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Ever wondered why we can say "Maria made the boy cry" but not "Maria made the boy crying"? Or why "Two coffees, please" is acceptable, but "Melvin loves coffees" is generally wrong? Or why we say "It has been raining since ten", even though nobody asks "What did you say has been raining"? These are some puzzles that will be examined in The Nuts and Bolts of English Grammar. This book will help you understand what English grammar is and how it works. It will show how English combines parts of words to form longer words, how words change their form and combine with other words to form phrases, and how phrases are subsequently combined to form clauses and sentences and texts. Grammar is made both interesting and practical with real-life grammar puzzles. Will this book help you to improve your grammar? Probably, because if you've gained a better understanding of grammar by the time you reach the end of this book, you should be able to analyse your own sentences in ways you've never done before, and spot and avoid common grammatical errors.
Language, apart from its cultural and social dimension, has a scientific side that is connected not only to the study of 'grammar' in a more or less traditional sense, but also to disciplines like mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology. This book explores developments in linguistic theory, looking in particular at the theory of generative grammar from the perspective of the natural sciences. It highlights the complex and dynamic nature of language, suggesting that a comprehensive and full understanding of such a species-specific property will only be achieved through interdisciplinary work.
Written by a leading scholar in the field, "Classical Japanese: A Grammar" is an elegant, comprehensive, and practical guide to classical Japanese. Extensive notes and historical explanations make this volume useful as both a reference for advanced students and a textbook for beginning students.
Classical Japanese ( "bungo") was used to write Japanese for more thirteen hundred years, until World War II. The volume, which explains how classical Japanese is related to modern Japanese, includes
Detailed explanations of basic grammar, including helpful, easy-to-use tables of grammatical forms
Annotated excerpts from classical premodern texts, with accompanying grammar and vocabulary notes
Exercises and an answer booklet
Detailed explanations of honorific expressions
Appendixes on sound changes, prefixes, and suffixes, rhetorical techniques, and auxiliary verb combinations
This edited collection brings together an international, interdisciplinary group of scholars who together offer cutting-edge insights into the complex roles, functions, and effects of pronouns in literary texts. The book engages with a range of text-types, including poetry, drama, and prose from different periods and regions, in English and in translation. Beginning with analyses of the first-person pronoun, it moves onto studies of the subject dynamics of first- and second-person, before considering plural modes of narration and how pronoun use can help to disperse narrative perspective. The volume then debates the functional constraints of pronouns in fictional contexts and finally reflects upon the theoretical advancements presented in the collection. This innovative volume will appeal to students and scholars of linguistics, stylistics and cognitive poetics, narratology, theoretical and applied linguistics, psychology and literary criticism.
"Explorations in Functional Syntax develops a practical framework for analyzing the syntactic structure of a text from a functional perspective. It outlines a model in which the syntactic analysis, on a single dimension, mirrors more explicitly the multidimensional meaning structure of the text. The syntactic framework thus takes account of semantic concepts such as participants and things, processes, features and qualities, and circumstances, all of which constitute elements of ideas. But it also deals with the cohesive links which connect ideas and with personal comments, etc. which may be interspersed in amongst them. Though set firmly in the mould of systemic functional grammar, the book focuses on lexicogrammar--grammatical units and relations, structural elements, configurations and complexities; social context and the semantic stratum are sketched out only as integral background. In elaborating a unitary syntactic framework which is functionally orientated so as to reflect the meaning structure of a text, the book represents a significant departure from the 'standard' mode of handling lexicogrammar in systemic linguistics. Important differences have been introduced with regard, firstly, to the nature of units on the rank scale and their relationships to structural complexes and, secondly, to the range and scope of elements of clause structure. The book is well illustrated with examples of the descriptive framework in action throughout the text and in a summary end chapter.
This smartly illustrated literary miscellanea is intended to stimulate readers and writers of English prose. From ""dead language - the speaks"" (i.e., ad-speak, media-speak, corporate-speak) through ""re-writing - Again?"" to rules (to obey or not to obey), authors Barry Healey and Cordelia Strube examine what makes good and bad writing. With tongue often in cheek, they scrutinize various forms of prose and the seven major prose elements, and reflect on how to approach the writing process most effectively. Exhilarating Prose also abounds with examples of startling writing, wide-ranging quotes from celebrated authors, and their own ruminations on the oddities of writing and the infinite eccentricity of the human mind. To those interested in English words ""in their best order"" (Coleridge), this book will inform, engage, and amuse.
