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The volume contains pioneering studies by experts in translating and interpreting specific fields. The book makes a notable contribution to this uncharted area of Translation and Interpreting Studies. This collection presents a theoretical perspective and the practical aspects in translation and interpreting of the specific fields of Engineering, Health, Humanities, Service, Social and Behavioural Sciences. It provides guidance for the methodology applicable to translating and interpreting specific fields on the whole as well as clues for the training of translation and interpreting.
The Sociolinguistics of Survey Translation presents an overview of challenges in survey translation, introduces a sociolinguistic framework to overcome these challenges and demonstrates step-by-step how this framework works to guide and evaluate survey translation. Topics covered in the book include the relationship between linguistic rules, cultural norms, and social practices and their impact on survey translation, the role of orthography and semiotic symbols in translation, translation of different types of survey materials, and various stages of translation review and evaluation. This accessible book not only demonstrates how sociolinguistics can be a useful framework to address thorny survey translation problems, but also provides practical and useful tools to guide survey translators and survey practitioners as they conduct and evaluate survey translations. Presenting easy to implement yet comprehensive survey translation methodology and providing practical tools for survey translators, practitioners and students, this book is the essential guide to this fast-growing area.
From microbiology to nuclear physics and chemistry to software engineering, scientific and technical translation is a complex activity that involves communicating specialized information on a variety of subjects across multiple languages. It requires expert linguistic knowledge and writing skills, combined with the ability to research and understand complex concepts and present them to a range of different audiences. Using a combination of interdisciplinary research, real-world examples drawn from professional practice and numerous learning activities, this introductory textbook equips the student with the knowledge and skills needed to get started in this exciting and challenging field. It examines the origins and history of scientific and technical translation, and the people, tools and processes involved in translating scientific and technical texts.
Scientific and Technical Translation Explained provides an overview of the main features of scientific and technical discourse as well as the different types of documents produced. A series of detailed case studies highlight various translation challenges and introduce a range of strategies for dealing with them. A variety of resources and exercises are included to make learning effective and enjoyable. Additional resources and activities are available on Facebook.
Katherine Mansfield had a lifelong interest in literatures in translation and in literary translating. From her early notebooks until letters written just before her death, she records the joy of learning foreign languages and exploring literatures outside the mainstream Anglophone tradition, often using transformative, inter-lingual games of her own as a source of creativity. Meanwhile, her enduring popularity abroad is ensured by translations of her works, all of which reveal sociological and even ideological agendas of their own.
The literature on Balaghah (the art of Arabic eloquence) and commentaries on the Quran stress that the style of the Quran is beautiful, eloquent and inimitable. This literature identifies word order as one of the most distinctive aspects of Quranic style. One of the main reasons for this is that, compared to English, Arabic has fewer restrictions on word order, thanks to its elaborate verb inflection system and case marking. This flexibility allows for the foregrounding of some elements within the sentence, resulting in a marked (or non-canonical) word order and fulfilling certain discursive functions, including specification, restriction, emphasis, amplification/ glorification, and denial. Marked word order is used to highlight or downplay certain elements in speech or writing. It constitutes one way of delivering meanings to the addressee, as these meanings are ordered in the mind of the speaker in terms of their importance, making the style a precise reflection of the speaker's mind and feelings. This book is a descriptive study which attempts to examine how translations of the Quran have handled ayahs (verses of the Quran) that feature lexical foregrounding, focusing on ten published translations into English, carried out by translators from different ideological and linguistic backgrounds. It offers a systematic comparison of the ways in which the selected translators deal with the linguistic feature of word order variation, and examines issues relating to the translator's style. Specifically, the book identifies and examines the following: instances of marked word order discussed by commentators on the Quran, and the function served by each case of lexical foregrounding; secondly, the options and/or patterns employed by translators to render the different functions of marked word order; thirdly, the recurrent options and/or patterns for rendering different types of word order variation. Finally, the book explores the factors which may have influenced the choice of particular strategies by different translators, including the translators' motivations and the various historical contexts in which the translations were made.
The Routledge Handbook of Literary Translation provides an accessible, diverse and extensive overview of literary translation today. This next-generation volume brings together principles, case studies, precepts, histories and process knowledge from practitioners in sixteen different countries. Divided into four parts, the book covers many of literary translation's most pressing concerns today, from teaching, to theorising, to translation techniques, to new tools and resources. Featuring genre studies, in which graphic novels, crime fiction, and ethnopoetry have pride of place alongside classics and sacred texts, The Routledge Handbook of Literary Translation represents a vital resource for students and researchers of both translation studies and comparative literature.
Taking a cognitive approach, this book asks what poetry, and in particular Holocaust poetry, does to the reader - and to what extent the translation of this poetry can have the same effects. It is informed by current theoretical discussion and features many practical examples. Holocaust poetry differs from other genres of writing about the Holocaust in that it is not so much concerned to document facts as to document feelings and the sense of an experience. It shares the potential of all poetry to have profound effects on the thoughts and feelings of the reader. This book examines how the openness to engagement that Holocaust poetry can engender, achieved through stylistic means, needs to be preserved in translation if the translated poem is to function as a Holocaust poem in any meaningful sense. This is especially true when historical and cultural distance intervenes. The first book of its kind and by a world-renowned scholar and translator, this is required reading.
