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'Translation is always a shift,not between two languages but between two cultures. A translator must take into account rules that are not strictly linguistic but, broadly speaking, cultural.';Umberto Eco is of the world's most brilliant and entertaining writers on literature and language. In this accessible and dazzling study, he turns his eye on the subject of translations and the problems the differences between cultures can cause. The book is full of little gems about mistranslations and misunderstandings.For example when you put 'Studies in the logic of Charles Sanders Peirce' through an internet translation machine, it becomes 'Studies in the logic of the Charles of sandpaper grinding machines Peirce'. In Italian 'ratto' has no connotation of 'contemptible person' but denotes speed ('you dirty rat' could take on a whole new meaning!);What could be a weighty subject is never dull, fired by Eco's immense wit and erudition, providing an entertaining read that illuminates the process of negotation that all translators must make.
The field of sign language interpreting is undergoing an exponential increase in the delivery of services through remote and video technologies. The nature of these technologies challenges established notions of interpreting as a situated, communicative event and of the interpreter as a participant. As a result, new perspectives and research are necessary for interpreters to thrive in this environment. This volume fills that gap and features interdisciplinary explorations of remote interpreting from spoken and signed language interpreting scholars who examine various issues from linguistic, sociological, physiological, and environmental perspectives. Here or There presents cutting edge, empirical research that informs the professional practice of remote interpreting, whether it be video relay service, video conference, or video remote interpreting. The research is augmented by the perspectives of stakeholders and deaf consumers on the quality of the interpreted work. Among the topics covered are professional attitudes and motivations, interpreting in specific contexts, and adaptation strategies. The contributors also address potential implications for relying on remote interpreting, discuss remote interpreter education, and offer recommendations for service providers.
Translation 2nd edition introduces the theory and practice of translation from a variety of linguistic and cultural angles and has been revised and updated to feature: a study of translation through the lens of key topics in linguistics such as semantics, functional linguistics, corpus and cognitive linguistics, discourse analysis, gender studies and postcolonialism; a wide range of examples from other languages, including French, Spanish, German, Italian, Russian and Arabic, with English back translations to assist comprehension; material from a variety of sources, genres and text-types, such as advertisements, religious texts, reports for international organizations, videogames, literary and technical texts; influential readings from the key names in the discipline, including Vinay and Darbelnet, Eugene Nida, Werner Koller and Ernst-August Gutt and contains new readings from Mona Baker, Michael Cronin, Kim Grego, Miguel A. Jimenez-Crespo, Kevin Gary Smith, Harald Martin Olk, Carmen Mangiron and Minako O'Hagan. Additional resources for the book can be found at www.routledge.com/9780415536141. Further text examples, translations, illustrative material and updates on recent developments and events in Translation Studies will be posted there. Written by two experienced teachers, translators and researchers in the field, Translation remains an essential resource for students and researchers of Translation Studies and Applied Linguistics.
The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Technology provides a comprehensive and accessible overview of the dynamically evolving relationship between translation and technology. Divided into five parts, with an editor's introduction, this volume presents the perspectives of users of translation technologies, and of researchers concerned with issues arising from the increasing interdependency between translation and technology. The chapters in this handbook tackle the advent of technologization at both a technical and a philosophical level, based on industry practice and academic research. Containing over thirty authoritative, cutting-edge chapters, this is an essential reference and resource for those studying and researching translation and technology. The volume will also be valuable for translators, computational linguists and developers of translation tools.