This book is the first dedicated to linguistic parsing - the processing of natural language according to the rules of a formal grammar - in the Minimalist Program. While Minimalism has been at the forefront of generative grammar for several decades, it often remains inaccessible to computer scientists and others in adjacent fields. This volume makes connections with standard computational architectures, provides efficient implementations of some fundamental minimalist accounts of syntax, explores implementations of recent theoretical proposals, and explores correlations between posited structures and measures of neural activity during human language comprehension. These studies will appeal to graduate students and researchers in formal syntax, computational linguistics, psycholinguistics, and computer science.
A collection of 10 essays on Early Welsh. Contents: The etymology of Welsh chwith and the semantics and morphology of PIE *k(w)sweibh- ( Peter Schrijver ); Rowynniauc, Rhufoniog: the orthography and phonology of /m/ in Early Welsh ( Paul Russell ); Old English literacy and the provenance of Welsh y ( Peter Kitson ); Two developments in medieval literary Welsh and their implications for dating texts ( Simon Rodway ); The structure and typology of prepositional relative clauses in Early Welsh ( Graham Isaac ); The dry point glosses in Oxoniensis Posterior ( Alexander Falileyev and Paul Russell ); The Old Welsh glosses on Weights and Measures ( Pierre-Yves Lambert ); Marwnad Cunedda a diwedd y Brydain Rufeinig ( John T Koch ); Are there elements of non-standard language in the work of the Gogynfeirdd? ( Peter Busse ); The Progressive in Ystorya Bown de Hamtwn ( Erich Poppe ).
Corpus Linguistics for Grammar provides an accessible and practical introduction to the use of corpus linguistics to analyse grammar, demonstrating the wider application of corpus data and providing readers with all the skills and information they need to carry out their own corpus-based research. This book: explores the kinds of corpora available and the tools which can be used to analyse them; looks at specific ways in which features of grammar can be explored using a corpus through analysis of areas such as frequency and colligation; contains exercises, worked examples and suggestions for further practice with each chapter; provides three illustrative examples of potential research projects in the areas of English Literature, TESOL and English Language. Corpus Linguistics for Grammar is essential reading for students undertaking corpus-based research into grammar, or studying within the areas of English Language, Literature, Applied Linguistics and TESOL.
This book investigates the lexico-grammatical complementarity in language in its construal of person as a semantic system. Given the vast and wide spectrum of resources for expressing distinctions in the assignment of person roles in language, this book presents person-related system networks covering a rich range of semantic features. It also studies the system of person in relation to other major semantic systems instead of regarding it as one isolated component of language parallel to gender, number, case, etc. Systemic features of person are in turn realized by lexicogrammar, whose components, lexis and grammar form a relationship of complementarity in the process of transforming human experience into meaning. Person-related meaning can be either realized by lexical means, i.e. entity, process, quality, or grammatical means, i.e. pronouns, clitics, affixes, zero forms. Besides, such meaning is also found to be realized at some indeterminate areas along the lexis-grammar continuum. A special feature of this book is that it observes the lexicalization and grammaticalization of person based on evidence from a variety of languages. Readers will be presented a comprehensive look into the meaning of person and will be encouraged to reflect on its realization in their own languages.
Since 1970-ties in the theory of syntax of natural language quite a number of competing, incommensurable theoretic frameworks have emerged. Today the lack of a leading paradigm and kaleidoscope of perspectives deprives our general understanding of syntax and its relation to semantics and pragmatics. The present book is an attempt to reestablish the most fundamental ideas and intuitions of syntactic well-formedness within a new general account. The account is not supposed to compete with any of today 's syntactic frameworks, but to provide a deeper understanding of why these frameworks succeed or fail when they do and to show a new way for cooperation between logicians and linguists which may lead in future to a unified, yet more specific account.
In Ten Lectures on Construction Grammar and Typology, William Croft presents a unified theory of linguistic form and meaning that encompasses crosslinguistic diversity, verbalization and language change. Croft begins from construction grammar, a theory of syntax in which all syntactic structures are a pairing of form and meaning. Constructions are posited as basic; syntactic categories are defined by constructions. The internal structure of constructions directly link elements of constructions to the meanings they express, Constructions across languages can be situated in a space of syntactic variation. Grammar emerges from the verbalization of experience. Constructions occur in a probability distribution across the conceptual space of meanings. These probability distributions evolve, leading to grammatical change in language, modeled in an evolutionary framework.
In this long-awaited book2;the first in a three-volume work2;David
M. Perlmutter has co-authored and edited ten essays that introduce
relational grammar, a novel conception of sentence structure that
offers far-reaching conclusions for universal grammar.
