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Students and scholars reading the secondary literature on Galatians must often negotiate specialized language and complex lines of argumentation. In addition to the theological jargon that traditionally characterizes discussion of Galatians, there is also a significant amount of rhetorical and sociohistorical terminology. This volume facilitates familiarity with the technical terminology and with issues central to the interpretation of Galatians and presents examples of the prevailing points of view as well as some recent challenges to them. The essays included explore the rhetorical and epistolary approaches to examining Galatians, comprise a comprehensive introduction to significant research in the field, and represent some of the best work available. Mark Nanos offers an introduction and glossary of terms to help students begin their study and a comprehensive volume bibliography and modern author and ancient sources indexes for those who are continuing on to further study. Contributors John M. G. Barclay Robert M. Berchman Hans Dieter Betz C. Joachim Classen Nils A. Dahl James D. G. Dunn Philip F. Esler Paula Fredriksen Robert G. Hall G. Walter Hansen A. E. Harvey James D. Hester Robert Jewett Paul E. Koptak B. C. Lategan Troy Martin J. Louis Martyn Dieter Mitternacht Mark D. Nanos Joop Smit Johan S. Vos Nikolaus Walter
The inception of the Ghost Dance religion in 1890 marked a critical moment in Lakota history. Yet, because this movement alarmed government officials, culminating in the infamous massacre at Wounded Knee of 250 Lakota men, women, and children, historical accounts have most often described the Ghost Dance from the perspective of the white Americans who opposed it. In A Whirlwind Passed through Our Country, historian Rani-Henrik Andersson instead gives Lakotas a sounding board, imparting the multiplicity of Lakota voices on the Ghost Dance at the time. Whereas early accounts treated the Ghost Dance as a military or political movement, A Whirlwind Passed through Our Country stresses its peaceful nature and reveals the breadth of Lakota views on the subject. The more than one hundred accounts compiled here show that the movement caused friction within Lakota society even as it spurred genuine religious belief. These accounts, many of them never before translated from the original Lakota or published, demonstrate that the Ghost Dance's message resonated with Lakotas across artificial ""progressive"" and ""nonprogressive"" lines. Although the movement was often criticized as backward and disconnected from the harsh realities of Native life, Ghost Dance adherents were in fact seeking new ways to survive, albeit not those that contemporary whites envisioned for them. The Ghost Dance, Andersson suggests, might be better understood as an innovative adaptation by the Lakotas to the difficult situation in which they found themselves - and as a way of finding a path to a better life. By presenting accounts of divergent views among the Lakota people, A Whirlwind Passed through Our Country expands the narrative of the Ghost Dance, encouraging more nuanced interpretations of this significant moment in Lakota and American history.
Western literature, from the mysterious figure of Marco Polo to the deliberate fictions of Daniel Defoe and Mark Twain, has constructed portraits of China born of dreamy parody or sheer prejudice. The West's attempt to understand China has proven as difficult as China's attempt to understand the West. A Poetics of Translation is the result of academic conversations between scholars in China and the West relating to issues in translation. "Translation" here is meant not only as the linguistic challenges of translating from Chinese into English or English into Chinese, but also as the wider questions of cultural translation at a time when China is in a period of rapid change. The volume illustrates the need for scholars, both eastern and western, to learn very quickly to live within the exchange of ideas, often with few precedents to guide or advise. This book also reflects the final impossibility of the task of translation, which is always, at best, approximate. By examining texts from the Bible to poetry and from historical treatises to Shakespeare, this volume carefully interrogatesaand ultimately broadensatranslation by exposing the multiple ways in which linguistic, cultural, religious, historical, and philosophical meaning are formed through cross-cultural interaction. Readers invested in the complexities of translation betwixt China and the West will find this volume full of intriguing studies and attentive readings that encompass the myriad issues surrounding East-West translation with rigor and imagination.
This work argues that the heart of patristic exegesis is the attempt to find the sacramental reality (real presence) of Christ in the Old Testament Scriptures. Leading theologian Hans Boersma discusses numerous sermons and commentaries of the church fathers to show how they regarded Christ as the treasure hidden in the field of the Old Testament and explains that the church today can and should retrieve the sacramental reading of the early church. Combining detailed scholarly insight with clear, compelling prose, this book makes a unique contribution to contemporary interest in theological interpretation.
