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In this wide-ranging collection of significant articles by leading scholars, the editors link the impact of innovation to the process by which firms and industries change over time and ultimately to economic development and growth. The books cover topics such as the impact of the product life cycle on industry evolution, the links between innovative activity and the start-up of new firms, and an analysis of the sources of diversity and the impact of diversity on economic evolution. The three key elements of the post-entry performance of firms are examined - their ability to survive, the learning process and the links between industry evolution and productivity. The books then explore the roles of turbulence and persistence in an evolutionary economy. Additional topics include the evolution of market structures, the evolution of regions and the international competitiveness of industries in an evolutionary context. Finally the books examine the implications for government policy of the links between innovation, industry evolution and economic development.
Clemens Schutte analyses the emergence of corporate control structures in the Czech privatization process. The book depicts the basic features of the Czech system of corporate control and the direction of its transformation. This is an extremely relevant subject since the Czech privatization process is a model case in several respects: it is institutionally open and hence allows for spontaneous development; and privatization has been carried out comprehensively and rapidly. Based upon a theoretical analysis of the institutional cornerstones of corporate control, the book develops clear recommendations which are subsequently used as a benchmark to assess the performance of the evolving Czech system of corporate control. The book discusses the role of the most important players in corporate control including the big bank-centred financial groups, capital markets, the board model of Czech corporations and the institutional base of debt control and minority shareholder protection. It also reveals the conflict of political intentions and real-time developments. As an important and timely contribution, this book will be invaluable reading for all those involved, or interested, in the privatization and corporate control of other Central and Eastern European countries. Those working in financial and political institutions will also find this book valuable.
Technology and knowledge are two of the most important factors for maintaining a competitive advantage in today's global economy. This book examines recent trends in the analysis of knowledge and technology from an evolutionary perspective. Technology and Knowledge emphasizes the importance of knowledge in the creation of technological change and innovation. The authors examine the role of knowledge underlying innovation, and the flows of knowledge and other interactions between and within firms. Combining empirical work with simulations to solve models which are too complex to be understood analytically, the book presents a balanced and complementary approach to an area that is critically important for economic growth and international competitiveness. This book will be warmly welcomed by academics working in the fields of technological change, innovation, knowledge and industrial organization.
The concept of equilibrium is of enormous significance in economics and is central to economic analysis. Volume I provides historical perspectives on the origins, development and criticisms of the idea of economic equilibrium and explains the meaning of modern equilibrium theory and the methods and techniques that are used. Volume II presents the classic literature on perfectly competitive equilibrium and the important models that explore equilibrium in imperfectly competitive markets. Volume III reveals the variety of recent developments and applications of the equilibrium concept, including stationary, temporary, underemployment, growth, rational expectations, Bayesian, and cooperative and non-cooperative game theoretic equilibrium. This important and comprehensive reference collection is essential reading for all microeconomic and macroeconomic theorists and students.
In this important book, industrial and enterprise reform over the last decade in Eastern Europe is critically reviewed in light of increasing Eastern integration into the global economy. The authors argue for the further globalization of Eastern European enterprise networks as a condition for recovery and growth in the region. Empirical evidence is provided from five industrial sectors (car industry, telecommunication, shipbuilding, computers, software), including case studies and international comparisons.
Business firms from the emerging markets of Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America are becoming increasingly important players in the global economy. Owned and controlled by indigenous nations these emerging transnational corporations are greatly influenced by the social and institutional contexts of their home countries. As a result of the process of globalization, these corporations are engaged in a diverse range of international operations including the establishment of wholly-owned foreign subsidiaries, to joint ventures and strategic alliances. This authoritative collection sheds new light on the global and regional operations of business firms from emerging markets and shows how the pressures of the competitive global economy help shape the management and organisation of these firms. The Globalization of Business Firms from Emerging Economies presents a comprehensive and authoritative selection of the most important articles and papers on this subject published during the last twenty five years. Drawing on a wide range of sources, it will improve access to an important literature which is crucial to the understanding of a significant new area of international business. The collection will be of particular interest to students, researchers, scholars and practitioners involved in international business, industrial economics and economic geography.
