and the length of the period of textual attestation. While attention in the past has been focussed on the variation found in phonology, morphology, and vocabulary, this volume examines variation in morphosyntactic structures, covering a range of topics designed to exploit and explore the interaction of the geographical and historical dimensions of change. The opening chapter sets the scene for specialist and non-specialist readers alike, and establishes the conceptual and empirical background. There follow a series of case studies investigating the morphosyntax of verbal and (pro)nominal constructions and the organization of the clause. Data are drawn from the full range of Romance dialects spoken within the borders of modern Italy, ranging from Sicily and Sardinia through to Piedmont and Friuli. Some of the studies narrow the focus to a particular construction within a particular dialect; others broaden out to compare different patterns of evolution within different dialects. There is also diversity in the theoretical frameworks adopted by the various contributors. The book aims to take stock of both the current state of the field and the fruits of recent research, and to set out new results and new questions to help move forward the frontiers of that research. It will be a valuable resource not only for those specializing in the study of Italo-Romance varieties, but also for other Romanists and for those interested in exploring and understanding the mechanisms of morphosyntactic change more generally.
Contents: Introduction; The House of My Pilgrimage; The Personal Interrogative -- Arjuna and the Gita; 'So Help Me -- Who?'; Pronounal Jewry -- God's Own People; The Self-Encounter in Judaism; The Muslim Personal Pronoun Singular; The Muslim Personal Pronoun Plural; The 'We' and the 'I' in the New Testament; Two Great Sexes Animate the World; Our Dividual Being -- The Irony of Mystical Union; Faiths' Pronoun-Users Now; Notes; Index of Names and Terms.
What is grammar? Why does it exist? What difference, if any, does it make to the organization of meaning? This book seeks to give principled answers to these questions. Its topic is 'universal' grammar, in the sense that grammar is universal to human populations. But while modern generative grammar stands in the tradition of 'Cartesian linguistics' as emerging in the 17th century, this book re-addresses the question of the grammatical in a broader historical frame, taking inspiration from Modistic and Ancient Indian philosopher-linguists to formulate a different and 'Un-Cartesian' programme in linguistic theory. Its core claim is that the organization of the grammar is not distinct from the organization of human thought. This sapiens-specific mode of thought is uniquely propositional: grammar, therefore, organizes propositional forms of reference and makes knowledge possible. Such a claim has explanatory power as well: the grammaticalization of the hominin brain is critical to the emergence of our mind and our speciation. A thoroughly interdisciplinary endeavour, the book seeks to systematically integrate the philosophy of language and linguistic theory. It casts a fresh look at core issues that any philosophy of (universal) grammar will need to address, such as the distinction between lexical and grammatical meaning, the significance of part of speech distinctions, the grammar of reference and deixis, the relation between language and reality, and the dimensions of cross-linguistic and bio-linguistic variation.
Anyone writing texts in English is constantly faced with the unavoidable question whether to use open spelling (drinking fountain), hyphenation (far-off) or solid spelling (airport) for individual compounds. While some compounds commonly occur with alternative spellings, others show a very clear bias for one form. This book tests over 60 hypotheses and explores the patterns underlying the spelling of English compounds from a variety of perspectives. Based on a sample of 600 biconstituent compounds with identical spelling in all reference works in which they occur (200 each with open, hyphenated and solid spelling), this empirical study analyses large amounts of data from corpora and dictionaries and concludes that the spelling of English compounds is not chaotic but actually correlates with a large number of statistically significant variables. An easily applicable decision tree is derived from the data and an innovative multi-dimensional prototype model is suggested to account for the results.
A pioneering new approach to a long-debated topic at the heart of syntax: what are the primitive concepts and operations of syntax? This book argues, appealing in part to the logic of Chomsky's Minimalist Program, that the primitive operations of syntax form relations between words rather than combining words to form constituents. Just three basic relations, definable in terms of inherent selection properties of words, are required in natural language syntax: projection, argument selection, and modification. In the radically simplified account of generative grammar Bowers proposes there are just two interface levels, which interact with our conceptual and sensory systems, and a lexicon from which an infinite number of sentences can be constructed. The theory also provides a natural interpretation of phase theory, enabling a better formulation of many island constraints, as well as providing the basis for a unified approach to ellipsis phenomena.
