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This book presents a new cross-linguistic analysis of gender and its effects on morphosyntax. It addresses questions including the syntactic location of gender features; the role of natural gender; and the relationship between syntactic gender features and the morphological realization of gender. Ruth Kramer argues that gender features are syntactically located on the n head ('little n'), which serves to nominalize category-neutral roots. Those gender features are either interpretable, as in the case of natural gender, or uninterpretable, like the gender of an inanimate noun in Spanish. Adopting Distributed Morphology, the book lays out how the gender features on n map onto the gender features relevant for morphological exponence. The analysis is supported by an in-depth case study of Amharic, which poses challenges for previous gender analyses and provides clear support for gender on n. The proposals generate a typology of two- and three-gender systems, with the various types illustrated using data from a genetically diverse set of languages. Finally, further evidence for gender being on n is provided from case studies of Somali and Romanian, as well as from the relationship between gender and other linguistic phenomena including derived nouns and declension class. Overall, the book provides one of the first large-scale, cross-linguistically-oriented, theoretical approaches to the morphosyntax of gender.
Kannada, one of the major languages of the Dravidian family, is spoken by over 40 million people, mainly in the state of Karnataka, South India, where it is the official language. It is one of the twenty-two languages recognised by the Indian Constitution. It has a rich literary tradition going back to the ninth century, and exhibits a complex pattern of socio-linguistic and stylistic variation, marked, in part, by a thorough assimilation of Indo-Aryan (Sanskrit, Prakrit. indi-Urdu, etc.,) and more recently, English elements. "The present descriptive grammar gives a detailed and sophisticated account of the standard language, drawing on the insights of traditional structuralist, and generative linguists, and on the authors own extensive research. Keeping the needs of both the theoretician and the descriptivist in mind, the work gives a lucid explicit and in many cases original account of the major and minor structures of the language in syntax, morphology, and phonology. A valuable feature of this grammar is the authors consistent attempt to relate formal and functional aspects of the language. Although the variety described is the standard literary variety (because of its greater morphological transparency), the forms of the colloquial varieties are continuously referred to, and the examples convey the flavour of spoken idiomatic Kannada. With its descriptive rigour, range of phenomena covered, wealth of examples, and ethnographic insights, this volume is the most current, comprehensive, and authoritative description of modern Kannada to date. The book will interest students and researchers in the areas of linguistic theory, descriptive linguistics, language typology, comparative/contrastive linguistics, language contact and convergence, and South Asian linguistics as well as translation and Kannada language and literary studies.
This book examines the nature of the interface between word meaning and syntax, one of the most controversial and elusive issues in contemporary linguistics. It approaches the interface from both sides of the relation, and surveys a range of views on the mapping between them, with an emphasis on lexical approaches to argument structure. Stephen Wechsler begins by analysing the fundamental problem of word meaning, with discussions of vagueness and polysemy, complemented with a look at the roles of world knowledge and normative aspects of word meaning. He then surveys the argument-taking properties of verbs and other predicators, and presents key theories of lexical semantic structure. Later chapters provide a description of formal theories and frameworks for capturing the mapping from word meaning to syntactic structure, as well as arguments in favour of a lexicalist approach to argument structure. The book will interest scholars of theoretical linguistics, particularly in the fields of syntax and lexical semantics, as well as those interested in psycholinguistics and philosophy of language.
This book explores language variation and change from the perspective of generative syntax, based on a case study of relative clauses in contemporary European Portuguese and earlier stages of Portuguese. Adriana Cardoso offers a comparative account of three linguistic phenomena in the synchrony and diachrony of Portuguese-remnant-internal relativization, extraposition of restrictive relative clauses, and appositive relativization-and shows that the changes affecting these structures conspired to reduce the patterns of nominal discontinuity available in the language. Adopting a cross-linguistic perspective, she additionally shows that this series of changes transformed Portuguese from a 'Germanic-like' language, with a wide range of phrasal discontinuities, to a 'non-Germanic type', with more restricted patterns of discontinuity. The volume will be of particular interest to scholars working on Portuguese syntax, but also to Romance linguists and all those interested in historical and comparative syntax more widely.