This completely revised and updated edition of Teach Yourself Afrikaans is for all those who seek to communicate in Afrikaans. It has been written for students with no previous experience or knowledge of the language, and is especially aimed at those who wish to study at home.
The grammar, syntax and vocabulary of Afrikaans are introduced in carefully graded stages, and are illustrated with examples and exercises. Spoken Afrikaans is also given close attention, with examples of everyday conversations, and a detailed section on pronunciation.
By working through the exercises and examples in this book, the student will gain a good basic knowledge of Afrikaans as it is spoken every day.
Veeltalige vertaalterminologie / Multilingual translation terminology is 'n versameling van sowat 200 Afrikaanse en Engelse terme oor vertaling met ooreenstemmende ekwivalente in Frans, Duits, Spaans en Nederlands. Die termlys is gegrond op konsepte soos geidentifiseer deur die gesaghebbende Internasionale Federasie van Vertalers (FIT) en kan beskou word as die kernwoordeskat vir die praktiese onderrig van vertaling. Elke term word toegelig met beknopte definisies en gebruiksvoorbeelde. Hierdie boek is bedoel as 'n nuttige hulpmiddel by die praktiese onderrig van vertaling, maar kan ook met vrug benut word deur praktiserende vertalers en tolke op soek na toeligting oor die basiese konsepte en woordeskat wat gebruik word in die internasionale praktyk van vertaling en tolking. Veeltalige Vertaalterminologie / Multilingual Translation Terminology consists of a collection of approximately 200 terms in English and Afrikaans with corresponding equivalents in French, German, Spanish and Dutch. The list is based on concepts identified by the leading International Federation of Translators (FIT) as constituting the core vocabulary required for the teaching of practical translation. Each term is explained by providing concise definitions and practical examples. This title is primarily intended as a useful tool in teaching practical translation, but can also be used to advantage by practising translators and interpreters who want to acquaint themselves with the basic concepts and vocabulary used internationally in translation and interpreting practice.
A probing reading of leftist Jewish poets who, during the interwar period, drew on the trauma of pogroms to depict the suffering of other marginalized peoples. Between the world wars, a generation of Jewish leftist poets reached out to other embattled peoples of the earth-Palestinian Arabs, African Americans, Spanish Republicans-in Yiddish verse. Songs in Dark Times examines the richly layered meanings of this project, grounded in Jewish collective trauma but embracing a global community of the oppressed. The long 1930s, Amelia M. Glaser proposes, gave rise to a genre of internationalist modernism in which tropes of national collective memory were rewritten as the shared experiences of many national groups. The utopian Jews of Songs in Dark Times effectively globalized the pogroms in a bold and sometimes fraught literary move that asserted continuity with anti-Arab violence and black lynching. As communists and fellow travelers, the writers also sought to integrate particular experiences of suffering into a borderless narrative of class struggle. Glaser resurrects their poems from the pages of forgotten Yiddish communist periodicals, particularly the New York-based Morgn Frayhayt (Morning Freedom) and the Soviet literary journal Royte Velt (Red World). Alongside compelling analysis, Glaser includes her own translations of ten poems previously unavailable in English, including Malka Lee's "God's Black Lamb," Moyshe Nadir's "Closer," and Esther Shumiatsher's "At the Border of China." These poets dreamed of a moment when "we" could mean "we workers" rather than "we Jews." Songs in Dark Times takes on the beauty and difficulty of that dream, in the minds of Yiddish writers who sought to heal the world by translating pain.
