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Like any other valued resource, emotions are distributed unequally. Moreover, emotions are a generalized resource because they give people the confidence, or lack of confidence, to secure additional types of resources. Thus, this distribution of emotions roughly corresponds to the shares of others kinds of resources that members of various social classes possess. The level of positive and negative emotional energy evident among members of different social classes has large consequences for the viability of human societies. When a large majority of members in diverse social classes have reservoirs of positive emotional energy, these emotions work to legitimate macrostructures and to build people's commitments to societies. When, however, significant numbers of persons in lower social classes, and at times in middle to upper social classes as well, reveal reservoirs of negative emotional energy, they are likely to de-legitimate key institutional systems and, under specifiable conditions, mobilize collective-often with violent outcomes. Thus, emotions are at the core of both integrative and disintegrative forces in societies, and when large reservoirs of negative emotional energy exist, they pose a problem for societies. The goal of this new, unique Series is to offer readable, teachable "thinking frames" on today's social problems and social issues by leading scholars, all in short 60 page or shorter formats, and available for view on http: //routledge.customgateway.com/routledge-social-issues.html For instructors teaching a wide range of courses in the social sciences, the Routledge Social Issues Collection now offers the best of both worlds: originally written short texts that provide "overviews" to important social issues as well as teachable excerpts from larger works previously published by Routledge and other presses.
The book explores how Muslims in Mumbai and Ahmedabad coped with the aftermath of the violence directed against them in 1993 and 2002 respectively, and how they responded to the ethnic carnages of which they were the victims, highlighting the importance of the context and the history of the place where such violence occurred.
Unlike other studies on ethnic violence which have a short-term focus, in dealing with its immediate aftermath, this book examines what happens to the victims over time and how they negotiate a ?new normal? and get on with their lives. Using empirical material based on field work in Mumbai and Ahmedabad, the book shows that while poverty, education and employment remain important elements in the recovery process, the most crucial issue is that of justice and the need to reclaim citizenship. A significant section of the book is devoted to the relationship between Muslim faith-based organisations and the victims of ethnic violence.
Getting in is only half the battle. The Privileged Poor reveals how-and why-disadvantaged students struggle at elite colleges, and explains what schools can do differently if these students are to thrive. The Ivy League looks different than it used to. College presidents and deans of admission have opened their doors-and their coffers-to support a more diverse student body. But is it enough just to admit these students? In The Privileged Poor, Anthony Jack reveals that the struggles of less privileged students continue long after they've arrived on campus. Admission, they quickly learn, is not the same as acceptance. This bracing and necessary book documents how university policies and cultures can exacerbate preexisting inequalities and reveals why these policies hit some students harder than others. Despite their lofty aspirations, top colleges hedge their bets by recruiting their new diversity largely from the same old sources, admitting scores of lower-income black, Latino, and white undergraduates from elite private high schools like Exeter and Andover. These students approach campus life very differently from students who attended local, and typically troubled, public high schools and are often left to flounder on their own. Drawing on interviews with dozens of undergraduates at one of America's most famous colleges and on his own experiences as one of the privileged poor, Jack describes the lives poor students bring with them and shows how powerfully background affects their chances of success. If we truly want our top colleges to be engines of opportunity, university policies and campus cultures will have to change. Jack provides concrete advice to help schools reduce these hidden disadvantages-advice we cannot afford to ignore.
The environment is perhaps most misunderstood as a static place, somewhere "out there," separated from the practices of our everyday lives. Given this assumption, environmental movements and concerns have remained mostly marginalized or denigrated in cultural studies publications, conferences, and presentations. Recent global developments have made changing this oversight and, at times, direct resistance to engaging environmental concerns a new priority. This edited collection illustrates an appreciation of the dynamic, palpable, and significant ways the environment permeates culture (and vice versa), as well as a collective commitment to the ways that cultural studies has more to offer?and to learn from?taking environmental matters to heart. Like foundational categories of identity, economics, and historical context, this collection reminds us why the environment is and should be considered relevant to any work done in the name of "cultural studies." Including research from four continents and across media, the authors offer insights on timely topics such as food, tourism, human/animal relations, forests, queer theory, indigenous rights, and water. This book was published as a special issue of Cultural Studies.