Over the last decades, it has been hotly debated whether and how compounds, i.e. word-formations, and phrases differ from each other. The book discusses this issue by investigating compounds and phrases from a structural, semantic-functional and, crucially, cognitive perspective. The analysis focuses on compounds and phrases that are composed of either an adjective and a noun or two nouns in German, French and English. Having distinguished compounds from phrases on structural and semantic-functional grounds, the author claims that compounds are by their nature more appropriate to be stored in the mental lexicon than phrases and supports his argument with empirical evidence from new psycholinguistic studies. In sum, the book maintains the separation between compounds and phrases and reflects upon its cognitive consequences.
An investigation of the syntax and semantics of wh-questions through the lens of intervention effects, offering a new proposal on overt and covert wh-movement. In this book, Hadas Kotek investigates the syntax and semantics of wh-questions, offering a new solution to a central question in the study of interrogatives: given that overt wh-movement is cross-linguistically common, is syntactic movement a prerequisite for the interpretation of wh-phrases? Some linguists argue that all wh-phrases undergo movement to interrogative C, even if covertly; others propose mechanisms of in-situ interpretation that do not require any movement. Kotek moves beyond these positions to argue that wh-in-situ does move covertly, but not necessarily to C. Instead, she contends, wh-in-situ undergoes a short movement step akin to covert scrambling. This makes the LF behavior of English parallel to the overt behavior of German. Kotek presents a series of self-paced reading experiments, alongside judgment data from German, to substantiate the idea of covert scrambling. She introduces new diagnostics for the underlying structure of questions, using as a principal tool the distribution of intervention effects. This system allows her to offer the first unified account for a range of phenomena of interrogative syntax-semantics as pied-piping, superiority effects, the cross-linguistically varied syntax of questions, and intervention effects. Kotek develops a theory of interrogative syntax-semantics; studies the phenomena of intervention effects in wh-questions, proposing that the nature of intervention is crucially tied to the availability of wh-movement in a question; and shows that covert wh-movement should be modeled as a short scrambling operation rather than an unbounded, successive-cyclic, and potentially long-distance movement operation.
This book presents a synchronic and diachronic study of all verbal classes and categories of the Tocharian branch of Indo-European. It lists all attested Tocharian verbal forms, together with semantic and etymological information. The material has been subject to careful philological evaluation and incorporates unedited or unpublished texts of the Berlin, London, and Paris collections. In addition, this study consistently takes into account the linguistic variation within the Tocharian B language and the relative chronology of texts. Moreover, Tocharian offers crucial evidence for the reconstruction of the PIE verbal system, and is also of interest to the general linguist for the interaction of voice and valency.
This book focuses on case studies of vocabulary strategy use and presents an in-depth account of the vocabulary learning experiences of Chinese students in the UK. It challenges the view that vocabulary strategies result only from learners' cognitive choices, and provides insightful analysis of the interplay between learner characteristics, agency and context in the process of strategic learning. The author makes a strong case for using qualitative methodologies to examine the dynamic, complex and contextually situated nature of strategic vocabulary learning. Drawing on multiple data sources, the book discusses issues that are central to the continuing development of vocabulary strategy research and offers theoretical, research-based and practical suggestions for future exploration. This book will appeal to students and scholars of second language acquisition, vocabulary and applied linguistics.
A clear introduction to lexical-functional grammar (LFG), this outstanding textbook sets out a formal approach to the study of language using a step-by-step approach and rich language data. Data from English and a range of other languages is used to illustrate the main concepts, allowing those students not accustomed to working with cross-linguistic data to familiarize themselves with the theory, while also enabling those interested in how the theory can account for more challenging data sets to extend their learning. Exercises ranging from simple technical questions to analyses of a data set, as well as a further resources section with a literature review complete each chapter. The book aims to equip readers with the skills to analyze new data sets and to begin to engage with the primary LFG literature.
Architecture of the Periphery in Chinese offers a comprehensive survey on the fine structure of the sentence peripheral domain in Mandarin Chinese from a cartographic perspective. Different functional projections hosting sentence-final particles, implicit operators and other informational components are hierarchically ordered according to the "Subjectivity Scale Constraint" functioning at syntax-discourse interface. Three questions will be essentially addressed: What is the order? How to determine such an order? Why such an order? This research not only gives a thorough examination of the peripheral elements in Chinese but also improves the general understanding of the ordering issue in the left-periphery crosslinguistically. This book is aimed at scholars interested in Chinese syntax or generative syntax.
