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In an increasingly global and multilingual society, translators have transitioned from unobtrusive stagehands to key intercultural mediators-a development that is reflected in contemporary media. From Coppola's Lost in Translation to television's House M.D., and from live performance to social media, translation is rendered as not only utilitarian, but also performative and communicative. In examining translation as a captivating theme in film, television, commercials, and online content, this multinational collection engages with the problems and limitations faced by translators, as well as the ethical and philosophical aspects of translation and Translation Studies. Contributors examine the role of the translator (as protagonist, agent, negotiator, and double-agent), translation in global communication, the presentation of visual texts, multilingualism in contemporary media, and the role of foreign languages in advertisements. Translation and translators are shown as inseparable parts of a contemporary life that is increasingly multilingual, multiethnic, multinational and socially diverse.
This book introduces a new topic to applied linguistics: the significance of the TESOL teacher's background as a learner and user of additional languages. The development of the global TESOL profession as a largely English-only enterprise has led to the accepted view that, as long as the teacher has English proficiency, then her or his other languages are irrelevant. The book questions this view. Learners are in the process of becoming plurilingual, and this book argues that they are best served by a teacher who has experience of plurilingualism. The book proposes a new way of looking at teacher linguistic identity by examining in detail the rich language biographies of teachers: of growing up with two or more languages; of learning languages through schooling or as an adult, of migrating to another linguaculture, of living in a plurilingual family and many more. The book examines the history of language-in-education policy which has led to the development of the TESOL profession in Australia and elsewhere as a monolingual enterprise. It shows that teachers' language backgrounds have been ignored in teacher selection, teacher training and ongoing professional development. The author draws on literature in teacher cognition, bilingualism studies, intercultural competence, bilingual lifewriting and linguistic identity to argue that languages play a key part in the development of teachers' professional beliefs, identity, language awareness and language learning awareness. Drawing on three studies involving 115 teachers from Australia and seven other countries, the author demonstrates conclusively that large numbers of teachers do have plurilingual experiences; that these experiences are ignored in the profession, but that they have powerful effects on the formation of beliefs about language learning and teaching which underpin good practice. Those teachers who identify as monolingual almost invariably have some language learning experience, but it was low-level, short-lived and unsuccessful. How does the experience of successful or unsuccessful language learning and language use affect one's identity, beliefs and practice as an English language teacher? What kinds of experience are most beneficial? These concepts and findings have implications for teacher language education, teacher professional development and the current calls for increased plurilingual practices in the TESOL classroom.
Latin America's Indigenous writers have long labored under the limits of colonialism, but in the late twentieth and twenty-first centuries, they have constructed a literary corpus that moves them beyond those parameters. Gloria E. Chacon considers the growing number of contemporary Indigenous writers who turn to Maya and Zapotec languages alongside Spanish translations of their work to challenge the tyranny of monolingualism and cultural homogeneity. Chacon argues that these Maya and Zapotec authors reconstruct an Indigenous literary tradition rooted in an Indigenous cosmolectics, a philosophy originally grounded in pre-Columbian sacred conceptions of the cosmos, time, and place, and now expressed in creative writings. More specifically, she attends to Maya and Zapotec literary and cultural forms by theorizing kab'awil as an Indigenous philosophy. Tackling the political and literary implications of this work, Chacon argues that Indigenous writers' use of familiar genres alongside Indigenous language, use of oral traditions, and new representations of selfhood and nation all create space for expressions of cultural and political autonomy. Chacon recognizes that Indigenous writers draw from universal literary strategies but nevertheless argues that this literature is a vital center for reflecting on Indigenous ways of knowing and as a key artistic expression of decolonization.
This book sets the record straight about the greater influence of Dilthey than Husserl in Heidegger's initial formulation of his conception of phenomenology. Scharff shows how, in Heidegger's early lecture courses, phenomenology is presented as a genuine philosophical alternative, and explores our own current need for a phenomenological philosophy.
The Development of Translation Competence: Theories and Methodologies from Psycholinguistics and Cognitive Science presents cutting-edge research in translation studies from perspectives in psycholinguistics and cognitive science in order to provide a better understanding of translation and the development of linguistic competence that translators need to be effective professionals. It presents original theories and empirical tests that have significant implications for advancing the field of translation studies and what researchers know about the development of linguistic competence. The book is divided up into three Parts. Part I consists of a state-of-the-art introductory chapter which serves to frame the subsequent studies in Part II which explore the development of translation competence by reporting on topics such as translation expertise, cognitive ergonomic issues in translation, translation ambiguity, standards and metrics for translation, processing speed and production time, among others. Part III then hones in on specific data collection methodologies from cognitive science that highlight innovative ways to gather and analyze data. Some methods discussed include tasks looking at processing speed, brain imagining techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation (fMRIa), language switching, eye tracking, keystroke and mouse logging, and retrospection, among others. This book effectively demonstrates that psycholinguistic and cognitive approaches to studying the development of translation competence promise to diversify traditional perspectives of translation studies and to improve the quality and generalizability of translation research in general. This title will serve as a valuable reference for scholars, practitioners, translators, and anyone who wishes to gain an overview of current issues and methods in translation studies solidly grounded in psycholinguistics and cognitive science.
