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Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2008 im Fachbereich Psychologie - Entwicklungspsychologie, Note: 1,0, Technische Universitat Kaiserslautern, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Es stellt sich die Frage, wodurch die im Laufe der Entwicklung eintretenden intraindividuellen Veranderungen zustande kommen, also die Erklarung von Entwicklungsprozessen. Grundsatzlich ist davon auszugehen, dass die Entwicklung beim Menschen von einer Vielzahl wechselseitig abhangiger Bedingungen beeinflusst wird und dies in unterschiedlicher Art und Weise, je nach dem betrachteten Verhaltensmerkmal, der daraufhin untersuchten Population und dem ins Auge gefasste Entwicklungsabschnitt. Die Anlage-Umwelt Frage ist in unserer Zeit deswegen so enorm wichtig, da die jeweiligen Lebensgratifikationen in unserer Gesellschaft von individuellen Fahigkeiten, Leistungen und Eigenschaften abhangen. Somit sollte es moglich sein, mithilfe sozialpolitischer und padagogischen Massnahmen Ungleichheit und Ungerechtigkeit zu mindern. Diese Gerechtigkeit unter den Menschen kann nicht nur durch Erziehung hergestellt werden. Angenommen man konnte beobachten, dass die Erfolgschancen in unserer Gesellschaft (Einkommen, Prestige, Beruf) nur genetisch bedingt seien, dann ware die Schaffung einer distributiven Gerechtigkeit durch Entkoppelung von Einkommen und Beruf denkbar. Der Begriff Anlage' ist als genetische Determinante zu verstehen, also auf Basis von Genen. Sie sind jedem Individuum gegeben und nicht veranderbar, konnen sich jedoch uber die Generationen hinweg durch Mutation oder Selektion verandern. Genau genommen ist das Ererbte nur im genetischen Code (Genom) sichtbar. Der Genotyp, welcher seine konkrete Erscheinungsform erst in Interaktion mit der spezifischen Umwelt annimmt, wird erst im Phanotyp sichtbar. Eine andere Sichtweise, die sich mit den Einflussen auf die menschliche Entwicklung beschaftigte, war der Behaviorismus (Verhaltenspsychologie). Im Mittelpunkt der Forschung stehen direkt beobachtbare Ereignisse -
Written by an international team of experts, this collection provides a comprehensive account of established and emerging methods of collecting and analysing data within the framework of personal construct theory.
Covers methods such as content analysis scales, repertory grid methodology, narrative assessments and drawings, the laddering and ABC techniques, and discusses how and why they are usedExplores both qualitative and quantitative methods, as well as methods used in clinical and counselling settingsIncludes 13 contributions from leading international scholars
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2010 im Fachbereich Psychologie - Entwicklungspsychologie, Note: 2,0, Otto-Friedrich-Universitat Bamberg, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Denkt man an seine eigene Schulzeit zuruck, erinnert man sich meist nicht nur an positive Erlebnisse und Erfahrungen. Die Angst vor nicht vorbereiteten Klassenarbeiten, die Angst vor strengen Lehrern, die Angst vor der Zeugnisausgabe und die elterliche Reaktion darauf, stellen wohl die am haufigsten genannten negativen Aspekte dar. Es fallen einem sicher genug Anlasse ein, die Angst vor der Schule bescherten. Scheint diese Tatsache im Ruckblick nicht eine ganz normale emotionale Reaktion auf erwartete negative Erlebnisse und selbstverstandlich fur den Schulalltag gewesen zu sein, die uns im Kindes- und Jugendalter von anderen spannenden freizeitlichen Aktivitaten abgehalten hat? In der Folgenden Arbeit soll untersucht werden, ob Angst vor der Schule wirklich eine harmlose Tatsache ist, die jeder einmal durchlebt, oder ob Schulangst auch Symptom einer krankhaften Angststorung sein kann. Zunachst soll die Grundlage geschaffen werden, welche Rolle die Emotion Angst in der Entwicklung spielt. In einem weiteren Schritt soll das Thema Schulangst genauer untersucht werden.
This book introduces researchers and students to the concepts and generalized linear models for analyzing quantitative random variables that have one or more bounds. Examples of bounded variables include the percentage of a population eligible to vote (bounded from 0 to 100), or reaction time in milliseconds (bounded below by 0). The human sciences deal in many variables that are bounded. Ignoring bounds can result in misestimation and improper statistical inference. Michael Smithson and Yiyun Shou's book brings together material on the analysis of limited and bounded variables that is scattered across the literature in several disciplines, and presents it in a style that is both more accessible and up-to-date. The authors provide worked examples in each chapter using real datasets from a variety of disciplines. The software used for the examples include R, SAS, and Stata. The data, software code, and detailed explanations of the example models are available on an accompanying website.