This book argues that a basic grasp of philosophy and logic can produce written and spoken material that is both grammatically correct and powerful. The author analyses errors in grammar, word choice, phrasing and sentences that even the finest writers can fail to notice; concentrating on subtle missteps and errors that can make the difference between good and excellent prose. Each chapter addresses how common words and long-established grammatical rules are often misused or ignored altogether - including such common words as 'interesting', 'possible', and 'apparent'. By tackling language in this way, the author provides an illuminating and practical stylistic guide that will interest students and scholars of grammar and philosophy, as well as readers looking to improve their technical writing skills.
Cultural Writing. Language Reference. Middle Eastern Studies. A DICTIONARY OF COMMON PERSIAN AND ENGLISH VERBS contains over 10,000 verbs with Persian and English equivalents. This volume satisfies the need for a modern study aid for students of thePersian language which has, so far, not been met by the currently available reference works. It will be of invaluable assistance to students of Persian at all levels. It is suitable for those taking a formal course of instruction as well asthose teaching themselves. Hooshang Amuzegar has successfully taught Persian to English speakers in Iran for over thirty years and to British diplomats in London for ten years. He is the author of several other books, including an English translation of The Little Black Fish and a How to Speak, Read & Write Persian also published by Ibex Publishers.
Relative clauses play a hugely important role in analysing the structure of sentences. This book provides the first evidence that a unified analysis of the different types of relative clauses is possible - a step forward in our understanding. Using careful analyses of a wide range of languages, Cinque argues that the relative clause types can all be derived from a single, double-headed, structure. He also presents evidence that restrictive, maximalizing, ('integrated') non-restrictive, kind-defining, infinitival and participial RCs merge at different heights of the nominal extended projection. This book provides an elegant generalization about the structure of all relatives. Theoretically profound and empirically rich, it promises to radically alter the way we think about this subject for years to come.
Paradigmatic gaps ('missing' inflected forms) have traditionally been considered to be the random detritus of a language's history and marginal exceptions to the normal functioning of its inflectional system. Arguing that this is a misperception, Inflectional Defectiveness demonstrates that paradigmatic gaps are in fact normal and expected products of inflectional structure. Sims offers an accessible exploration of how and why inflectional defectiveness arises, why it persists, and how it is learned. The book presents a theory of morphology which is rooted in the implicative structure of the paradigm. This systematic exploration of the topic also addresses questions of inflection class organization, the morphology-syntax interface, the structure of the lexicon, and the nature of productivity. Presenting a novel synthesis of established research and new empirical data, this work is significant for researchers and graduate students in all fields of linguistics.
An introduction to the study of children's language development that provides a uniquely accessible perspective on generative/universal grammar-based approaches. How children acquire language so quickly, easily, and uniformly is one of the great mysteries of the human experience. The theory of Universal Grammar suggests that one reason for the relative ease of early language acquisition is that children are born with a predisposition to create a grammar. This textbook offers an introduction to the study of children's acquisition and development of language from a generative/universal grammar-based theoretical perspective, providing comprehensive coverage of children's acquisition while presenting core concepts crucial to understanding generative linguistics more broadly. After laying the theoretical groundwork, including consideration of alternative frameworks, the book explores the development of the sound system of language-children's perception and production of speech sound; examines how words are learned (lexical semantics) and how words are formed (morphology); investigates sentence structure (syntax), including argument structure, functional structure, and tense; considers such "nontypical" circumstances as acquiring a first language past infancy and early childhood, without the abilities to hear or see, and with certain cognitive disorders; and studies bilingual language acquisition, both simultaneously and in sequence. Each chapter offers a summary section, suggestions for further reading, and exercises designed to test students' understanding of the material and provide opportunities to practice analyzing children's language. Appendixes provide charts of the International Phonetic Alphabet (with links to websites that allow students to listen to the sounds associated with these symbols) and a summary of selected experimental methodologies.
This book deals with Albanian, including the dialects spoken in Southern Italy, and with the Aromanian spoken in Southern Albania. These languages are set in the context of current generative research on syntax, morphology, language variation and contact - yielding insights into key morphosyntactic notions of case, agreement, complementation, and into phenomena such as Differential Object Marking, the Person Case Constraint, linkers and control.