Published social science rarely gives real attention to the actual doing of research, making the process appear magical, or at least self-evident and simple. This book is intended to right the balance by illuminating the craft and the choices made as the research process unfolds for the sociologist. The metaphorical image of going "backstage" speaks to the reader's experience with each of the seventeen interviews, which illuminate the choices and constraints of researchers as well as unanticipated developments, good and bad. The volume represents a range of interests, themes, research philosophies and approaches from a diverse group of contributors. Particularly suited for advanced undergraduate and graduate research methods students, the volume addresses virtually all of the most vexing methods questions through accessible and compelling first-hand descriptions of sociological research. The volume is an invaluable addition to the library of all social science researchers. From the Foreword by Howard Becker: "The stories in Sociologists Backstage tell how the contributors, who differ in so many ways, dealt with the situations they found themselves in as they did their research, and how who they were and what they had become in their lives intersected with those situations. The stories will fascinate you, and give you a lot to think about as you go ahead with your own research adventure."
A fast-growing social media marketing company, TechCo encourages all of its employees to speak up. By promoting open dialogue across the corporate hierarchy, the firm has fostered a uniquely engaged workforce and an enviable capacity for change. Yet the path hasn't always been easy. TechCo has confronted a number of challenges, and its experience reveals the essential elements of bureaucracy that remain even when a firm sets out to discard them. Through it all, TechCo serves as a powerful new model for how firms can navigate today's rapidly changing technological and cultural climate. Catherine J. Turco was embedded within TechCo for ten months. The Conversational Firm is her ethnographic analysis of what worked at the company and what didn't. She offers multiple lessons for anyone curious about the effect of social media on the corporate environment and adds depth to debates over the new generation of employees reared on social media: Millennials who carry their technological habits and expectations into the workplace. Marshaling insights from cultural and economic sociology, organizational theory, economics, technology studies, and anthropology, The Conversational Firm offers a nuanced analysis of corporate communication, control, and culture in the social media age.
Heralding a push for higher education to adopt a more global
perspective, the term "globalizing knowledge" is today a popular
catchphrase among academics and their circles. The complications
and consequences of this desire for greater worldliness, however,
are rarely considered critically. In this groundbreaking
cultural-political sociology of knowledge and change, Michael D.
Kennedy rearticulates questions, approaches, and case studies to
clarify intellectuals' and institutions' responsibilities in a
world defined by transformation and crisis.
Copyrighting God provides the first detailed account of how American religious organizations used copyright in sacred texts not simply for economic gain but also for social organization and control. Including chapters on the angelic authorship of The Urantia Book, Mary Baker Eddy's use of copyright to construct the Christian Science Church, interdenominational disputes in the Worldwide Church of God, and the Church of Scientology's landmark lawsuits against Internet service providers, this book examines how religious copyright owners mobilized the law in order to organize communities, protect sacred goods, produce new forms of spiritual identity, and even enchant the material world. In doing so, this book demonstrates that these organizations all engaged in complex efforts to harmonize legal arguments and theological rationales in order to care for and protect religious media, thereby coming to a nuanced understanding of secular law as a resource for, and obstacle to, their unique spiritual objectives.
First published in 1989, this re-issue concerns itself with the relevance of Max Weber's sociology for the understanding of modern times. The book outlines key tenets of Weber's sociology and points to the valuable legacy of Weber's thought in contemporary intellectual debate, particularly with regard to secularization and rationalization of global cultures, the crisis of Marxism, the rise of the New Right and the emergence of post-modernism. This book offers an authoritative and insightful study which brings to light, not only the contemporary relevance of Weber's social theory, but also offering a broad perspective for the analysis of social questions.
Ravaged by civil war throughout the 1980s and 1990s, El Salvador has now emerged as a study in contradictions. It is a country where urban call centres and shopping malls exist alongside rural poverty. It is a land now at peace but still grappling with a legacy of violence. It is a place marked by deep social divides, yet offering a surprising abundance of inclusive spaces. Above all, it is a nation without borders, as widespread emigration during the war has led Salvadorans to develop a truly transnational sense of identity. In Salvadoran Imaginaries, Cecilia M. Rivas takes us on a journey through twenty-first century El Salvador and to the diverse range of sites where the nation's post war identity is being forged. Combining field ethnography with media research, Rivas deftly toggles between the physical spaces where the new El Salvador is starting to emerge and the virtual spaces where Salvadoran identity is being imagined, including newspapers, literature, and digital media. This interdisciplinary approach enables her to explore the multitude of ways that Salvadorans negotiate between reality and representation, between local neighbourhoods and transnational imagined communities, between present conditions and dreams for the future. Everyday life in El Salvador may seem like a simple matter, but Rivas digs deeper, across many different layers of society, revealing a wealth of complex feelings that the nation's citizens have about power, opportunity, safety, migration, and community. Filled with first-hand interviews and unique archival research, Salvadoran Imaginaries offers a fresh take on an emerging nation and its people.