An indispensable guide to conducting research in the social sciences Looking beyond the traditional boundaries of quantitative and qualitative research, this is an illuminating and accessible guide to thinking about the role of the researcher - who they are, what they do, and how they shape their own practice. Written by an expert with many years' experience of teaching and research, it will help both novice and expert readers to assess and affect their own impact on their methodology and findings. A key introductory text suitable for students and early-career researchers working across the social and behavioural science. This book will be an essential reference for anybody who wishes to reflect on and develop their research skills.
Bringing together leading authorities, this unique handbook reviews the breadth of current approaches for studying how people think, feel, and behave in everyday environments, rather than in the laboratory. The volume thoroughly describes experience sampling methods, diary methods, physiological measures, and other self-report and non-self-report tools that allow for repeated, real-time measurement in natural settings. Practical guidance is provided to help the reader design a high-quality study, select and implement appropriate methods, and analyze the resulting data using cutting-edge statistical techniques. Applications across a wide range of psychological subfields and research areas are discussed in detail.
This text focuses on the experimental methods and the associated terminology encountered in the research literature of psychology. Initially, the content is kept simple, so as not to distract from the information on research technique and philosophy. Interesting psychological questions from well researched areas are then examined in detail, permitting a fuller discussion of the problems encountered in specific paradigms. It is in this fashion that the book offers both methods and content. Unique features of this text include: * a detailed discussion of the process of theorizing, coupled with a close examination of psychological constructs, offers the reader an opportunity to see how psychologists think about, develop, and modify their theories, and the part played by research in changing explanations of behavior. * Although it is common for psychologists to be self-conscious in their reasoning, it is uncommon to see an analysis of the logic that they use to draw conclusions. Presenting material that is rarely verbalized but readily acknowledged by experienced researchers, the text contains an overt analysis of the logic of drawing conclusions from research. * Instructors are given a choice among 15 chapters to focus on or combine to suit the course's concentration. For example, instructors have the option of focusing on experimental psychology or a broad-based course including material on research methods in experimental, social, clinical, and applied psychology. * Courses in experimental psychology or research methods are required for every psychology major. Statistical understanding is vital for this curriculum, and this text contains a comprehensive chapter on statistics making it ideal for courses that combine statistics and experimental methods. Other important coverage includes: * an all-inclusive summary of the material found in an introductory statistics class. Although courses in research methods and experimental psychology usually have a statistics prerequisite, the students rarely remember the material when entering the research course. This text provides the instructor with the option of simply assigning the statistics information as a review, rather than repeating the lectures. If the course requirements are such as to necessitate a joint statistics and research methods course -- with the instructor lecturing on both topics -- this text could serve as the single text for the course. A helpful discussion -- accompanied by a valuable table -- demonstrates how to choose an appropriate statistic. All necessary formulas and other familiar statistical procedures -- illustrating computational steps -- are also featured. * a detailed discussion of how to develop tests for use in research. Aside from the value of this information for any researcher, it can be particularly helpful to students who are required to develop original experiments. * an elaborate discussion of methodological issues in outcome research, using smoking cessation and weight reduction programs as examples. Test bank disks for Experimental Methods in Psychology, -- free to adopters -- consist of an average of six short-answer, 11 fill-in-the-blank, and 11 multiple-choice questions for each chapter. The files are in both ASCII and Word-for-Windows formats.
"The book is useful in that it focuses upon techniques and provides 'tasters' of qualitative methodologies and encourages readers to try the methods for themselves in their own research projects. It is well-referenced and directs the reader to other sources of information should they wish to pursue their interests. It is worthwhile in that it encourages the reader to take a wider perspective than the quasi-experimental methods presented in most methodology texts at this level. The authors presented encourage us to develop new ways of working and using data." --Ann Llewellyn in History and Philosophy of Psychology Newsletter This accessible book introduces key research methods that challenge psychology's traditional preoccupation with "scientific" experiments. The wide-scale rejection of conventional theory and method has led to the evolution of different ways to gather and analyze data. Rethinking Methods in Psychology provides a lucid and well-structured guide to key effective methods, which not only contain the classic qualitative approaches but also offer a reworking of quantitative methods to suit the changing picture of psychological research today. Leading figures in the research arena focus on research in the real world, language and discourse, dynamic interactions, and persons and individuals. They also guide the reader through the main stages of conducting a study. This is an essential volume for anyone interested in doing research in psychology without relying on positivist tradition, as well as students and scholars in communication, management, and nursing.