By 1,800 years ago, speakers of proto-Ch'olan, the ancestor of three present-day Maya languages, had developed a calendar of eighteen twenty-day months plus a set of five days for a total of 365 days. This original Maya calendar, used extensively during the Classic period (200-900 CE), recorded in hieroglyphic inscriptions the dates of dynastic and cosmological importance. Over time, and especially after the Mayas' contact with Europeans, the month names that had originated with these inscriptions developed into fourteen distinct traditions, each connected to a different ethnic group. Today, the glyphs encompass 250 standard forms, variants, and alternates, with about 570 meanings among all the cognates, synonyms, and homonyms. In The Maya Calendar, Weldon Lamb collects, defines, and correlates the month names in every recorded Maya calendrical tradition from the first hieroglyphic inscriptions to the present - an undertaking critical to unlocking and understanding the iconography and cosmology of the ancient Maya world. Mining data from astronomy, ethnography, linguistics, and epigraphy, and working from early and modern dictionaries of the Maya languages, Lamb pieces together accurate definitions of the month names in order to compare them across time and tradition. His exhaustive process reveals unsuspected parallels. Three-fourths of the month names, he shows, still derive from those of the original hieroglyphic inscriptions. Lamb also traces the relationship between month names as cognates, synonyms, or homonyms, and then reconstructs each name's history of development, connecting the Maya month names in several calendars to ancient texts and archaeological finds. In this landmark study, Lamb's investigations afford new insight into the agricultural, astronomical, ritual, and even political motivations behind names and dates in the Maya calendar. A history of descent and diffusion, of unexpected connectedness and longevity, The Maya Calendar offers readers a deep understanding of a foundational aspect of Maya culture.
A guide to learn the skills you need to understand and apply God's Word. Now revised and updated! Life is a journey, and like any journey, it requires an accurate, reliable roadmap to get us where we need to go. God has provided such a guide in his Word. But just as a navigator needs to learn how to interpret all the contours and symbols of a map, so also we need to be able to understand how the Bible communicates its directions to us. In Journey into God's Word, Second Edition reader's will: Be introduced to the Interpretive Journey, a five-step framework for understanding how to read any Bible passage Learn vital reading skills that aid in their comprehension of not just the Bible, but of any piece of literature Discover the importance of understanding historical-cultural and literary contexts Receive guidance on choosing a Bible translation for their study Be given practical tips for reading specific genres in the Bible like, Gospels, letters, Law, prophecy, poetry, and more Journey into God's Word, Second Edition helps Bible readers acquire these skills and become better at reading, interpreting, and applying the Bible to life. Based on the bestselling college/seminary textbook Grasping God's Word it takes the proven principles from that book and makes them accessible to people in the church. It starts with general principles of interpretation, then moves on to apply those principles to specific genres and contexts. Hands-on exercises guide readers through the interpretation process, with an emphasis on real-life application. This second edition has been revised and updated to match the fourth edition of Grasping God's Word with a five-step Interpretive Journey.
This innovative collection of essays shows how linguistic diversity has inspired people across time and cultures to embark on adventurous journeys through the translation of texts. It tells the story of how ideas have travelled via the medium of translation into different languages and cultures, focusing on illustrated examples ranging from Greek papyri through illuminated manuscripts and fine early books to fantasy languages (such as J.R.R. Tolkien's Elvish), the search for a universal language and the challenges of translation in multicultural Britain. Starting with the concept of Babel itself, which illustrates the early cultural prominence of multilingualism, and with an illustration of a Mediterranean language of four millennia ago (Linear A) which still resists deciphering, it goes on to examine how languages have interacted with each other in different contexts. The book also explores the multilingual transmission of key texts in religion, science (the history of Euclid), animal fable (from Aesop in Greek to Beatrix Potter via La Fontaine, with some fascinating Southeast Asian books), fairy-tale, fantasy and translations of the great Greek epics of Homer. It is lavishly illustrated with a diverse range of material, from papyrus fragments found at Oxyrhynchus to Esperanto handbooks to Asterix cartoons, each offering its own particular adventure into translation.
South Africans have only recently added liaison interpreting to the range of skills developed by language practitioners, thereby broadening the scope of the language professions - a step without which the language rights bestowed on all South African citizens by the new Constitution would have remained only an empty promise. Liaison interpreters, cultural mediators, or community interpreters, as they are generally known, form the link between interlocutors lacking a common language. Unlike the existing literature which focuses on this crucial activity in developed countries, this volume of contributions on liaison interpreting and translation focuses on a developing country - South Africa.;Several local and international experts address a wide range of issues relating to the broader topics of contextualisation, practice, training and professionalism.;Examples are taken from various fields - health care, the public service, social work, community life, psychiatry and psychology - and various language contexts - including sign language - are covered. This stimulating, inclusive book provides invaluable information for all language practitioners - trainers and students, language planners and managers, public service and other officials, service providers who work with interpreters, and those involved in promoting language rights, specifically functional multilingualism.