This book explores the concept of complementation in the adjectival domain of English grammar. Alternation between non-finite complements, especially to infinitives and gerundial complements, has been investigated intensively on the basis of large corpora in the last few years. With very few exceptions, however, such work has hitherto been based on univariate analysis methods. Using multivariate analysis, the authors present methodologically innovative case studies examining a large array of explanatory factors potentially impacting complement choice in cases of alternation. This approach yields more precise information on the impact of each factor on complement choice as well as on interactions between different explanatory factors. The book thus presents a methodologically new perspective on the study of the system of non-finite complementation in recent English and variation within that system, and will be relevant to academics and students with an interest in English grammar, predicate complementation, and statistical approaches to language.
Chapters in this volume describe morphology using four different frameworks that have an architectural property in common: they all use defaults as a way of discovering and presenting systematicity in the least systematic component of grammar. These frameworks - Construction Morphology, Network Morphology, Paradigm-function Morphology, and Word Grammar - display key differences in how they constrain the use and scope of defaults, and in the morphological phenomena that they address. An introductory chapter presents an overview of defaults in linguistics and specifically in morphology. In subsequent chapters, key proponents of the four frameworks seek to answer questions about the role of defaults in the lexicon, including: Does a defaults-based account of language have implications for the architecture of the grammar, particularly the proposal that morphology is an autonomous component? How does a default differ from the canonical or prototypical in morphology? Do defaults have a psychological basis? And how do defaults help us understand language as a sign-based system that is flawed, where the one to one association of form and meaning breaks down in the morphology?
This book is a study of modern Bengali words based on the data obtained from a corpus of written texts. The author has used all kinds of data, information and examples from the Bengali corpus to shape up this text. He has made an empirical attempt to analyse Bengali words and other lexical items from the perspective of their surface orthographic representation to understand the internal structure of their composition with a focus on their functional roles in various contexts of their usage within texts. In order to achieve this goal, he has established a link between the internal composition and external representation of words within an interface of usage and function of words in texts. The issues addressed in the book include decomposition of words, interpretation of function of word-formative elements and analysis of lexico-semantic identities of the word-formative elements in relation to their function in words.
Tocharian and Indo-European Studies is the central publication for the study of two closely related languages, Tocharian A and Tocharian B. Found in many Buddhist manuscripts from central Asia, Tocharian dates back to the second half of the first millennium of the Common Era, though it was not discovered until the twentieth century. Focusing on both philological and linguistic aspects of this language, Tocharian and Indo-European Studies also looks at it in relationship to other Indo-European languages.
This book collects the contributions presented at the international congress held at the University of Bologna in January 2007, where leading scholars of different persuasions and interests offered an up-to-date overview of the current status of the research on linguistic universals. The papers that make up the volume deal with both theoretical and empirical issues, and range over various domains, covering not only morphology and syntax, which were the major focus of Greenberg's seminal work, but also phonology and semantics, as well as diachrony and second language acquisition. Diverse perspectives illustrate and discuss a huge number of phenomena from a wide variety of languages, not only exploring the way research on universals - tersects with different subareas of linguistics, but also contributing to the ongoing debate between functional and formal approaches to explaining the universals of language. This stimulating reading for scientists, researchers and postgraduate students in linguistics shows how different, but not irreconcilable, modes of explanation can complement each other, both offering fresh insights into the investigation of unity and diversity in languages, and pointing to exciting areas for future research. * A fresh and up-to-date survey of the present state of research on Universals of Language in an international context, with original contributions from leading specialists in the eld. * First-hand accounts of substantive ndings and theoretical observations in diff- ent subareas of linguistics. * Huge number of linguistic phenomena and data from diffferent languages a- lyzed and discussed in detail.
These brisk and humorous one-sentence examples of writing mistakes provide teachers with what are often called "daily oral language" exercises that help students master the basics of capitalization, mechanics, punctuation, and usage. Such quick mini-lessons can become boring when the sentence comes from another classroom subject such as science, but this book's punchy declarations get kids' attention and keep the focus on writing. Each exercise includes an at-a-glance summary of skills addressed, as well as quick ideas and tips to help students understand basic grammar concepts.
This book examines the language studies of Western missionaries in China and beyond. The goal of this study is to examine the purpose, methods, context, and influence of missionary language studies. The book reveals new insights into the hitherto less well-known and unstudied origins of language thinking. These publically unknown sources virtually form our «hidden history of language. Some key 17th century and pre-17th century descriptions of language not only pass on our Greco-Latin «grammatical heritage internationally for about two millennia. They also reveal grammar, speaking, and language as an esoteric knowledge. Our modern life has been formed and influenced through both esoteric and common connotations in language. It is precisely the techniques, allusions, and intentions of language making revealed in rare, coded texts which have influenced our modern identities. These extraordinary and highly controversial interpretations of both language and Christianity reveal that our modern identities have been largely shaped in the absence of public knowledge and discussion.
