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Although South Africa’s informal sector is small compared to other developing countries, it nevertheless provides livelihoods, employment and income for millions of workers and business owners. Almost half of informal-sector workers work in firms with employees. The annual entry of new enterprises is quite high, as is the number of informal enterprises that grow their employment. There is no shortage of entrepreneurship and desire to grow.
However, obstacles and constraints cause hardship and failure, pointing to the need for well-designed policies to enable and support the sector, rather than suppress it. The same goes for formalisation. Recognising the informal sector as an integral part of the economy, rather than ignoring it, is a crucial first step towards instituting a ‘smart’ policy approach.
The South African Informal Sector is strongly evidence- and data-driven, with substantial quantitative contributions combined with qualitative findings – suitable for an era of increased pressure for evidence-based policy-making – and utilises several disciplinary perspectives.
This South African edition of Microeconomics is essential reading for all students taking introductory economics modules on undergraduate courses throughout South Africa. It is also ideal for use with the microeconomics component of MBA courses. The text contains updated case studies, set against a South African context to illustrate how the principles of economics relate to your life. The news articles are based on news events in South Africa along with questions to help you apply your knowledge and to build your understanding. This text is designed to give you the confidence and ability to think like an economist.
Ever wonder why you have the number of friends that you do? . . . If a tax on soda would really reduce obesity? . . . What is going on with the financial problems in Greece? . . . or whether a tax rebate is better than a tax bonus? MICROECONOMICS, 11e, International Edition answers these questions and many more. Using intriguing pop culture examples, the eleventh edition is revised to include the most comprehensive coverage of the financial and economic crisis available in a principles of microeconomics text. Self-tests help determine how well you're grasping the concepts, and CourseMate for Microeconomics offers a graphing tutorial, quizzes, videos and more. It's all carefully designed to help you get the best grade possible! Building on the Video Office Hours lectures developed by the author for the tenth edition, the eleventh edition features two entirely new video types--See It Solved and GraphIt! See It Solved videos walk you through a worked problem, similar to those found at the end of each chapter, providing an ideal study tool for reference as you do homework. GraphIt! videos demonstrate key concepts in graphing in short (averaging three to five minutes) video pieces that can be played and replayed to see how the graphs are built.
In microeconomics, the decisions and functioning of individual consumers and households (what to do, what to buy, etc.), and firms or other organisations (what goods to produce, how to produce them, what prices to charge, etc.) are considered. It includes the study of the demand, supply and prices of individual goods and services such as petrol, maize, haircuts and medical services. Understanding microeconomics is a comprehensive introduction to microeconomics in general, set against a contemporary South African background. The easy style and many practical examples make the content extremely accessible. The book covers all the material usually prescribed for introductory courses, and it lays a solid foundation for intermediate and advanced studies in economics. This second edition is a thoroughly revised and slightly expanded version of the original one. Examples have been adjusted (where necessary), a few new topics are introduced and review questions are provided at the end of each chapter. A companion to this book, Understanding macroeconomics, is also available.
'His book injects some grounded, non-jargon-laden reality into the bland corporate-speak around notions of passion, engagement and purpose.' Financial Times'This is explicitly a book to help a "regular person do well in a rapidly changing economy" and it succeeds precisely because there is no hyperbole or hard sell. No dynamism is required' Financial Times 'Inspiration for entrepreneurs that should be required reading in any business school curriculum' Kirkus 'The Passion Economy is exactly what everyone needs today: examples of how to thrive in an economy that can seem overwhelming, and crystal-clear explanations of how to succeed. This is the book about how to live (and work) a more passionate life' Charles Duhigg, author of The Power of Habit 'Adam Davidson is one of America's most accomplished business journalists - and this book reminds us why. With a reporter's eye and a storyteller's grace, he has traveled the country to find regular people who have cracked the code of the modern economy. Reading their stories will reveal the secrets of successful careers' Daniel H. Pink, author of When 'Move over Malcolm Gladwell. In The Passion Economy Adam Davidson upends the conventional thinking about how to succeed in our topsy-turvy, seemingly unforgiving post-industrial economy by sharing the stories of regular people who followed their dreams' William D. Cohan, author of House of Cards The brilliant creator of NPR's Planet Money podcast and award-winning New Yorker staff writer explains our current economy: laying out its internal logic and revealing the transformative hope it offers for millions of people to thrive as they never have before. Contrary to what you may have heard, the middle class is not dying and robots are not stealing our jobs. In fact, writes Adam Davidson--one of our leading public voices on economic issues-- the twenty-first-century economic paradigm offers new ways of making money, fresh paths toward professional fulfillment, and unprecedented opportunities for curious, ambitious individuals to combine the things they love with their careers. Drawing on the stories of average people doing exactly this--an accountant overturning his industry, a sweatshop owner's daughter fighting for better working conditions, an Amish craftsman meeting the technological needs of Amish farmers--as well as the latest academic research, Davidson shows us how the twentieth-century economy of scale has given way in this century to an economy of passion. He makes clear, too, that though the adjustment has brought measures of dislocation, confusion, and even panic, these are most often the result of a lack of understanding. In The Passion Economy, he delineates the ground rules of the new economy, and armed with these, we begin to see how we can succeed in it according to its own terms--intimacy, insight, attention, automation, and, of course, passion. An indispensable road map and a refreshingly optimistic take on our economic future.