A brief, structurally oriented reference grammar of Russian for use
by advanced students, Slavicists, and linguists, Bidwell's guide
can also be used as a text for courses on the linguistic structure
and grammar of the Russian language.
Hierdie is die eerste werklik omvattende boek in Afrikaans oor wat die tekslinguistiek as vakgebied behels. 'n Heel nuwe terrein vir taalkundige navorsing in Afrikaans word ontgin, want die klem val in die besonder op die insigte wat 'n studie van taaltekste (dus groter as die enkelsin) meebring. In hierdie opsig behoort die boek vir studente in die taal- en letterkunde asook almal wat belangstel in effektiewe kommunikasie van groot waarde te wees - as naslaanbron, maar veral as bron waarin 'n volume kennis byeengetrek is wat verdere selfstandige navorsing kan stimuleer.
In The Face of New Testament Studies, editors Scot McKnight and Grant R. Osborne bring together New Testament experts who track developments in their specialized fields of research-and why those developments are important. It provides scholars and students with a useful survey of the "state-of-the-question" in New Testament Studies.
The Routledge Course on Media, Legal and Technical Translation: English-Arabic-English is an indispensable and engaging coursebook for university students wishing to develop their English-Arabic-English translation skills in these three text types. Taking a practical approach, the book introduces Arab translation students to common translation strategies in addition to the linguistic, syntactic, and stylistic features of media, legal, and technical texts. This book features texts carefully selected for their technical relevance. The key features include: * comprehensive four chapters covering media, legal, and technical texts, which are of immense importance to Arab translation students; * detailed and clear explanations of the lexical, syntactic, and stylistic features of English and Arabic media, legal, and technical texts; * up-to-date and practical translation examples in both directions offering students actual experiences of professional translators; * authentic texts extracted from various sources to promote students' familiarity with language features and use; * extensive range of exercises following each section of the book to enable students to test and practice the knowledge and skills they developed from reading previous sections; * glossaries following most exercises containing the translation of difficult words; and * a list of recommended readings following each chapter. The easy, practical, and comprehensive approach adopted in the book makes it a must-have coursebook for intermediate and advanced students studying translation between English and Arabic. University instructors and professional translators working on translation between English and Arabic will find this book particularly useful.
Computer-assisted translation (CAT) has always used translation memories, which require the translator to have a corpus of previous translations that the CAT software can use to generate bilingual lexicons. This can be problematic when the translator does not have such a corpus, for instance, when the text belongs to an emerging field. To solve this issue, CAT research has looked into the leveraging of comparable corpora, i.e. a set of texts, in two or more languages, which deal with the same topic but are not translations of one another. This work had two primary objectives. The first is to assess the input of lexicons extracted from comparable corpora in the context of a specialized human translation task. The second objective is to identify bilingual-lexicon-extraction methods which best match the translators' needs, determining the current limits of these techniques and suggesting improvements. The author focuses, in particular, on the identification of fertile translations, the management of multiple morphological structures, and the ranking of candidate translations. The experiments are carried out on two language pairs (English-French and English-German) and on specialized texts dealing with breast cancer. This research puts significant emphasis on applicability - methodological choices are guided by the needs of the final users. This book is organized in two parts: the first part presents the applicative and scientific context of the research, and the second part is given over to efforts to improve compositional translation. The research work presented in this book received the PhD Thesis award 2014 from the French association for natural language processing (ATALA).
Translated texts are often either uncritically consumed by readers, teacher, and scholars or seen to represent an ineluctable loss, a diminishing of original texts. Translation, however, is a cultural practice, influenced also by social and political imperatives, which can open more doors than it closes. The essays in this book show how the act of translation, when vigilantly and critically attended to, becomes a means for active interrogation.
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