A premier debate in the present conjuncture of globalization has been the prospect of `post nation' and the obsolescence of patriotism at the horizon of transnationalism. In an ethnographically rich and discursively sharp intervention R. K. Jain articulates the contribution that diaspora studies can make to this debate. In this anthropological narrative both nation and trans-nation are `moving targets'; their positionality shifts and changes according to the geo-political location of the analyst and the frame of comparison brought to bear on the objects/subjects of study. In Jain's case the locus happens to be India but the discussion in this book does not foreclose perspectives from `other' nations. Indeed as his own examples from countries of the Indian Ocean zone, the Asia Pacific region and the Caribbean amply demonstrate the methodology of ethno-cultural relativism built in these diasporic comparisons is the surest guarantee for tracing the juxtaposed dialectic of nation and trans-nation from whichever existential location one begins. The rootedness of this particular discourse in India provides coherence in the nature of a case-study of globalization from a prominent diaspora node of our times. At the same time it unravels dimensions of Indian social institutions viewed from the vantage point of diaspora. The book, therefore, is an invitation to further multi-disciplinary and multi-sited collaboration in the exploration of globalization, diaspora, nationalism and patriotism as well as transnationalism from diverse perspectives.
A study of the existing and future research on the intersections between law and materiality, leading to the illumination of both. * A theoretically innovative book exploring the intersections between law and materiality * Offers new perspectives on a variety of high profile controversial subjects, including climate change, public health, genetics, crime, biomedical technology * Investigates the futures of both the sociology of law and the study of science and technology from a novel, interdisciplinary vantage point * Illustrates a wide range of empirical topics to provide a focus for critical reflection on the nature of cross-disciplinary research * Illuminates relationships between transnational regulation and local practices and the relation between social agency and material worlds
Updated, revised and enhanced with new features, the fifth edition of Making Sense of Sports is the biggest and strongest yet.
Ellis Cashmore's unique multidisciplinary approach to the study of sports remains the only introduction to combine anthropology, biology, economics, history, philosophy, psychology and sociology with cultural and media studies to produce a distinct unbroken vision of the origins, development and current state of sports. New chapters on exercise culture and the moral climate of sports support a thoroughly overhauled text that includes fresh material on Islam, sports commerce and corruption.
Now packed with teaching supplements, including access to a dedicated online resource headquarters with video podcasts of twenty-one chapter outlines from the author (http: //tinyurl.com/373oyvr), online quizzes, and an additional twenty-first chapter on depression and mental health in sports and exercise, the new edition contains a cornucopia of thought boxes, as well as guides to further reading, capsule explanations and model essays. In short, Making Sense of Sports is an all-purpose introduction to the study of sports.
The purpose of this book is to show the important role that space and place plays in the health of urban residents, particularly those living in high poverty ghettos. The book brings together research and writing from a variety of disciplines to demonstrate the health costs of being poor in Americaa (TM)s cities. Both authors are committed to raising awareness of structural factors that promote poverty and injustice in a society that proclaims its commitment to equality of opportunity. Our health is often dramatically affected by where we live; some parts of the city seem to be designed to make people sick. The book is intended for students and professionals in urban sociology, medical sociology, public health, and community planning.
This book looks at a series of citizen-led campaigns to provide information about and energise the institutions of local self-governance in India following the 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts. Staggering in their outreach and magnitude, the campaigns, popularly known as PEVACs (Pre-election Voters' Awareness Campaigns), reached out to huge swathes of the population, particularly in rural India, through a unique network that incorporated civil-society organisations across the country, the media and the State Election Commission itself. The book journeys through the heat and dust of these extraordinary campaigns, drawing from a repertoire of field reports and interviews to reflect on the significance of this experiment' on deepening democracy in India. In particular, it analyses the methodology of the campaigns and posits that this itself became an extraordinary exercise in democratic practice, indicating the shape that deliberation and dialogic practices could actually take on the field. As the campaigns moved from district to district, through their street plays, posters, pamphlets, jagrut yatras, candidate-voter dialogues, rehearsals of voting procedures, setting up of information booths, and participatory workshops for newly elected representatives, a new dialogical experiment was born and shaped. By examining these campaigns, this book emphasises the idea that governance is not just the business of central (federal) governments but also of citizens outside the formal institutions of governance, without whose active participation democracy cannot be deepened.