Public Economics 7e is a southern African textbook on the subject, written by well-respected South African experts. Dealing with current issues such as social security and health care, the textbook demonstrates how public economic theory is relevant to the real-world context. Cross-references to, and examples from countries making up the southern African region are made throughout the text, in view of the increased interaction and economic cooperation between these countries. The new edition of Public Economics equips senior undergraduate and postgraduate students with the basic analytical skills and demonstrates how these skills can be applied to practical issues. New to this edition: New information on allocative efficiency, imperfect competition and regulation that deals with natural monopoly pricing, competitive restructuring, privatisation and types of regulation; Separate chapters on personal income tax and on the taxation of companies, which includes foci on capital gains taxation, small businesses, the informal sector, tax gap analysis, compliance and tax reforms; Special attention to different views on fiscal policy and the requirements of public debt sustainability.
Your one-stop guide to understanding Microeconomics Microeconomics For Dummies (with content specific to the UK reader) is designed to help you understand the economics of individuals. Using concise explanations and accessible content that tracks directly to an undergraduate course, this book provides a student-focused course supplement with an in-depth examination of each topic. This invaluable companion provides clear information and real-world examples that bring microeconomics to life and introduces you to all the key concepts. From supply and demand to market competition, you'll understand how the economy works on an individual level, and how it affects you every day. Before long, you'll be conversant in consumers, costs, and competition. Microeconomics is all about the behaviour of individual people and individual firms. It sounds pretty straightforward, but it gets complicated early on. You may not be an economist, but if you're a business student at university, the odds are you need to come to grips with microeconomics. That's where Microeconomics For Dummies comes in, walking you through the fundamental concepts and giving you the understanding you need to master the material. Understand supply, demand, and equilibrium Examine the consumer decision making process Delve into elasticity and costs of production Learn why competition is healthy and monopolies are not Even the brightest business students can find economics intimidating, but the material is essential to a solid grasp of how the business world works. The good news is that you've come to the right place.
First-time economics students at correspondence colleges, technical colleges and technikons - first-time economics students at the Institute of administration and commerce (IAC), and the Institute of marketing management (IMM) - university students in student support programmes for economics and introductory economics courses at universities - students who only need a basic overview of microeconomics (for short courses, and certificate programmes, for example) - students taking service courses in faculties and departments other than economics.
From Google's chief economist, Varian's best-selling intermediate microeconomics texts are revered as some of the best in the field. And now students can work problems online with Smartwork5, Norton's online homework system, packaged at no additional charge with the Media Update Editions. In addition to online homework, the texts now include four-colour graphs and new interactive animations.
Microeconomics, 5th Edition gives students the most effective approach for learning microeconomic tools and concepts. This text provides an accessible, integrated structure with numerous practice problems, exercises, and engaging applications. Worked-out Learning-by-Doing problems, mathematical and graphical data, and verbal explanations enable business and economics majors to recognize significant data, patterns, and trends.
Following the successful PCS Auction conducted by the US Federal Communications Commission in 1994, auctions have replaced traditional ways of allocating valuable radio spectrum, a key resource for any mobile telecommunications operator. Spectrum auctions have raised billions of dollars worldwide and have become a role model for market-based approaches in the public and private sectors. The design of spectrum auctions is a central application of game theory and auction theory due to its importance in industry and the theoretical challenges it presents. Several auction formats have been developed with different properties addressing fundamental questions about efficiently selling multiple objects to a group of buyers. This comprehensive handbook features classic papers and new contributions by international experts on all aspects of spectrum auction design, including pros and cons of different auctions and lessons learned from theory, experiments, and the field, providing a valuable resource for regulators, telecommunications professionals, consultants, and researchers.
Chaudhuri pinpoints the evolving nature of US commercial banks and banking regulations and explores their impact on the economy.