This book develops a minimalist approach to cross-linguistic morphosyntactic variation. Ian Roberts argues that the essential insight of the principles-and-parameters approach to variation can be maintained - albeit in a somewhat different guise - in the context of the minimalist programme for linguistic theory. The central idea is to organize the parameters of Universal Grammar (UG) into hierarchies that define the ways in which properties of individually variant categories and features may act in concert. A further leading idea, which is consistent with the overall goal of the minimalist programme to reduce the content of UG, is that the parameter hierarchies are not directly determined by UG, and are instead emergent properties stemming from the interaction of the three factors in language design. Cross-linguistic variation in word order, null subjects, incorporation, verb-movement, case/alignment, wh-movement, and negation are all analysed in the light of this approach. This book represents a significant new contribution to the formal study of cross-linguistic morphosyntactic variation on both the empirical and theoretical levels, and will appeal to researchers and students in all areas of theoretical linguistics and comparative syntax.
Modular grammar postulates several autonomous generative systems interacting with one another as opposed to the prevailing theory of transformational grammar where there is a single generative component - the syntax - from which other representations are derived. In this book Jerrold Sadock develops his influential theory of grammar, formalizing several generative modules that independently characterize the levels of syntax, semantics, role structure, morphology and linear order, as well as an interface system that connects them. Multi-modular grammar provides simpler, more intuitive analyses of grammatical phenomena and allows for greater empirical coverage than prevailing styles of grammar. The book illustrates this with a wide-ranging analysis of English grammatical phenomena, including raising, control, passive, inversion, do-support, auxiliary verbs and ellipsis. The modules are simple enough to be cast as phrase structure grammars and are presented in sufficient detail to make descriptions of grammatical phenomena more explicit than the approximate accounts offered in other studies.
This book argues (a) that there is no principled way to distinguish inflection and derivation and (b) that this fatally undermines conventional approaches to morphology. Conceptual shortcomings in the relation between derivational and lexically-derived word forms, Andrew Spencer suggests, call into question the foundation of the inferential-derivational approach. Prototypical instances of inflection and derivation are separated by a host of intermediate types of lexical relatedness, some discussed in the literature, others ignored. Far from finding these an embarrassment Professor Spencer deploys the wealth of types of relatedness in a variety of languages (including Slavic, Uralic, Australian, Germanic, and Romance) to develop an enriched and morphologically-informed model of the lexical entry. He then uses this to build the foundations for a model of lexical relatedness that is consistent with paradigm-based models. Lexical Relatedness is a profound and stimulating book. It will interest all morphologists, lexicographers, and theoretical linguists more generally.
This volume focuses on detailed studies of various aspects of Construction Morphology, and combines theoretical analysis and descriptive detail. It deals with data from several domains of linguistics and contributes to an integration of findings from various subdisciplines of linguistics into a common model of the architecture of language. It presents applications and extensions of the model of Construction Morphology to a wide range of languages. Construction Morphology is one of the theoretical paradigms in present-day morphology. It makes use of concepts of Construction Grammar for the analysis of word formation and inflection. Complex words are seen as constructions, that is, pairs of form and meaning. Morphological patterns are accounted for by construction schemas. These are the recipes for coining new words and word forms, and they motivate the properties of existing complex words. Both schemas and individual words are stored, and hence there is no strict separation of lexicon and grammar. In addition to abstract schemas there are subschemas for subclasses of complex words with specific properties. This architecture of the grammar is in harmony with findings from other empirical domains of linguistics such as language acquisition, word processing, and language change.
This comprehensive case study of a systematic shift in object expression provides insight into the construal of a class of two-place activity verbs in the history of French and proposes that a change in the prepositional system underlies the shift.The book focuses on nineteen verbs of helping and hindering whose single internal object shifts from indirect to direct object during the 15th and 16th century. It describes how these verbs are distinguished from all other verbs that take indirect objects in French and explains why only their indirect object was the target of change. Troberg offers a detailed examination of the data to show that contrary to previous approaches to the problem, the shift was neither random nor a result of low-level analogical changes.An important outcome of the study links the shift in object expression to other changes in the grammar at the end of the Middle French period. The author argues that the loss of the syntactically derived Path meaning, available to simple prepositions in the earlier stages of French, not only brings about the decisive shift in object expression, but also triggers the loss of a number of resultative secondary predicate constructions at the same time.
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