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Available Open Access under CC-BY-NC licence. While the debate on regulating prostitution usually focuses on national policy, it is local policy measures that have the most impact on the ground. This book is the first to offer a detailed analysis of the design and implementation of prostitution policy at the local level and carefully situates local policy practices in national policy making and transnational trends in labour migration and exploitation. Based on detailed comparative research in Austria and the Netherlands, and bringing in experiences in countries such as New Zealand and Sweden, it analyses the policy instruments employed by local administrators to control prostitution and sex workers. Bridging the gap between theory and policy, emphasizing the multilevel nature of prostitution policy, while also highlighting more effective policies on prostitution, migration and labour exploitation, this unique book fills a gap in the literature on this contentious and important social issue.
Most of the chapters in this volume were first presented at the Penang Outlook Forum 2009, held on 1-2 June 2009 at the E&O Hotel in Penang. A few others have been added to complement those at the conference. At present, comprehensive and authoritative studies on Penang's current economic conditions are a rarity. This book is thus an effort to correct that lack. Evidence does suggest that the state had not been doing well in the first half of the first decade of the new millennium. Being a small state situated relatively far away from the administrative capital of Putrajaya, Penang has to be economically innovative if it is to regain its place at the forefront of Malaysian development. The relationship between the state and the federal government remains a vital matter.
Just as Latin American countries began to transition to democracy in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the region also saw gains in social, cultural and economic gender equality. In accordance with modernization theories, women in the region have also made significant inroads into elected office. However, these gains vary a great deal between countries in Latin America. They also vary significantly at different levels of government even within the same country. Inside government arenas, representation is highly gendered with rules and norms that advantage men and disadvantage women, limiting women's access to full political power. While one might expect these variations to map onto socioeconomic and cultural conditions within each country, they don't correlate. This book makes, for the first time, a comprehensive comparison of gender and representation across the region - in seven countries - and at five different levels: the presidency, cabinets, national legislatures, political parties, and subnational governments. Overall, it argues that gender inequality in political representation in Latin America is rooted in democratic institutions and the democratic challenges and political crises facing the region. Institutions and political context not only influence the number of women and men elected to office, but also what they do once in office, the degree of power to which they gain access, and how their presence and actions influence democracy and society, more broadly. Drawing on the expertise of scholars of women, gender, and political institutions, this book is the most comprehensive analysis of women's representation in Latin America to date, and an important resource for research on women's representation worldwide. The causes, consequences, and challenges to women's representation in Latin America are not unique to that region, and the book uses Latin American patterns to draw broad conclusions about gendered representation in other areas of the world.
Britain invented the modern industrial city in the nineteenth century. But by the late 20th century most British cities had become basket cases. Today London overshadows the rest of the country, as the UK's only 'world city'. No other large country is anything like as economically and politically centralized. This concentration of power damages Britain's economy and fuels the sense of discontent felt by the millions of people for whom the capital seems like another planet. Yet it is cities that are fuelling economic growth around the world. Mike Emmerich looks at the DNA of cities and how it expresses itself in their institutions, governance, public services, religion and culture. He argues that the UK needs a devolutionary ratchet, allowing major cities the freedom to seek devolution of any area of public spending that is not inherently national in nature (such as defence). Cities should have powers to raise some of their own taxes including business, property and sales based taxes and to increase them. He calls for sustained investment in transport and infrastructure, and also training. An innovation-centric industrial policy would also have an emphasis on the social fabric of cities and - crucially - their institutions.
Since the mid-1990s, Morocco has sought to present itself as a model of genuine and gradual reform, with decentralisation as a key tenet of this. Here, Sylvia Bergh investigates the dynamics of popular participation and local governance, testing the extent to which the current structure builds local capacity, or whether it is, in fact, a tool for 'soft' state control. She narrates the realities of local administration and civil society to shed critical light on questions of democratic transition in North Africa. Her assessment of decentralisation and participatory development projects in rural Morocco, and the legal and policy frameworks in which they operate, leads to the conclusion that they have generally not yet led to an expansion of a civil society able to build local capacity or enhance bottom-up empowerment. Grounded in an approach of the 'anthropology of policy', this book makes an important contribution to literature on the democratisation, development and governance in North Africa.