This volume brings together the most significant articles which have appeared over the past three decades analyzing the application and effects of price discrimination. Discrimination is a pervasive marketing practice that survives despite the attempts of regulators to limit or eliminate its use; it is widespread also in oligopolistic and imperfectly competitive markets. It is a practice used by firms in pricing their products over product dimensions such as space, time and quality, and it affects the ability of firms to compete in other firms' markets or to protect their own. This collection of articles by leading authors in the field highlights what we know of the motivations for and the welfare implications of price discrimination. It also presents a blueprint for further work in this important area.
This challenging book extends standard economic theory to take into account the presence of heterogeneity among economic agents. It argues for an approach to economic analysis which regards the economy as an interactive system with heterogeneous agents and not simply a system which treats aggregates as some 'representative' individual. The authors consider that no sector of the economy can be treated as behaving like a single individual and each sector should be modelled as a complex interactive system. They apply this approach to many macro- and micro- analyses including monetary policy and firms, technological innovation and the insider-outsider model. In conclusion the authors find that this approach proves much more fruitful in explaining empirical phenomena than much of the existing theory. The result of this approach to economic theory which encompasses many realistic features, provides a vision of the economy which is not at odds with common sense, but which does not abandon rigorous analysis. This important book will be welcomed by those interested in both macro and micro economic theory.
This important book provides a comprehensive analysis of the impact of privatization on the economic performance of companies in Central and Eastern Europe. It sheds new light on the achievements and shortcomings of the privatization process and draws out lessons for the future. After considering the theoretical issues surrounding privatization, the authors provide an in-depth examination of corporate governance and company performance in advanced market economies as well as transition economies. They begin with a description of the main principles, techniques and results of privatization in Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary and Poland. A statistical and econometric analysis of extensive company-level data and interviews from a large number of firms between 1990 and 1997 is then conducted to discover the main factors in changing economic performance. Using this information the authors compare the transformation of the company sectors in the four countries, and in addition assess company restructuring from the perspective of West European privatizations. Privatization and Economic Performance in Central Eastern Europe will be of interest to policymakers in governments and international organizations and those working in the fields of microeconomics, industrial organization and transition studies.
This is the first of two books in honour of Brian Loasby which simultaneously pay tribute to the contributions he has made to economics and extend the realm of Loasby-inspired economics. The book includes new contributions from an internationally acclaimed group of authors including Israel Kirzner, Peter Swann, Giovanni Dosi, Peter Groenewegen, Richard Langlois and Don Lamberton. Together, they draw on and extend Brian Loasby's work in developing and applying theories of organization and knowledge. The book opens with an introduction to Brian Loasby's career, influences and research. This is followed by an examination of issues raised by the analysis of markets and entrepreneurial behaviour, focusing on Marshallian and Austrian approaches. In the middle of the volume the human action theme is maintained but the focus is shifted onto the dynamics of consumer demand. The final group of chapters apply a history of economic thought perspective to problems of information and knowledge, and aspects of scale and internal organization. Economic Organization and Economic Knowledge will be welcomed by those economists working in the areas of microeconomics particularly markets, innovation, the theory of the firm, consumption, information and knowledge and competition.
In this book, Nancy and Richard Ruggles demonstrate their unique grasp of the measurement and analysis of macro and micro data and elucidate ways of integrating the two data sets. Their analysis of macrodata is used to examine the economic growth of the United States from the 1920s to the present day. They focus particularly on recession and recovery between 1929 and 1974 and the measurement of short-run economic growth. They also examine the measurement of saving, investment and capital formation in the United States. On a microeconomic level, they analyse economic intelligence in World War II, offer a study of fertility in the United States in the pre-war era and analyse longitudinal establishment data. Finally they integrating the two approaches to provide a method of providing a more complete picture of social and economic performance.
Nancy and Richard Ruggles's seminal work on prices has a contemporary relevance for modern-day theorists and practitioners. These carefully selected essays provide a core analysis of pricing systems and the behavior and measurement of prices. Initially, the authors examine pricing systems and the role of prices in the theories of value and income distribution. They examine the theory of marginal cost pricing and the welfare basis of the marginal cost pricing principle before focusing on the problems of measuring price changes over time and space. They also examine the reliability of domestic price statistics and price indices and offer an evaluation of the wholesale price index. They expand this analysis to examine the behavior of prices, costs, wage rates and earnings in the United States economy, placing particular emphasis on inflation between 1950 and 1973 and on price stability and economic growth. This book will be invaluable to academics, statisticians and policymakers with an interest in micreoconomics and pricing.