Understanding evidence is critical in a court of law – and it is just as important for critical thinking.
Elizabeth Loftus, a pioneering psychologist, made a landmark contribution to both these areas in Eyewitness Testimony, a trail-blazing work that undermines much of the decision-making made by judges and juries by pointing out how flawed eyewitness testimony actually is. Reporting the results of an eye-opening series of experiments and trials, Loftus explores the ways in which – unbeknownst to the witnesses themselves – memory can be distorted and become highly unreliable.
Much of Loftus’s work is based on expert use of the critical thinking skill of interpretation. Her work not only highlights multiple problems of definition with regard to courtroom testimony, but also focuses throughout on how best we can understand the meaning of the available evidence. Eyewitness Testimony is arguably the best place in the Macat library to begin any investigation of how to use and understand interpretation.
The book explores the experiences, impact and responses of women in village panchayats in India after a Constitutional Amendment in 1992 made it mandatory to reserve one-third positions for women. Based on extensive field research with interviews of 1,200 panchayat representatives and community members in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh (states usually seen as low on social and gender indicators), the book documents awareness, motivation, perceptions, and participation levels of women elected in the first election following the Amendment, with a follow-up survey of the same panchayats in the next two elections. This work maps the empowering impact on women's self, the attitudes and perceptions of the family and responses of other social institutions. It explodes the myth of women's disinterest in politics, the entry of only affluent women and relatives of influential politicians, and particularly, of these women as proxy for their male kin. The recent policy announcements reserving more seats for women in panchayats (from one-third to one-half) makes this book topical, and especially interesting in light of the opposition to the reservation of seats for women in state legislatures and the parliament.
First published in 1967, this essay in the interpretation of radical social thought deals mainly with the radical theorists rather than the doctrines of social and political movements, but makes an exception in an important discussion of the new radicalism of the 1960s. The author's main concern is to lay bare the connections between intellectual dissent and theories of society, and in so doing to to explore the neglected subject of the heritage of American radical thinking.
Readers of this book will not only emerge enlightened by Professor Bottomore's impressive knowledge of American radical thought, but with a greatly increased understanding of contemporary American history. He ends with the question of whether the new radicalism can find a firmer basis than the student movement or the negro revolt; cn produce an ideology both responsive to the doutbs and complexties of our time and capable of directing action to plausible ends.
How can we bring people together? In Palaces for the People Professor Eric Klinenberg presents a simple but transformative idea for health, happiness, safety and healing our divided, unequal society. Too often we take for granted and neglect our libraries, parks, markets, schools, playgrounds, gardens and communal spaces, but decades of research now shows that these places can have an extraordinary effect on our health and wellbeing and that of society as a whole. Why? Because wherever people cross paths and linger, wherever we gather informally, strike up a conversation and get to know one another, relationships blossom and communities emerge - and where communities are strong, people are safer and healthier, crime drops and commerce thrives, and peace, tolerance and stability take root. Through uplifting human stories, Palaces for the People shows that properly designing and maintaining this `social infrastructure' is our single best strategy for a more equal and united society.
Packed with current examples you can easily relate to, Tischler's INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY, 11E, International Edition delivers comprehensive, up-to-date coverage in a succinct and affordable format. The author begins by equipping you with tools for success, including tips for how to read, study, and take tests more effectively. A built-in study guide and practice tests ensure thorough understanding. The text threads two basic ideas throughout: sociology is a rigorous, scientific discipline, and basic knowledge of sociology is essential for understanding social interaction in many work and social settings. With its streamlined 16 chapters, INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY, 11E, International Edition delivers cutting-edge coverage that is concise yet thorough--and makes sociology completely accessible.
Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865) is one of the most important French social theoreticians of the nineteenth century. George Woodcock's book, first published in 1956, was the first full-scale biography of Proudhon in the English language.
Proudhon's influence on the French Socialist movement was immense and he played a great part in the First International and Paris Commune, in French syndicalism and in contemporary movements for currency reform.