This volume presents a collection of chapters focused on the study of multivariate change. As people develop and change, multivariate measurement of that change and analysis of those measures can illuminate the regularities in the trajectories of individual development, as well as time-dependent changes in population averages. As longitudinal data have recently become much more prevalent in psychology and the social sciences, models of change have become increasingly important. This collection focuses on methodological, statistical, and modeling aspects of multivariate change and applications of longitudinal models to the study of psychological processes. The volume is divided into three major sections: Extension of latent change models, Measurement and testing issues in longitudinal modeling, and Novel applications of multivariate longitudinal methodology. It is intended for advanced students and researchers interested in learning about state-of-the-art techniques for longitudinal data analysis, as well as understanding the history and development of such techniques.
A complete and up-to-date survey of microeconometric methods available in Stata, Microeconometrics Using Stata, Revised Edition is an outstanding introduction to microeconometrics and how to execute microeconometric research using Stata. It covers topics left out of most microeconometrics textbooks and omitted from basic introductions to Stata.
This revised edition has been updated to reflect the new features available in Stata 11 that are useful to microeconomists. Instead of using mfx and the user-written margeff commands, the authors employ the new margins command, emphasizing both marginal effects at the means and average marginal effects. They also replace the xi command with factor variables, which allow you to specify indicator variables and interaction effects. Along with several new examples, this edition presents the new gmm command for generalized method of moments and nonlinear instrumental-variables estimation. In addition, the chapter on maximum likelihood estimation incorporates enhancements made to ml in Stata 11.
Throughout the book, the authors use simulation methods to illustrate features of the estimators and tests described and provide an in-depth Stata example for each topic discussed. They also show how to use Stata s programming features to implement methods for which Stata does not have a specific command. The unique combination of topics, intuitive introductions to methods, and detailed illustrations of Stata examples make this book an invaluable, hands-on addition to the library of anyone who uses microeconometric methods."
Statistics for Research in Psychology offers an intuitive approach to statistics based on estimation for interpreting research in psychology. This innovative text covers topic areas in a traditional sequence but gently shifts the focus to an alternative approach using estimation, emphasizing confidence intervals, effect sizes, and practical significance, with the advantages naturally emerging in the process. Frequent opportunities for practice and step-by-step instructions for using Excel, SPSS, and R in appendices will help readers come away with a better understanding of statistics that will allow them to more effectively evaluate published research and undertake meaningful research of their own.
Modelling Spatial and Spatial-Temporal Data: A Bayesian Approach is aimed at statisticians and quantitative social, economic and public health students and researchers who work with small-area spatial and spatial-temporal data. It assumes a grounding in statistical theory up to the standard linear regression model. The book compares both hierarchical and spatial econometric modelling, providing both a reference and a teaching text with exercises in each chapter. The book provides a fully Bayesian, self-contained, treatment of the underlying statistical theory, with chapters dedicated to substantive applications. The book includes WinBUGS code and R code and all datasets are available online. Part I covers fundamental issues arising when modelling spatial and spatial-temporal data. Part II focuses on modelling cross-sectional spatial data and begins by describing exploratory methods that help guide the modelling process. There are then two theoretical chapters on Bayesian models and a chapter of applications. Two chapters follow on spatial econometric modelling, one describing different models, the other substantive applications. Part III discusses modelling spatial-temporal data, first introducing models for time series data. Exploratory methods for detecting different types of space-time interaction are presented, followed by two chapters on the theory of space-time separable (without space-time interaction) and inseparable (with space-time interaction) models. An applications chapter includes: the evaluation of a policy intervention; analysing the temporal dynamics of crime hotspots; chronic disease surveillance; and testing for evidence of spatial spillovers in the spread of an infectious disease. A final chapter suggests some future directions and challenges. Robert Haining is Emeritus Professor in Human Geography, University of Cambridge, England. He is the author of Spatial Data Analysis in the Social and Environmental Sciences (1990) and Spatial Data Analysis: Theory and Practice (2003). He is a Fellow of the RGS-IBG and of the Academy of Social Sciences. Guangquan Li is Senior Lecturer in Statistics in the Department of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Northumbria University, Newcastle, England. His research includes the development and application of Bayesian methods in the social and health sciences. He is a Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society.