The first textbook to explain the full range of operations in Welsh governance and politics for AS, A2 and undergraduate studentsThis new textbook explains Welsh devolution through the use of case studies, critical analysis and clear explanations of processes and terms. As the Welsh Assembly moves towards becoming a Welsh Parliament and the Welsh Government fashions a Welsh policy agenda, distinct from Westminster, students of British politics will learn how Welsh politics works in practice and how it is evolving.Key featuresSpecially written by teachers and lecturers for students of Welsh government and politics on AS, A2 and undergraduate courses10 case studies illuminate the nature and analysis of Welsh politicsDetailed, critical analysis of the National Assembly and the law-making process explains how laws are made in Wales, which is different from the rest of the UK Divided into short, easy-to read sub-sections, with worked examples and analysis tailored to student needsIncludes a glossary of key terms that are essential to understanding Welsh government and politics but are hard to find in a Welsh context
Identifies problems reformers face in drafting or amending state constitutions.
This "how-to" book on planning and managing GIS within local government describes and details the key components of a successful enterprise, sustainable and enduring GIS. It describes the strategic planning process an organization must undertake prior to GIS implementation. The heart of the book is the formula for success that offers a systematic methodology for examining and benchmarking a GIS initiative and the practical and repeatable strategy for success. There are many obstacles to successful GIS implementation, and unfortunately, the local government landscape is riddled with false starts, poorly planned implementations, and glorified mapping systems. This book documents the reason for failure and possible remedies to overcome the challenges to implementation. It discusses pathways to change, ways of improving organizational effectiveness and efficiency, and lays out the organizational approaches, management processes, and leadership actions that are required for GIS to become an indispensable part of an organization. This book is about aiming high, so you can consistently hit your mark by formulating goals and objectives that will tremendously influence the success of a GIS initiative. It details the factors crucial for building an enterprise GIS vision statement that includes governance, data and databases, procedures and workflow, GIS software, GIS training and education, and infrastructure, and how to develop performance measures related to the stated objectives of an organization. The book combines theory with real-world experience to offer guidance on the process of managing GIS implementation. Through key components, this book introduces a new way to think about GIS technology.
Combining scholarly literature with elected experience at the local governmental level, Barry E. Truchil addresses the inner workings and politics of local government in small town and suburban settings in The Politics of Local Government. This book explores issues involving development and implementation of budgets, regulation, and control of development (including conversion of open space to housing and business buildings), as well as the initiation of progressive changes such as the use of green energy and control of corruption. Given the limited available research in this area, this book fills a void for scholars in the field, undergraduate and graduate students as well as those interested in the politics of local government.
This collection presents a varied picture of the state of democracy in Asia, revealing unique findings from a project entitled the 'Asia Democracy Initiative' which explored the role of ordinary people in democratization through the rise of expressive social values in Indonesia, South Korea, the Philippines and Thailand.
As democracy is disrupted by globalization, the solution is to globalize democracy. This book explores the causes of the current crisis of democracy and advocates new ways for more representative, effective, and accountable governance in an interdependent world. Part 1 analyzes the split of the middle class and the subsequent political polarization which underlies people's dissatisfaction with the way democracy works in developed countries. It also addresses the role of political emotions, including disappointments about unmet expectations, anger incited from opposition candidates, fear induced from government, and hope wrapping up new proposals for reform and change. In Part II, the authors argue that a more effective governance would require reallocations of power at local, national, continental and global levels with innovative combinations of direct democracy, representative government, and rule by experts. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of political science, comparative politics, international relations, political economy and democratic theory, as well as general readers interested in politics and current events.
This brief review of the evolution of redistricting standards, processes, and outcomes underscores the importance of scholarship examining the dynamics of each redistricting cycle. Jigsaw Puzzle Politics in the Sunshine State, edited by the highly respected political scientist, Seth C. McKee, chronicles the redistricting controversies that emerged during the 2012 cycle. Jigsaw Puzzle Politics gives readers a comprehensive look at the "hows, whens, whys, and consequences" of the most recent redistricting wars.
This accessible text summarizes and explains the structure of British local government, focusing on key changes introduced during the Thatcher/Major years and initiatives implemented by the current Labour administration. While offering a detailed discussion of these policies, the book examines how local government has sought to respond in a proactive way to a range of important social, political and economic changes.
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