Now firmly established as one of the leading economics principles texts in the UK and Europe, this exciting, new fifth edition of Microeconomics by N. Gregory Mankiw (Harvard University) and Mark P. Taylor (Washington University), has been fully updated. Much revered for its friendly and accessible approach, emphasis on active learning, and unrivalled support resources, this edition also has an improved structure to ensure the text aligns even more closely with the latest courses. The new edition incorporates additional coverage of a number of key topics including heterodox theories in economics such as complexity theory; institutional economics and feminist economics; contestable markers; international trade; game theory; the permanent income hypothesis and different measures of poverty. This title is available with MindTap for Economics, a flexible online learning solution that provides students with all the tools they need to succeed including an interactive eReader, engaging multimedia, practice questions, assessment materials, revision aids, and analytics to help you track their progress.
A masterful introduction to the key ideas behind the successes-and failures-of free-market economics Since 1946, Henry Hazlitt's bestselling Economics in One Lesson has popularized the belief that economics can be boiled down to one simple lesson: market prices represent the true cost of everything. But one-lesson economics tells only half the story. It can explain why markets often work so well, but it can't explain why they often fail so badly-or what we should do when they stumble. As Nobel Prize-winning economist Paul Samuelson quipped, "When someone preaches 'Economics in one lesson,' I advise: Go back for the second lesson." In Economics in Two Lessons, John Quiggin teaches both lessons, offering a masterful introduction to the key ideas behind the successes-and failures-of free markets. Economics in Two Lessons explains why market prices often fail to reflect the full cost of our choices to society as a whole. For example, every time we drive a car, fly in a plane, or flick a light switch, we contribute to global warming. But, in the absence of a price on carbon emissions, the costs of our actions are borne by everyone else. In such cases, government action is needed to achieve better outcomes. Two-lesson economics means giving up the dogmatism of laissez-faire as well as the reflexive assumption that any economic problem can be solved by government action, since the right answer often involves a mixture of market forces and government policy. But the payoff is huge: understanding how markets actually work-and what to do when they don't. Brilliantly accessible, Economics in Two Lessons unlocks the essential issues at the heart of any economic question.
Intermediate Microeconomics offers a clear and concise treatment of microeconomic principles in a useful pedagogic framework. The mathematical level is approachable and uses basic algebra with extensions to calculus where it helps the analysis. The book is also strongly applied in focus and shows the relevance of theory in the "real world". Whilst these features make the book approachable to students, the theoretical content and overall learning experience is a rigorous one. In this adapted edition Peter Luke and Michael Wood have been brought in to adapt the text for the UK, European and South African market. Applications features in the book have been internationalised, and the European Social Model/US-UK model debate on the macroeconomy discussed at a micro level. This book is designed for students specifically studying economics at an undergraduate or postgraduate level such as MBA within the UK and EU in general, and South Africa. These students would be predominantly second-year students who have already taken an introductory course in microeconomics.
In economics the dominant framework for exploring the structure of market economies is provided by the neoclassical school of thought. This text aims to show how neoclassical theory is used to model market mechanisms, both in particular markets and in the market economy as a whole. Underpinning this analysis is an examination of what neoclassical economists regard as key decision makers in a market economy, namely households and firms. In analysing these demand and supply activities, this text aims to provide an introduction to the microeconomics of markets, that is, the behaviour of individual units of economic activity. However, individuals do not behave as independent entities in the economy. They make economic decisions in the context of a variety of institutional structures. The text presents an alternative to neoclassicism by introducing the institutionalist perspective of economic thought. In this approach the social interactions between individuals are placed at the heart of economic activity. Perspectives are presented as a critique of neoclassical economics by providing an appraisal of neoclassical theory and developing an alternative.
Economics textbooks can be boring, overlong and full of theory with no supporting real world examples. Taking the Fear Out of Economics provides a comprehensive yet simple introduction to microeconomics, assuming no prior knowledge. The text attempts to take the fear out of microeconomics by recognising that there is a fear factor. This fear is addressed by using real world examples to enrich the theory. Each section finishes with at least one practice session. The wealth of examples and the emphasis on practice makes this text the ideal learning tool for introductory courses on economics. Each chapter includes: a summary of the topics covered, an explanation of the theory with appropriate examples and case studies, a review of the key points, and answers to the practice questions.
This text examines the activities of small and medium-sized enterprises, and asks whether they have been regulated entirely through a dependence on the freemarket - which would explain their success compared with large companies. Or have they, on the other hand, simply been better organized? In answering this, the contributors compare the structures of SMEs with those of larger enterprises, and look at how they change when they begin to expand. The interaction of the market and political regulation is also discussed, together with the reasons why SMEs are created.