A growing body of scholarship is making visible the contribution of translators to the creation, preservation, and transmission of knowledge about the Holocaust. The discussion has tended to be theoretical or to concentrate on exposing the "distorted" translations of texts by important witnesses such as Anne Frank or Elie Wiesel. There is therefore a need for a positive, concrete, and contextually aware approach to the translation of Holocaust testimonies that acknowledges the achievements of translators while being sensitive to the consequences of particular translation strategies. Peter Davies's study proceeds from the assumption that translators are active co-creators whose work does not simply mediate a pre-existing text, but creates a representation of that text for a new readership in a specific context. Translators of Holocaust testimonies, then, provide a form of textual commentary that works through ideas about witnessing, historical truth, and the meaning of the Holocaust. In this way they are important co-creators of knowledge about the Holocaust and its legacy. The study focuses on translations between English and German, and from other languages (principally French, Russian, and Polish) into English and German. It works through a number of case studies, showing how making translation and its effects visible contributes to a clearer understanding of how knowledge about the Holocaust has been and continues to be created and mediated. Peter Davies is Professor of German at the University of Edinburgh.
This latest volume in the series, Socio-Affective Computing, presents a set of novel approaches to analyze opinionated videos and to extract sentiments and emotions. Textual sentiment analysis framework as discussed in this book contains a novel way of doing sentiment analysis by merging linguistics with machine learning. Fusing textual information with audio and visual cues is found to be extremely useful which improves text, audio and visual based unimodal sentiment analyzer. This volume covers the three main topics of: textual preprocessing and sentiment analysis methods; frameworks to process audio and visual data; and methods of textual, audio and visual features fusion. The inclusion of key visualization and case studies will enable readers to understand better these approaches. Aimed at the Natural Language Processing, Affective Computing and Artificial Intelligence audiences, this comprehensive volume will appeal to a wide readership and will help readers to understand key details on multimodal sentiment analysis.
A critically acclaimed foundational text, Translation in Systems offers a comprehensive guide to the descriptive and systemic approaches which have shaped Translation Studies. Theo Hermans considers translation norms, equivalence, polysystems and social systems, covering a wide range of theorists in his discussion of the principles of Translation Studies. Reissued with a new foreword by Kathryn Batchelor, which updates the text for a new generation of readers, Translation in Systems endures partly on account of Hermans' vivid and articulate writing style. The book covers the fundamental problems of translation norms, equivalence, polysystems and social systems, encompassing not only the work of Levy, Holmes, Even-Zohar, Toury, Lefevere, Lambert, Bassnett, Dhulst and others, but also giving special attention to contributions derived from Pierre Bourdieu and Niklas Luhmann. Hermans explains how contemporary descriptive approaches came about, what the basic ideas were, how those ideas have evolved over time, and offers a critique of these approaches. With practical questions of how to investigate translation (including problems of definition, description and assessment of readerships), this is essential reading for graduate students and researchers in Translation studies and related areas.
This book analyses the translation strategies employed by journalists when reporting foreign news events to home audiences. Using English-language press coverage of inflammatory comments made by Nicolas Sarkozy in his role as French interior minister in 2005 as a case study, the author illustrates the secondary level of mediation that occurs when news crosses linguistic and cultural borders. This critical analysis examines the norm for `domesticating' news translation practices and explores the potential for introducing a degree of `foreignisation' as a means to facilitating cross-cultural engagement and understanding. The book places emphasis on foreign-language quotation and culture-specific concepts as two key sites of translation in the news, and addresses a need for research that clarifies where translation, as a distinct part of the newswriting process, occurs. The interdisciplinary nature of this book will appeal to a broad range of readers, in particular scholars and students in the fields of translation, media, culture and journalism studies.
At a time when millions travel around the planet - some by choice, some driven by economic or political exile - translation of the written and spoken word is of ever increasing importance. This guide presents readers with an accessible and engaging introduction to the valuable position translation holds within literature and society. Leading translation theorist Susan Bassnett traces the history of translation, examining the ways translation is currently utilized as a burgeoning interdisciplinary activity and extending her analysis into developing areas such as developing technologies and new media forms. Translation Studies, fourth edition displays the importance of translation across disciplines, and is essential reading for students and scholars of translation, literary studies, globalisation studies and ancient and modern languages.