Proudhon's significance also reaches forward into the contemporary era, when his massive distrust of the state and his teaching of the need for world federation took on a new importance in a world threatened by the explosive rivalries of giant nationalistic states.
How philosophers and theorists can find new models for the creation, publication, and dissemination of knowledge, challenging the received ideas of originality, authorship, and the book. In Pirate Philosophy, Gary Hall considers whether the fight against the neoliberal corporatization of higher education in fact requires scholars to transform their own lives and labor. Is there a way for philosophers and theorists to act not just for or with the antiausterity and student protestors-"graduates without a future"-but in terms of their political struggles? Drawing on such phenomena as peer-to-peer file sharing and anticopyright/pro-piracy movements, Hall explores how those in academia can move beyond finding new ways of thinking about the world to find instead new ways of being theorists and philosophers in the world. Hall describes the politics of online sharing, the battles against the current intellectual property regime, and the actions of Anonymous, LulzSec, Aaron Swartz, and others, and he explains Creative Commons and the open access, open source, and free software movements. But in the heart of the book he considers how, when it comes to scholarly ways of creating, performing, and sharing knowledge, philosophers and theorists can challenge not just the neoliberal model of the entrepreneurial academic but also the traditional humanist model with its received ideas of proprietorial authorship, the book, originality, fixity, and the finished object. In other words, can scholars and students today become something like pirate philosophers?
For the better part of its history sociology shared with commonsense its assumption of the ?nature-like? character of society ? and consequently developed as the science of unfreedom. In this powerful and engaging work, first published in 1976, Professor Bauman outlines the historical roots of such a science and describes how the new trends in sociology emerging from phenomenology and existentialism do not challenge this preoccupation. Rather, he claims, they deepen and extend it by stressing the key role of commonsense, particularly the ways in which it is sustained and embedded in the routines and assumptions of everyday life.
Professor Bauman sets out the form of a critical sociology, based on emancipatory reason. His main concerns are the validity' of commonsense and the truth of a theory which would resolve to transcend the limitations of commonsensical evidence. Aimed at human liberation A Critical Sociology is designed to question the very same routines and assumptions of everyday life informed by commonsense.
Contemporary terrorism is a global phenomenon requiring a globalized response. In this book Peter Romaniuk aims to assess to what extent states seek multilateral responses to the threats they face from terrorists. Providing a concise history and a clear discussion of current patterns of counter-terrorist co-operation, this book:
The book contests that the whilst there are several notable examples of successful counterterrorism cooperation, past and present, this work suggests that the broader trend can only be understood if we accept that across the domains of counter-terrorism policy, cooperation often resembles a competition for influence over outcomes.
Multilateral Counter-terrorism is an essential resource for all students and scholars of international politics, criminology and terrorism studies.
The myths and truths of teen's sexual behavior. Winner of the 2015 Brian McConnell Book Award presented by the International Society for Contemporary Legend Research To hear mainstream media sources tell it, the sexlives of modern teenagers outpace even the smuttiest of cable television shows.Teen girls "sext" explicit photos to boys they like; they wear "sex bracelets"that signify what sexual activities they have done, or will do; they team upwith other girls at "rainbow parties" to perform sex acts on groups of willingteen boys; they form "pregnancy pacts" with their best girlfriends to allbecome teen mothers at the same time. From The Today Show, to CNN, to the New York Times, stories of these eventshave been featured widely in the media. But are most teenage-oryounger-children really going to sex parties and having multiple sexualencounters in an orgy-like fashion? Researcherssay no-teen sex is actually not rampant and teen pregnancy is at low levels.But why do stories like these find such media traffic, exploiting parents'worst fears? How do these rumors get started, and how do they travel around thecountry and even across the globe? In Kids Gone Wild,best-selling authors Joel Best and Kathleen A. Bogle use these stories aboutthe fears of the growing sexualization of childhood to explore what we knowabout contemporary legends and how both traditional media and the internet perpetuatethese rumors while, at times, debating their authenticity. Best and Bogledescribe the process by which such stories spread, trace how and to where they have moved, and track howthey can morph as they travel from one medium to another. Ultimately, they findthat our society's view of kids raging out of control has drastic andunforeseen consequences, fueling the debate on sex education and affecting policydecisions on everything from the availability of the morning after pill to whois included on sex offender registries. Asurprising look at the truth behind the sensationalism in our culture, Kids Gone Wild is a much-needed wake-upcall for a society determined to believe the worst about its young people.
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