Folland, Goodman, and Stano's bestselling The Economics of Health and Health Care text offers the market-leading overview of all aspects of Health Economics, teaching through core economic themes, rather than concepts unique to the health care economy. The Eighth Edition of this key textbook has been revised and updated throughout, and reflects changes since the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). In addition to its revised treatment of health insurance, the text also introduces the key literature on social capital as it applies to individual and public health, as well as looking at public health initiatives relating to population health and economic equity, and comparing numerous policies across Western countries, China, and the developing world. It provides up-to-date discussions on current issues, as well as a comprehensive bibliography with over 1,100 references. Extra material and teaching resources are now also available through the brand new companion website, which provides full sets of discussion questions, exercises, presentation slides, and a test bank. This book demonstrates the multiplicity of ways in which economists analyze the health care system, and is suitable for courses in Health Economics, Health Policy/Systems, or Public Health, taken by health services students or practitioners.
This innovative textbook contains everything students need to know on an intermediate microeconomics course. Combining classic theory and models with the latest developments, it gently guides learners through the topics and helps them to become increasingly independent. Mathematical understanding is a crucial part of mastering the subject, but can be tricky to obtain. Consequently, numerical tools and engaging exercises are expertly woven into the broader, conceptual discussion of economic theory. This process is progressive and incremental, with steps explained in great detail in the opening chapters to help students gain mathematical fluency and confidence. A microeconomics textbook that is essential reading for any intermediate level course at university. Although primarily aimed at two-semester undergraduate modules, the comprehensive and accessible writing style means that it is also suitable for certain postgraduate and one-semester courses. The author provides helpful notes on how to adapt the book to your course.
Explore the world-changing digital transformation in China China's Mobile Economy: Opportunities in the Largest and Fastest Information Consumption Boom is a cutting-edge text that spotlights the digital transformation in China. Organised into three major areas of the digital economy within China, this ground-breaking book explores the surge in e-commerce of consumer goods, the way in which multi-screen and mobile Internet use has increased in popularity, and the cultural emphasis on the mobile Internet as a source of lifestyle- and entertainment-based content. Targeted at the global business community, this lucid and engaging text guides business leaders, investors, investment banking professionals, corporate advisors, and consultants in grasping the challenges and opportunities created by China's emerging mobile economy, and its debut onto the global stage. Year 2014-15 marks the most important inflection point in the history of the internet in China. Almost overnight, the world s largest digitally-connected middle class went both mobile and multi-screen (smart phone, tablets, laptops and more), with huge implications for how consumers behave and what companies need to do to successfully compete. As next-generation mobile devices and services take off, China s strength in this arena will transform it from a global trend follower to a trend setter. * Understand what the digital transformation in China is, and impact on global capital markets, foreign investors, consumer companies, and the global economy as a whole * Explore the e-commerce consumption boom in the context of the Chinese market * Understand the implications of the multi-screen age and mobile Internet for China's consumers * See how mobile Internet use, its focus on lifestyle and entertainment is aligned with today's Chinese culture * Learn about the mobile entertainment habits of China s millennial generation and the corresponding new advertisement approaches The development of China s mobile economy is one of the most important trends that will reshape the future of business, technology and society both in China and the world. China's Mobile Economy: Opportunities in the Largest and Fastest Information Consumption Boom introduces you to the digital transformation in China, and explains how this transformation has the potential to transform both China and the global consumer landscape.
This comprehensive and up-to-date book explains the economic rationale behind the production, delivery and exchange of electricity. Creti and Fontini explain why electricity markets exist, outlining the economic principles behind the exchange and supply of power to consumers and firms. They identify the specificities of electricity, as compared to other goods, and furthermore suggest how markets should be optimally designed to produce and deliver electricity effectively and efficiently. The authors also address key issues, including how electricity can be decarbonized. Written in a technical yet accessible style, this book will appeal to readers studying power system economics and the economics of electricity, as well as those more generally interested in energy economics, including engineering and management students looking to gain an understanding of electricity market analysis.
Mathematical analysis is key to the modeling and management of natural resources. By presenting required mathematical methods, classic dynamic models for non-renewable and renewable resources, and by exploring several contemporary problems, this text provides a foundation for advanced research. Topics include seminal models in fishery, forestry and non-renewable resource management, as well as an extensive collection of contemporary applications that include the optimal transition from fossil fuels to clean energy, the optimal timing of interventions to save endangered species, pest control and the optimal management of antibiotic resistance. Deterministic and stochastic models in both discrete and continuous time are covered. The book encourages students to pursue a deeper understanding of the analytics of resource problems and to deploy numerical methods when analytical results prove intractable. The combination of analysis, theory and applications will launch the next generation of resource economists, while serving as a useful reference for established researchers.
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