The comparative analysis of Welsh and English found in this book is based on a translation corpus consisting of just over thirty novels and autobiographies from the late nineteenth century up to the early twenty-first century. Many of the original Welsh texts contain stylistic features which, in a context of intense bilingualism with English, benefit from the deliberate discussion and analysis in this volume. However, the work is intentionally descriptive rather than prescriptive, laying out patterns that are observed in the corpus, and making them available to Welsh writers and translators to adopt if or as required. As similarly the classic work in the field by Vinay and Darbelnet, this book examines its topics through the lens of translation techniques such as transposition, modulation and adaptation. .
Dyma'r astudiaeth gyntaf o waith cyfieithu un o gewri'r ddrama, sef Saunders Lewis. Mae ei gyfieithiadau o weithiau'r dramodwyr Ffrangeg Samuel Beckett a Moliere yn datgelu agwedd newydd a dadlengar ar y llenor a adwaenir fel dramodydd, nofelydd a gwleidydd yn hytrach na fel cyfieithydd. Ystyrir yma hanes cyfieithu ac addasu yn y theatr Gymraeg a'r modd y maent wedi gwneud cyfraniad pwysig i ddatblygiad y ddrama Gymraeg; edrychir hefyd ar bwysigrwydd Ewrop, a Ffrainc yn benodol, i Saunders ac arwyddocad hyn fel sail i'w waith cyfieithu. Trafodir y modd y mae ei ddulliau cyfieithu yn adlewyrchu ei ddatblygiadau personol a phroffesiynol dros gyfnod o ddeugain mlynedd, a beth yw rol y cyfieithydd ym myd y theatr - pa hawl sydd gan gyfieithydd i addasu darn llenyddol, er enghraifft, a ble mae gosod ffin rhwng cyfieithu, addasu a chreu testun newydd, ac i ba graddau felly y mae i'r cyfieithiad newydd werth celfyddydol gwreiddiol ynddi ei hun.
Demosthenes, as an emerging political leader in fourth-century Athens, delivered a series of fiery speeches to the citizens in the democratic Assembly, attacking the Macedonian king Philip II as an aggressive imperialist bent on destroying the city's independence. This volume presents the Greek text of five of these speeches with full introduction and detailed commentary. They show how the foremost politician of the day argued his case before the people who made policy decisions in the Assembly, and how he eventually persuaded them to support his doomed militaristic position in preference to the more pragmatic stance of accommodation advocated by his political opponents. These speeches are unique sources for the ideology and political history of this crucial period, and the best specimens of persuasive rhetoric in action from democratic Athens. This edition takes account of recent studies of fourth-century Athens and showcases Demosthenes as a master of Greek prose style.
Rossetti's Armadillo is Charles S. Kraszewski's attempt at fulfilling the desiderata expressed by George Steiner in the introduction to his Penguin Book of Modern Verse Translation. An honest translation of poetry must be a verse translation, and should include a commentary by the translator, dealing with his critical interpretation of the original and an assessment of the difficulties encountered in the process of translation. Many of the thirty-three verse translations included in Rossetti's Armadillo are appearing in print for the first time. They are accompanied by the original verses he worked from, as well as critical essays. Arranged in chronological order from Sappho to Isidore Isou, the poems in Rossetti's Armadillo constitute a cross-section of the history of European poetry, stretching from the Iberian Peninsula to the steppes of Russia. An introduction and a conclusion interject a translator's-eye-view of the art of poetic recreation, and the humility it enforces upon those who take up the metier.
The Dancer and the Dance is a collection of thirteen essays in translation studies. Unlike many similar collections that have appeared in the past decades, it is the product of theory integrated with practice; in it, the authors have steered clear of theorizing in a vacuum, making sure that their findings tally with what actually happens in translation; there is no attempt at putting forward hypotheses based on mere speculation. As translation theorists and/or translators whose specialties cover translation studies, linguistics, cultural studies, computer-aided translation, Chinese literature, English literature, comparative literature, and creative writing, the thirteen authors have taken up the challenge of unravelling the mystery of what, in I. A. Richards's words, "may very probably be the most complex type of event yet produced in the evolution of the cosmos." Impossible as the task may have seemed, they have all succeeded, each in his/her own way, in tracing out many warp and weft threads, as well as hitherto undiscovered patterns in the vast, gorgeous, and mysterious tapestry woven by God after Babel.
A cursory glance at Hebrews' critique of Israel's fear at Sinai in Heb 12:18-29 suggests that the author has misunderstood or manipulated his sources. In the Pentateuch, the appointment of Moses as Israel's mediator receives explicit approval (Exod 19:9; Deut 5:28), while Heb 12:25 labels their request for mediation a "refusal" to heed the word of God.This bookargues that Hebrews' use of the Sinai narratives resides on a complex trajectory established by four points: the Sinai covenant according to Exodus, the reenactment of that covenant according to Deuteronomy, the call for a NEW covenant according to Jeremiah, and the present reality of that covenant established by God and mediated by Jesus Christ. The basis for Hebrews' critique arises from its insight that while Israel's request established covenant-from-a-distance, Jesus demonstrates that true covenant mediation brings two parties into a single space. The purpose for Hebrews critique lies in its summons to Zion, the mountain on which Jesus sits at the right hand of God as the high priestly mediator of the new covenant.
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