Translation and Translating in German Studies is a collection of essays in honour of Professor Raleigh Whitinger, a well-loved scholar of German literature, an inspiring teacher, and an exceptional editor and translator. Its twenty chapters, written by Canadian and international experts explore new perspectives on translation and German studies as they inform processes of identity formation, gendered representations, visual and textual mediations, and teaching and learning practices. Translation (as a product) and translating (as a process) function both as analytical categories and as objects of analysis in literature, film, dance, architecture, history, second-language education, and study-abroad experiences. The volume arches from theory and genres more traditionally associated with translation (i.e., literature, philosophy) to new media (dance, film) and experiential education, and identifies pressing issues and themes that are increasingly discussed and examined in the context of translation. This study will be invaluable to university and college faculty working in the disciplines in German studies as well as in translation, cultural studies, and second-language education. Its combination of theoretical and practical explorations will allow readers to view cultural texts anew and invite educators to revisit long-forgotten or banished practices, such as translation in (auto)biographical writing and in the German language classroom.
Since Europeans first encountered Native Americans, problems relating to language and text translation have been an issue. Translators needed to create the tools for translation, such as dictionaries, still a difficult undertaking today. Although the fact that many Native languages do not share even the same structures or classes of words as European languages has always made translation difficult, translating cultural values and perceptions into the idiom of another culture renders the process even more difficult. In "Born in the Blood," noted translator and writer Brian Swann gathers some of the foremost scholars in the field of Native American translation to address the many and varied problems and concerns surrounding the process of translating Native American languages and texts. The essays in this collection address such important questions as, what should be translated? how should it be translated? who should do translation? and even, should the translation of Native literature be done at all? This volume also includes translations of songs and stories.
This book offers a new perspective on the British experience of the Second World War in Europe, one in which foreignness and foreign languages are central to the dynamics of war-making. It offers a series of snapshots of the role which foreign languages played in Britain's war - in intelligence gathering (both signals and human intelligence), in psychological warfare, in preparations for liberating and occupying the continent, in denazification, in providing relief for refugees and displaced persons, and in postwar relationships with the USSR. By mapping the linguistic landscape of Britain's war in Europe, key aspects of international communication - translation, language performance, authenticity, language policies - are seen to be vital to military preparations and operations.
In Translation Changes Everything leading theorist Lawrence Venuti gathers fourteen of his incisive essays since 2000. The selection sketches the trajectory of his thinking about translation while engaging with the main trends in research and commentary. The issues covered include basic concepts like equivalence, retranslation, and reader reception; sociological topics like the impact of translations in the academy and the global cultural economy; and philosophical problems such as the translator's unconscious and translation ethics. Every essay presents case studies that include Venuti's own translation projects, illuminating the connections between theoretical concepts and verbal choices. The texts, drawn from a broad variety of languages, are both humanistic and pragmatic, encompassing such forms as poems and novels, religious and philosophical works, travel guidebooks and advertisements. The discussions all explore practical applications, whether writing, publishing, reviewing, teaching or studying translations. Venuti's aim is to conceive of translation as an interpretive act with far-reaching social effects, at once enabled and constrained by specific cultural situations. This latest chapter in his developing work is essential reading for translators and students of translation alike.
Deaf Professionals and Designated Interpreters: A New Paradigm defines a new model that depends upon strong partnerships between the growing number of deaf experts and their interpreters. Editors Peter C. Hauser, Karen L. Finch, and Angela B. Hauser have called upon more than a score of widely respected researchers to discuss the new dynamics of interpreting for deaf professionals. Divided into two parts, this volume first delineates Designated Interpreting, in which interpreters team with deaf professionals to advance a shared point of view. Chapters in this section include the linguistics of the partnership (Look-Pause-Nod); the varying attitudes and behavior of deaf professionals and their interpreters; interaction in the work-related social setting to ensure equal participation; interpreting as affected by conversational style and gender factors; academic and educational interpreting for deaf academics; and adjusting company policies with professional interpreter guidelines. Part II, Deaf Professional and Designated Interpreter Partnerships, offers relevant examples of interpreting for deaf professionals in real estate, contemporary art, medicine, business administration, education, mental health, film-making, and information technology. These anecdotal chapters demonstrate the critical complexity of the relationships between professionals and interpreters, a revolutionary transformation that will be appreciated by interpreter preparation programs, instructors, interpreters, and their clients alike.
The English language has changed dramatically over the past 500 years, making it increasingly difficult for students to read Chaucer's works. Assuming no previous linguistic knowledge or familiarity with Middle English, Simon Horobin introduces students to Chaucer's language and the importance of reading Chaucer in the original, rather than modern translation. Chaucer's Language - leads the reader gently through basic linguistic concepts with appropriate explanation - highlights how Chaucer's English differs from present-day English, and the significance of this for interpreting and understanding his work - provides close analysis and comparison with the writings of Chaucer's contemporaries to show how Chaucer drew on the variety of Middle English to achieve particular poetic effects - includes sample texts, a glossary of linguistic terminology, a bibliography and suggestions for further reading to aid study. Authoritative and easy-to-follow, this is an indispensable guide to understanding, appreciating and enjoying the language of Chaucer.
This book sets the grounds for a new approach exploring cultural mediators as key figures in literary and cultural history. It proposes an innovative conceptual and methodological understanding of the figure of the cultural mediator, defined as a cultural actor active across linguistic, cultural and geographical borders, occupying strategic positions within large networks and being the carrier of cultural transfer. Many studies on translation and cultural mediation privileged the major metropolis of Paris, London, and New York as centres of cultural production and translation. However, other cities and megacities that are not global centres of culture also feature vibrant translation scenes. This book abandons the focus on `innovative' centres and `imitative' peripheries and follows processes of cultural exchange as they develop. Thus, it analyses the role of cultural mediators as customs officers or smugglers (or both in different proportions) in so-called `peripheral' cultures and offers insights into an under-analysed body of actors and institutions promoting intercultural transfer in often multilingual and less studied venues such as Trieste, Tel Aviv, Buenos Aires, Lima, Lahore, or Cape Town.
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