This new edition has been thoroughly revised and brought into accordance with the rules and the practice of today's language. Numerous examples from different modern texts and from a large database have been added. A detailed index helps the reader to find their way to key words.
Noam Chomsky's first book on syntactic structures is one of the first serious attempts on the part of a linguist to construct within the tradition of scientific theory-construction a comprehensive theory of language which may be understood in the same sense that a chemical, biological theory is understood by experts in those fields. It is not a mere reorganization of the data into a new kind of library catalogue, nor another specualtive philosophy about the nature of man and language, but rather a rigorus explication of our intuitions about our language in terms of an overt axiom system, the theorems derivable from it, explicit results which may be compared with new data and other intuitions, all based plainly on an overt theory of the internal structure of languages; and it may well provide an opportunity for the application of explicity measures of simplicity to decide preference of one form over another form of grammar.
Karen van Hoek presents a cogent analysis of the classic problem of
constraints on pronominal anaphora within the framework of
Cognitive Grammar. Van Hoek proceeds from the position that
grammatical structure can be characterized in terms of semantic and
phonological representations, without autonomous syntactic
structures or principles such as tree structures or c-command. She
argues that constraints on anaphora can be explained in terms of
semantic interactions between nominals and the contexts in which
they are embedded.
The book investigates from a comparative perspective various aspects of the little studied syntax of the dialects of southern Italy. In addition to providing a descriptive account of a wide range of syntactic phenomena traditionally overlooked in the literature, the discussion shows how the model of language embodied in Chomsky's (1995) Minimalist Program can be profitably extended to the study of the syntax of southern Italian dialects. Focusing on such topics as Case-marking and finite, infinitival and participial complementation, these dialects are demonstrated to present the linguist with a fertile test-bed in which to explore new ideas about language structure and micro-variation in the syntax of a relatively homogeneous group of dialects. The analysis elucidates significant aspects of the structure of these dialects and shows how a familiarity with the facts of southern Italian dialect syntax can broaden the empirical domain of the theory and shed light on important theoretical issues.
Late Egyptian - the vernacular idiom of the time of the Ramesside pharaohs (14th through 12th century BCE) - is a distinct episode in the history of the Egyptian-Coptic language. It is a vivid, fresh idiom, compared with the timehonoured Classical Egyptian language of the hieroglyphic texts. The vocabulary used is to a large extent new, it is obviously pronounced differently from the traditional language, and it is spelled in a characteristic way. The idiom also follows new grammatical rules. Usually it is described from a more historical standpoint, on the background of the older language, Middle Egyptian. Here, however, is an account of its structure that is independent of the languages' older phases. Sufficient space is given to phonetics and spelling, as well as morphology and syntax (on all its levels). The books deals with clauses of all sorts, like attributive, circumstance and noun clauses, narrative & conjunctive clauses as well as conditional and temporal clauses. The final part is devoted to the focalising constructions, so characteristic of Egyptian in general. The presentation of the grammar is illustrated by original text quotations; they are rendered in hieroglyphs, in transcription and in translation.
This festschrift volume brings together important contributions by expert syntacticians across the globe on tense and finiteness, adjectives, dative and ergative case, acquisition of case, and other topics both within the domain of Dravidian linguistics and in the broader theoretical understanding of cross-linguistic data. Professor R. Amritavalli, a renowned linguist, has spent over three decades in the fields of syntax and syntactic acquisition, making important and landmark contributions in these areas, and this book is a recognition of her work. The contributors cover these themes in the context of English, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Hindi-Urdu, Bangla, Dravidian languages, and understudied languages like Huave. The analyses presented here have major implications for current theories of syntax and semantics, first and second language acquisition, language typology and historical linguistics, and will be a valuable resource for students, researchers and teachers.
This textbook proposes a theoretical approach to linguistics in relation to teaching English. Combining research with practical classroom strategies and activities, it aims to satisfy the needs of new and experienced TESOL practitioners, helping them to understand the features of the English language and how those features impact on students in the classroom. The author provides a toolkit of strategies and practical teaching ideas to inspire and support practitioners in the classroom, encouraging reflection through regular stop-and-think tasks, so that practitioners have the opportunity to deepen their understanding and relate it to their own experience and practice. This book will appeal to students and practitioners in the fields of applied linguistics, TESOL, EAL, English language and linguistics, EAP, and business English.
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