Surveying over 300 languages, this typological study presents new theoretical insights into the nature of agreement, as well as empirical findings about the distribution of agreement patterns in the world's languages. Focussing primarily on agreement in gender, number and person, but with reference to agreement in other smaller categories, Ranko Matasovic aims to discover which patterns of agreement are widespread and common in languages, and which are rather limited in their distribution. He sheds new light on a range of important theoretical questions such as what agreement actually is, what areal, typological and genetic patterns exist across agreement systems, and what problems in the analysis of agreement remain unresolved.
This booklet provides the answers to the exercises in "Introduction to Attic Greek, 2nd Edition" by Donald J. Mastronarde, (UC Press, 2013, 978-0-520-27571-3). It is an invaluable guide for instructors and independent language students. Additional teaching resources are available at atticgreek.org.
German Grammar Practice on CD-ROM. Features: 124 pages of activities; Fully interactive; Designed for school or individual use; Works instantly, no manual required! Requires only minimal ICT skills. Runs on both PC (including XP) and MAC (Classic or OSX).
This volume offers a wide-range of case studies on variation and change in the sub-family of the Romance languages that includes French and Occitan: Gallo-Romance. Both standard and non-standard Gallo-Romance data can be of enormous value to studies of morphosyntactic variation and change, yet, as the volume demonstrates, non-standard and comparative Gallo-Romance data have often been lacking in both synchronic and diachronic studies. Following an introduction that sets out the conceptual background, the volume is divided into three parts whose chapters explore a variety of topics in the domains of sentence structure, the verb complex, and word structure. The empirical foundation of the volume is exceptionally rich, drawing on standard and non-standard data from French, Occitan, Francoprovencal, Picard, Wallon, and Norman. This diversity is also reflected in the theoretical and conceptual approaches adopted, which span traditional philology, sociolinguistics, formal morphological and syntactic theory, semantics, and discourse-pragmatics. The volume will thus be an indispensable tool for researchers and students in French and (Gallo-) Romance linguistics as well as for readers interested in grammatical theory, sociolinguistics, and historical linguistics.
The Korean Verb - Structured and Complete provides an in-depth, systematic, and structured presentation of the Korean verb and its verb forms, a notoriously complex area for learners of the language. The book presents learners with a method that simplifies the forming and understanding of Korean verb forms. The method is based on encapsulating the irregularities in the verb forms in three stem forms for each verb. After introducing the three-stem method, the subsequent chapters apply this method to the three verb classes, consonant stems, vowel stems, and -stems. The book has three main features: the three-stem method; the complete treatment of irregular and similar regular verbs; and a complete dictionary of over 200 verb endings and suffixes. Each is useful in its own right; together they embody a complete understanding of the Korean verb form. The book is of prime interest to anybody who is involved in studying or teaching Korean, and more in particular to the intermediate and advanced student who likes to have a systematic way to tackle all Korean verb forms.
Building Meaning in Context: A Dynamic Approach to Bantu Clause Structure uses the tools of the Dynamic Syntax framework to explore morphosyntactic phenomena in a number of Bantu languages. Examines word order alternations, inversion constructions and negation in Bantu, showing the incremental nature of the build-up of meaning in context Highlights cross-linguistic parallels, drawing on data from Japanese, Korean, Romance languages and varieties of Greek Offers a radical new perspective on the nature of human language, showing the centrality of the concepts of underspecification and update which lie at the heart of the DS structure building process An innovative analysis with a broad empirical coverage
Does darkness lead to happiness? Is there corn in the corner? These are questions that make - to some extent - semantically sense, but for researchers interested in the role of morphology in word processing they make morphologically sense as well. This Special Issue on Morphological Processing is based on the 6th MOrphological PROcessing Conference MOPROC, which was organized in Turku, Finland and hosted researchers with a firm interest in questions like these. The special issue contains 13 articles that provide answers from different viewpoints, since it contains research on comprehension, production, and acquisition of morphology. Moreover, the articles present research in a number of languages with fundamentally different morphological systems. Apart from studies in West-Germanic languages (English and Dutch), the special issue contains studies in Romance languages (Spanish and Italian), in languages with very rich inflectional paradigms (Greek, Polish and Finnish) and in languages with non-concatenative morphology (Hebrew and Arabic). Moreover, it contains studies on all three major morphological classes: Inflections, derivations and compounds. Specific questions addressed in the volume deal with the time course with which morphemes come available, what factors facilitate their use, the role of orthographic and semantic transparency in complex word processing and how morphology should be incorporated in models of word processing. The chapters provide a wealth of empirical results obtained with state-of-the-art experimental paradigms. We hope that they will be an inspiration for further studies in morphological processing as much as we - living in Finland - hope that there is happiness in darkness.
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