Praise for previous editions: "Gandrud has written a great outline of how a fully reproducible research project should look from start to finish, with brief explanations of each tool that he uses along the way... Advanced undergraduate students in mathematics, statistics, and similar fields as well as students just beginning their graduate studies would benefit the most from reading this book. Many more experienced R users or second-year graduate students might find themselves thinking, 'I wish I'd read this book at the start of my studies, when I was first learning R!'...This book could be used as the main text for a class on reproducible research ..." (The American Statistician) Reproducible Research with R and R Studio, Third Edition brings together the skills and tools needed for doing and presenting computational research. Using straightforward examples, the book takes you through an entire reproducible research workflow. This practical workflow enables you to gather and analyze data as well as dynamically present results in print and on the web. Supplementary materials and example are available on the author's website. New to the Third Edition Updated package recommendations, examples, URLs, and removed technologies no longer in regular use. More advanced R Markdown (and less LaTeX) in discussions of markup languages and examples. Stronger focus on reproducible working directory tools. Updated discussion of cloud storage services and persistent reproducible material citation. Added discussion of Jupyter notebooks and reproducible practices in industry. Examples of data manipulation with Tidyverse tibbles (in addition to standard data frames) and pivot_longer() and pivot_wider() functions for pivoting data. Features Incorporates the most important advances that have been developed since the editions were published Describes a complete reproducible research workflow, from data gathering to the presentation of results Shows how to automatically generate tables and figures using R Includes instructions on formatting a presentation document via markup languages Discusses cloud storage and versioning services, particularly Github Explains how to use Unix-like shell programs for working with large research projects
This book will provide students with additional opportunities for practice in a course with challenging material that requires practice and repetition for deeper understanding.
The seventh edition of Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology provides students with the most readable and comprehensive survey of research methods, statistical concepts and procedures in psychology today. Assuming no prior knowledge, this bestselling text takes you through every stage of your research project giving advice on planning and conducting studies, analysing data and writing up reports. The book provides clear coverage of experimental, interviewing and observational methods, psychological testing, qualitative methods and analysis and statistical procedures which include nominal level tests, multi-factorial ANOVA designs, multiple regression, log linear analysis, and factor analysis. It features detailed and illustrated SPSS instructions for all these and other procedures, eliminating the need for an extra SPSS textbook. New features to this edition include: Additional coverage of factor analysis and online and modern research methods Expanded coverage of report writing guidelines References updated throughout Presentation updated throughout, to include more figures, tables and full colour to help break up the text Companion website signposted throughout the book to improve student usability Improved and extended web links and further reading associated with every chapter. Each chapter contains a glossary, key terms and newly integrated exercises, ensuring that key concepts are understood. A fully updated companion website (www.routledge.com/cw/coolican) provides additional exercises, testbanks for each chapter, revision flash cards, links to further reading and data for use with SPSS.
Widely considered the go-to reference--and now extensively revised with over 65% new material--this authoritative handbook surveys the landscape of current knowledge on psychopathy and addresses essential clinical and applied topics. Leading researchers explore major theoretical models; symptomatology and diagnostic subtypes; assessment methods; developmental pathways; and causal influences, from genes and neurobiology to environmental factors. The volume examines manifestations of psychopathy in specific populations as well as connections to antisocial behavior and recidivism. It presents contemporary perspectives on prevention and treatment and discusses special considerations in clinical and forensic practice. New to This Edition *Extensively revised with more than a decade's theoretical, empirical, and clinical advances. *Many new authors and topics. *Expanded coverage of phenotypic facets, with chapters on behavioral disinhibition, callous-unemotional traits, and boldness. *Chapters on DSM-5, clinical interviewing, cognitive and emotional processing, and serial murder. *Significantly updated coverage of etiology, assessment methods, neuroimaging research, and adult and juvenile treatment approaches.