This important and timely book examines how corporate governance has and should be developed in China to meet the challenges of enterprise and financial reform. It highlights key economic, social and political issues that China has to confront in order to transform the state owned industrial enterprises into a competitive and modern corporate sector. On Kit Tam critically appraises the main analytical frameworks and models of corporate governance in industrialized countries. He then assesses China's development in terms of current Western debates in relation to the role, function and evolution of corporate governance arrangements. He examines how the Chinese government has adopted a top-down approach combined with a market based Anglo-American model. The author also presents surveys of company directors, managers and supervisors reporting the current environment and analyses the choices available in the light of China's particular problems. He concludes with suggestions for a model of corporate governance in China. This book will be welcomed by economists and those interested in management studies, Chinese reform, international business, Asian studies, industrial organization and business strategy.
This important book focuses on the impact of home countries on the international competitiveness of transnational corporations (TNCs). It seeks to explain the geographic concentration of the most internationally competitive TNCs in a single or very few countries, and their uneven performance at these concentration points. The theoretical framework for this analysis is based on a link between the location advantages of countries and the ownership advantages of firms. The book focuses on professional service TNCs as the competitive advantages of these firms are based entirely on intangible, often mobile assets, and they thus provide a striking illustration for the ways in which such assets shape the competitiveness of firms. Analyses of TNCs in several professional service industries based in various countries reveal the dynamic balance between the home and the foreign countries in which the TNCs operate, as well as the combination of country- and firm-specific attributes in shaping the competitiveness of TNCs and the subsequent patterns of global competition. The Origins of the International Competitiveness of Firms extends our knowledge of the determinants of the international competitiveness of TNCs, and will be of interest to scholars and students of international business and business strategy, and to those working in the fields of international competition, trade and investment.
This important two volume collection of previously published journal articles and book excerpts provides an extensive array of readings in the economics and politics of international trade and investment policy. Volume One focuses on the globalization of business and links policy issues to economic and political theory and to the strategies of corporations. Volume Two concentrates on multilateral institutions and agreements, regional arrangements and linkages among trade, investment, labour and environmental policy issues. The articles included in this collection have been drawn from diverse sources and represent analyses by scholars of many persuasions and nationalities.
This two volume set is a comprehensive collection of historical and contemporary articles which highlight the theoretical foundations and the methods and models of long wave analysis. After examining the beginnings of long wave theory, the book includes discussions of time series methods and non-linear modelling, with an exploration of economic development in its historical context. It investigates the process of evolution and mutation in industrial capitalism over the last two hundred years. Contemporary reviews and critiques of long wave theory are also included. It makes available for the first time much important material that has hitherto been inaccessible. The book will be of immense value to all students and scholars interested in the history of economic thought, time series analysis and evolutionary or institutionalist analysis.
This book critically examines the progress made on macroeconomic stabilization and financial sector reform in the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe. It relates microeconomic experiences to the broader macroeconomic context of reform, and emphasises that macro reform is underpinned by micro and institutional reform, especially in the financial sphere. Key features include: * bank and enterprise restructuring and the progress towards the resolution of banking and bad debt problems * implications of bank and enterprise restructuring for corporate governance and company performance * an evaluation of bank-enterprise relationships * exchange rates and capital flows, with an analysis of the capital inflow problem and the performance of fixed exchange rate regimes in the post-stabilization phase of the transition * detailed surveys of individual firm and bank behaviour and performance during the reform process. The book will be welcomed by scholars and practitioners interested in monetary and financial economics, the economics of transition and comparative economic systems.
This is the first of a two volume collection of the late Julian Simon's important and radical contributions to a wide variety of economic problems. Often considered as controversial and unorthodox, these essays challenge conventional approaches. The book begins with introductory chapters in which the author discusses his background and experiences as a controversial scholar. Divided into six parts, the first part considers some basic concepts on issues such as welfare, natural resources, causality and product differentiation. The second part contains essays on managerial economics as well as general microeconomics including monopoly, duopoly and oligopoly. Advertising is discussed in the third part and industrial organization in the fourth. Part five focuses on policies for exchange and auction considering, among other issues, airline overbooking, and the final section features articles on macroeconomics. This collection of controversial essays will be welcomed by academics and students interested in unorthodox approaches to various economic theories and concepts.