Translation, before 9/11, was deemed primarily an instrument of international relations, business, education, and culture. Today it seems, more than ever, a matter of war and peace. In "The Translation Zone," Emily Apter argues that the field of translation studies, habitually confined to a framework of linguistic fidelity to an original, is ripe for expansion as the basis for a new comparative literature.
Organized around a series of propositions that range from the idea that nothing is translatable to the idea that everything is translatable, "The Translation Zone" examines the vital role of translation studies in the "invention" of comparative literature as a discipline. Apter emphasizes "language wars" (including the role of mistranslation in the art of war), linguistic incommensurability in translation studies, the tension between textual and cultural translation, the role of translation in shaping a global literary canon, the resistance to Anglophone dominance, and the impact of translation technologies on the very notion of how translation is defined. The book speaks to a range of disciplines and spans the globe.
Ultimately, "The Translation Zone" maintains that a new comparative literature must take stock of the political impact of translation technologies on the definition of foreign or symbolic languages in the humanities, while recognizing the complexity of language politics in a world at once more monolingual and more multilingual.
So, you've signed up for your theological studies; you've weathered the storm of those early weeks of language study; you've coped with your early forays into biblical exegesis; and you've been given a sketch of the history of the early church. There's been some spiritual highs and some frustrating lows. You can see perhaps just the beginnings of the benefits of the process of theological education creeping into your ministry - such precious minutes of it as you can grab, anyway. But sensing a deadline looming, you go to the relevant webpage on your seminary website and discover that a strange beast is lying in wait for you: the theology essay. How do you write a theology essay? The aim of this book is to tell you how. With humour and insight, Michael Jensen, who has taught theology for a number of years in the UK and Australia, explains not only what makes for a good theology essay but what makes for good theology. If you want to make the most of your theological education, then this book is for you. Michael Jensen (D. Phil, Oxon) teaches at Sydney's Moore Theological College and longs for his students to have a deep understanding of the knowledge of God. His previous books include Martyrdom and Identity: The Self on Trial (T&T Clark, 2010). He is married to Catherine and they have four children.
"Translation is like a reverse-engineering process -- whereby, say, we might take apart a clock made of metal parts in order to build a functioning replica made entirely of plastic. Our final product will not look the same as the original clock, and it would be impossible to simply copy the designs of its inner workings, because plastic and metals have very different properties. For example, we cannot make small plastic springs or very thin gears of plastic. But these changes do not matter; the only thing that matters is that our replica will tell the time correctly." -- From the Introduction The Georgetown Guide to Arabic-English Translation is an essential step-by-step, practical manual for advanced learners of Arabic interested in how to analyze and accurately translate nonfiction Arabic texts ranging from business correspondence to textbooks. Mustafa Mughazy, a respected Arabic linguist, presents an innovative, functional approach that de-emphasizes word-for-word translation. Based on the Optimality Theory, it favors remaining faithful to the communicative function of the source material, even if this means adding explanatory text, reconfiguring sentences, paraphrasing expressions, or omitting words. From how to select a text for translation or maintain tense or idiom, to how to establish translation patterns, The Georgetown Guide to Arabic-English Translation is useful both as a textbook and a reference. An invaluable set of appendices offers shortcuts to translate particularly difficult language like abbreviations, collocations, and common expressions in business correspondence, while authentic annotated texts provide the reader opportunities to practice the strategies presented in the book. A must-read for advanced learners of Arabic, this is a book every scholar and graduate-level student will wish to own.
This book comprehensively examines the development of translator and interpreter training using bibliometric reviews of the state of the field and empirical studies on classroom practice. It starts by introducing databases in bibliometric reviews and presents a detailed account of the reasons behind the project and its objectives as well as a description of the methods of constructing databases. The introduction is followed by full-scale review studies on various aspects of translator and interpreter training, providing not only an overall picture of the research themes and methods, but also valuable information on active authors, institutions and countries in the subfields of translator training, interpreter training, and translator and interpreter training in general. The book also compares publications from different subfields of research, regions and journals to show the special features within this discipline. Further, it provides a series of empirical studies conducted by the authors, covering a wide array of topics in translator and interpreter training, with an emphasis on learner factors. This collective volume, with its unique perspective on bibliometric data and empirical studies, highlights the latest development in the field of translator and interpreter training research. The findings presented will help researchers, trainers and practitioners to reflect on the important issues in the discipline and find possible new directions for future research.