Statistical Concepts-A First Course presents the first 10 chapters from An Introduction to Statistical Concepts, Fourth Edition. Designed for first and lower-level statistics courses, this book communicates a conceptual, intuitive understanding of statistics that does not assume extensive or recent training in mathematics and only requires a rudimentary knowledge of algebra. Covering the most basic statistical concepts, this book is designed to help readers really understand statistical concepts, in what situations they can be applied, and how to apply them to data. Specifically, the text covers basic descriptive statistics, including ways of representing data graphically, statistical measures that describe a set of data, the normal distribution and other types of standard scores, and an introduction to probability and sampling. The remainder of the text covers various inferential tests, including those involving tests of means (e.g., t tests), proportions, variances, and correlations. Providing accessible and comprehensive coverage of topics suitable for an undergraduate or graduate course in statistics, this book is an invaluable resource for students undertaking an introductory course in statistics in any number of social science and behavioral science disciplines.
Now in its fifth, expanded edition, Using Sources Effectively, Fifth Edition targets the two most prominent problems in current research-paper writing: the increase in unintentional plagiarism and the ineffective use of research source material. Designed as a supplementary textbook for both undergraduate and graduate courses, this book will help every student who uses research in writing. Included in this edition are coverage of research strategies and source selection (Chapter 2), a chapter on quoting sources effectively (Chapter 4), and a chapter on sentence patterns (Chapter 10). APA and MLA citation styles have been updated throughout the text. To the student: This book was written to give you the knowledge and tools you can use to make your research-based writing more powerful and effective. Here are some examples: Mini-Research Projects at the end of each chapter to sharpen your research and evaluation skills A set of practical, useful rhetorical devices to help improve the clarity and impact of your writing Increased emphasis on synthesis writing-weaving source use into your own thinking-to give your writing more interest and persuasive power Instruction in close reading to help you better grasp what an author is discussing or arguing Strategies for organizing and positioning your sources to strengthen your central argument.
Experience Sampling in Mental Health Research provides comprehensive and user-friendly guidance on when and how to apply this methodology in the assessment of clinical populations. Divided into three sections, the book offers step-by-step instruction on how to design, develop and implement an ESM study, as well as advice on how this approach might be adapted for common mental health difficulties. With an eye to the future of this type of research, the contributors also consider how ESM might be adapted for use as a form of clinical assessment and intervention. Experience Sampling in Mental Health Research combines the knowledge and expertise of leading international experts in the field, and will be helpful for students, researchers and clinicians wishing to start or develop their understanding of this methodology.
The leading reference on personality disorders and their treatment, this authoritative work is now significantly revised with 80% new content reflecting important advances in the field. Preeminent experts provide in-depth coverage of conceptual and taxonomic issues, psychopathology, epidemiology and longitudinal course, etiology and development, and specific diagnoses. Diagnostic issues are explored and available assessment instruments discussed. All available evidence-based treatments are reviewed in consistently organized chapters that cover theoretical and empirical foundations as well as clinical strategies, facilitating comparison of the various approaches. New to This Edition *Incorporates more than 15 years of major research advances; includes 21 chapters on new topics. *Critically examines DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. *Chapters on additional treatments--mentalization-based treatment, schema-focused therapy, transference-based psychotherapy, and systems training for emotional predictability and problem solving. *Chapters on cutting-edge topics such as dimensional models, longitudinal studies, and personality pathology in children and adolescents. *Chapters on specific diagnoses: antisocial/psychopathic, borderline, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. *Integrative section introductions by the editors. See also Integrated Treatment for Personality Disorder, edited by W. John Livesley, Giancarlo Dimaggio, and John F. Clarkin, which weaves multiple well-established intervention strategies into a systematic modular approach.
"Why Science Matters: Understanding the Methods of Psychological
Research "rises above standard research methods texts by presenting
an up-to-date view of contemporary psychological science as it is
currently understood and practiced.
A comprehensive introduction to research methods and best practices for designing, conducting, interpreting, and reporting findings
This text is designed to develop in students a passion for conducting research and an understanding of the practical value of systematic information- gathering and decision-making. It features step-by-step coverage of the research process including research design, statistical considerations, and guidance on writing up and presenting results.
Recognized leaders in the field--authors Bart Weathington, Christopher Cunningham, and David Pittenger--present:
Introductions to multiple research designs--including single-participant, multi-group, longitudinal, correlational, and experimental designs--accompanied by examples
Bibliographic research and methods for appropriate sampling
Identifying, developing, and evaluating reliable and valid approaches to measurement
The issues and steps common to all single-factor and multifactor studies, as well as single-subject and nonexperimental methods
How to summarize research in writing that conforms to the editorial guidelines of the American Psychological Association
A comprehensive review of research methods and the statistical concepts that support them, "Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences" offers the best techniques for studying behavior and social phenomena.
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