This book is an authoritative collection of the most important published articles on key issues in securities markets including market design, the sources of the bid ask spread, and the short term movement of prices. The articles trace the development of this relatively new field of market microstructure while at the same time reflecting the latest ideas. At a time when securities markets are undergoing dramatic change, this two volume set provides important guidance to students, users and regulators of securities markets.
Microeconomic Theories of Imperfect Competition: Old Problems and New Perspectives is an authoritative collection of readings which, together with a new, original introductory essay by the editors, provides a broad overview of the major theoretical concepts in the field. This collection includes published papers on industry size: quantity and price competition, entry barriers, product differentiation, incomplete information, general equilibrium with imperfect competition. This book will be essential reading both for those seeking an introduction to the subject and those seeking a new perspective.
Optimal Transport Methods in Economics is the first textbook on the subject written especially for students and researchers in economics. Optimal transport theory is used widely to solve problems in mathematics and some areas of the sciences, but it can also be used to understand a range of problems in applied economics, such as the matching between job seekers and jobs, the determinants of real estate prices, and the formation of matrimonial unions. This is the first text to develop clear applications of optimal transport to economic modeling, statistics, and econometrics. It covers the basic results of the theory as well as their relations to linear programming, network flow problems, convex analysis, and computational geometry. Emphasizing computational methods, it also includes programming examples that provide details on implementation. Applications include discrete choice models, models of differential demand, and quantile-based statistical estimation methods, as well as asset pricing models. Authoritative and accessible, Optimal Transport Methods in Economics also features numerous exercises throughout that help you develop your mathematical agility, deepen your computational skills, and strengthen your economic intuition. The first introduction to the subject written especially for economists Includes programming examples Features numerous exercises throughout Ideal for students and researchers alike
This work on microeconomics offers interpretations of both its strengths and its weaknesses. It shows how the general equilibrium ideas of Walras and Marshall were gradually transformed after 1930 into formalized accounts of imaginary economies where trading never occurs.
This important book presents a new original study of the German and UK financial markets. It addresses the relationship between corporate governance, ownership and financial performance in German and UK firms floated during the 1980s. Marc Goergen uses detailed company micro-data to examine the ownership and performance of each firm from the time of its flotation to six years later. He finds that the evolution of ownership depends on certain corporate characteristics and that differences in financial performance cannot be explained simply by differences in the concentration of ownership. The book sheds new light on the important issue of whether corporate ownership influences or is influenced by financial performance. The main findings of the book have important implications for public policy and the current public debate on corporate governance and the globalisation of financial markets. They are important for established financial markets and the transitional economies of Eastern and Central Europe as well as for international scholars interested in issues of corporate governance and the performance of firms.
Rapid technological developments in communications and transportation, economic liberalization and the emergence of new economies with vast market potential have changed the shape of international production. This scholarly selection of articles represents some of the most important contributions to an understanding of this ongoing, global economic restructuring and its impact on the geographic configuration of production and the economic competitiveness of nations in the world economy.
This important book provides a systematic and quantitative analysis of the development of the software industry: the major growth industry in advanced economies of the world. It presents the results of a comprehensive set of industry surveys to shed light on the differences in specialization and performance of US and European software firms. Salvatore Torrisi analyses the development of the software industry within the context of theories of technical change. He interprets exhaustive surveys of firms participating in software industries conducted between 1990 and 1997. These reveal the main characteristics of innovation activities in software, including the characteristics of product and process innovations, the sources of technological change within firms, the instruments for the protection of innovation and the nature of innovative skills. The author also compares the historical evolution of software activities in Europe and in the United States and explains the differences in specialization and performance in terms of the geographical proximity to leading hardware manufacturers, the size of the domestic market, regulation and public policies, including property rights and anti-trust. This unparalleled book will be required reading for academics interested in industrial organisation and the economics of innovation.
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