A World-Class Scholar on Luther's Use of Scripture The Reformation revolutionized church life through its new appreciation for God's presence working through the Bible. Coinciding with the five hundredth anniversary of the beginning of the Reformation, this volume explains how Luther's approach to the Bible drew his colleagues and contemporary followers into a Scripture-centered practice of theology and pastoral leadership. World-class scholar Robert Kolb examines the entire school of interpretation launched by Luther, showing how Luther's students continued the study and spread of God's Word in subsequent generations. Filled with fresh insights and cutting-edge research, this major statement provides historical grounding for contemporary debates about the Bible.
In this volume, Eric J. Tully provides a foundational analysis of the text of Hosea. Hosea is distinguished by the detailed and comprehensive attention paid to the Hebrew text. Tully's analysis is a convenient pedagogical and reference tool that explains the form and syntax of the biblical text, offers guidance for deciding between competing semantic analyses, engages important text-critical debates, and addresses questions relating to the Hebrew text that are not always addressed in standard commentaries. Beyond serving as a succinct and accessible analytic key, Hosea also reflects the most up-to-date advances in scholarship on Hebrew grammar and linguisticsaspecifically, this edition relies on the methodology of generative grammar utilized in other recent volumes in this series. This handbook proves itself an indispensable tool for anyone committed to a deep reading of the Hebrew biblical text.
In 1517, Luther nailed his Ninety-Five Theses to the door of Wittenberg's castle church. Luther's seemingly inconsequential act ultimately launched the Reformation, a movement that forevertransformed both the Church and Western culture. The repositioning of the Bible as beginning, middle, and end of Christian faith was crucial to the Reformation. Two words alone captured this emphasis on the Bible's divine inspiration, its abiding authority, and its clarity, efficacy, and sufficiency: sola scriptura . In the five centuries since the Reformation, the confidence Luther and the Reformers placed in the Bible has slowly eroded. Enlightened modernity came to treat the Bible like any other text, subjecting it to a near endless array of historical-critical methods derived from the sciences and philosophy. The result is that in many quarters of Protestantism today the Bible as word has ceased to be the Word. In The Reformation and the Right Reading of Scripture , Iain Provan aims to restore a Reformation-like confidence in the Bible by recovering a Reformation-like reading strategy. To accomplish these aims Provan first acknowledges the value in the Church's precritical appropriation of the Bible and, then, in a chastened use of modern and postmodern critical methods. But Provan resolutely returns to the Reformers' affirmation of the centrality of the literal sense of the text, in the Bible's original languages, for a right-minded biblical interpretation. In the end the volume shows that it is possible to arrive at an approach to biblical interpretation for the twenty-first century that does not simply replicate the Protestant hermeneutics of the sixteenth, but stands in fundamental continuity with them. Such lavish attention to, and importance placed upon, a seriously literal interpretation of Scripture is appropriate to the Christian confession of the word as Wordathe one God's Word for the one world.
The rise of modernity, especially the European Enlightenment and its aftermath, has negatively impacted the way we understand the nature and interpretation of Christian Scripture. In this introduction to biblical interpretation, Craig Carter evaluates the problems of post-Enlightenment hermeneutics and offers an alternative approach: exegesis in harmony with the Great Tradition. Carter argues for the validity of patristic christological exegesis, showing that we must recover the Nicene theological tradition as the context for contemporary exegesis, and seeks to root both the nature and interpretation of Scripture firmly in trinitarian orthodoxy.
Revising and Editing for Translators "provides guidance and learning materials for translation
students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve
their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as
making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to
the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work
of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work.
Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing,
structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation
quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for
revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of
suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed grading scheme
for editing assignments, and a reference glossary make this an indispensable coursebook for
professional translation programmes.
This volume provides a state-of-the-art overview of institutional translation issues related to the development of international law and policies for supranational integration and governance. These issues are explored from various angles in selected papers by guest specialists and findings of a large-scale research project led by the editor. Focus is placed on key methodological and policy aspects of legal communication and translation quality in a variety of institutional settings, including several comparative studies of the United Nations and European Union institutions. The first book of its kind on institutional translation with a focus on quality of legal communication, this work offers a unique combination of perspectives drawn together through a multilayered examination of methods (e.g. corpus analysis, comparative law for translation and terminological analysis), skills and working procedures. The chapters are organized into three sections: (1) contemporary issues and methods; (2) translation quality in law- and policy-making and implementation; and (3) translation and multilingual case-law.
Is gender learned or innate? This controversial play asks the question: what happens if you raise a boy to sew and behave as a girl, and raise his sister to fight as a soldier? For the first time ever, Guillen de Castro's La fuerza de la costumbre (`The Force of Habit') will be available to English and Spanish audiences with a performance-tested translation on facing pages. Castro's plot is unique in that, unlike other cross dressing plays, the children do not traverse gender boundaries by choice; instead complications arising from their parents' problematic marriage dictate the gender they should perform. This new Spanish edition (the first since 1927) and performance-tested English translation will begin a new discussion of this understudied work and its implications among Hispanists, comparatists, performance theorists, and gender scholars. The critical apparatus includes a biography of the author, textual history, editorial methodology, metrical analysis, bibliography and notes on the text. Machit's introductory essay, `Bad Habits: Gender Made and Remade in La fuerza de la costumbre' aims to contextualize and investigate the most salient questions raised by Castro's gender-bending play.
The philosophy of Epictetus, a freed slave in the Roman Empire, has been profoundly influential on Western thought: it offers not only stimulating ideas but practical guidance in living one's life. A. A. Long, a leading scholar of later ancient philosophy, gives the definitive presentation of the thought of Epictetus for a broad readership. Long's fresh and vivid translations of a selection of the best of Epictetus' discourses show that his ideas are as valuable and striking today as they were amost two thousand years ago. The translations are organized thematically within the framework of an authoritative introduction and commentary, which offer a way into this world for those new to it, and illuminating interpretations for those who already know it. Epictetus is known as one of the great Stoic thinkers. But he took the life and conversation of Socrates as his educational model. His Socratic allegiance, scarcely examined before, is a major theme of this ground-breaking book. Long shows how Epictetus offered his students a way of life premised on the values of personal autonomy and integrity. Never a sermonizer, Epictetus engages his students in brilliantly challenging dialogue; Long offers the first accessible study of his argumentative and rhetorical methods. This is a book for anyone interested in what we can learn from ancient philosophy about how to live our lives.
"Why Translation Matters" argues for the cultural importance of translation and for a more encompassing and nuanced appreciation of the translator's role. As the acclaimed translator Edith Grossman writes in her introduction, "My intention is to stimulate a new consideration of an area of literature that is too often ignored, misunderstood, or misrepresented."
For Grossman, translation has a transcendent importance: "Translation not only plays its important traditional role as the means that allows us access to literature originally written in one of the countless languages we cannot read, but it also represents a concrete literary presence with the crucial capacity to ease and make more meaningful our relationships to those with whom we may not have had a connection before. Translation always helps us to know, to see from a different angle, to attribute new value to what once may have been unfamiliar. As nations and as individuals, we have a critical need for that kind of understanding and insight. The alternative is unthinkable."
Throughout the four chapters of this bracing volume, Grossman's belief in the crucial significance of the translator's work, as well as her rare ability to explain the intellectual sphere that she inhabits as interpreter of the original text, inspires and provokes the reader to engage with translation in an entirely new way.
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