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"Microeconomics: Equilibrium and Efficiency" is an innovative
textbook that introduces microeconomic theory in an applied way,
making use of real-world empirical examples.
Why have so many middle-class Americans encountered so much financial trouble? In this classic analysis of hard-pressed families, the authors discover that financial stability for many middle-class Americans is all too fragile. The authors consider the changing cultural and economic factors that threaten financial security and what they imply for the future vitality of the middle class. A new preface examines the persistent and new threats that have emerged since the original publication. "[A] fascinating, alarming study. . . . [This] chilling diagnosis of middle-class affliction demonstrates that we all may be only a job loss, medical problem or credit card indulgence away from the downward spiral leading to bankruptcy."-Publishers Weekly "A well-designed and carefully executed study."-Andrew Greeley, University of Chicago "The Fragile Middle Class, a well-written work of social science that is about as gripping as the genre gets, forces us to reevaluate notions about consumerism."-American Prospect
The book discusses the mechanisms by which securities are traded, as well as examining economic models of asymmetric information, inventory control, and cost-minimizing trading strategies.
Americans today face no shortage of threats to their financial well-being, such as job and retirement insecurity, health care costs, and spiraling college tuition. While one might expect that these concerns would motivate people to become more politically engaged on the issues, this often doesn't happen, and the resulting inaction carries consequences for political debates and public policy. Moving beyond previously studied barriers to political organization, "American Insecurity" sheds light on the public's inaction over economic insecurities by showing that the rhetoric surrounding these issues is actually self-undermining. By their nature, the very arguments intended to mobilize individuals--asking them to devote money or time to politics--remind citizens of their economic fears and personal constraints, leading to undermobilization and nonparticipation.
Adam Seth Levine explains why the set of people who become politically active on financial insecurity issues is therefore quite narrow. When money is needed, only those who care about the issues but are not personally affected become involved. When time is needed, participation is limited to those not personally affected or those who are personally affected but outside of the labor force with time to spare. The latter explains why it is relatively easy to mobilize retirees on topics that reflect personal financial concerns, such as Social Security and Medicare. In general, however, when political representation requires a large group to make their case, economic insecurity threats are uniquely disadvantaged.
Scrutinizing the foundations of political behavior, "American Insecurity" offers a new perspective on collective participation.
Regulation, like taxing and spending, is a basic function of government. Each year federal agencies issue between 3,000 and 4,000 final rules on topics ranging from the timing of bridge openings to the permissible levels of arsenic and other contaminants in drinking water. Unlike taxing and spending, however, the costs that non-federal entities pay to comply with federal regulations are not accounted for in the federal budget process. Some policy makers have expressed an interest in measuring total regulatory costs and benefits. However, measuring total regulatory costs and benefits is inherently difficult. This book provides an analysis of the estimate of total costs of federal regulation with a focus on the regulatory costs on small firms.
The Economics of Macro Issues is a collection of brief, relevant readings that spark independent thinking. The text encourages readers to apply theoretical discussions to today's important issues and to gain a deeper understanding of current macroeconomic policy concerns.
This book analyzes the consequences that would arise if Germany's means-tested unemployment benefits were replaced with an unconditional basic income. The basic income scheme introduced is based on a negative income tax and calibrated to be both financially feasible and compatible with current constitutional legislation. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) the author examines the impact of the reform on the household labor supply as well as on both poverty and inequality measures. It is shown that by applying reasonable values for both the basic income and the implied marginal tax rate imposed on earned incomes, efficiency gains can be reconciled with generally accepted value statements. Furthermore, as the proposal includes a universal basic income for families, child poverty could be reduced considerably. The estimates are based on the discrete choice approach to labor supply.
Entrepreneurship is often focused on understanding new ventures, but the entrepreneurial flame is required in growing organisations too. This textbook examines how organisations can become more entrepreneurial to achieve sustainable growth. The authors show how entrepreneurship can be used to address crisis points of growth within small firms and to overcome the limitations of stagnation within large firms. By integrating entrepreneurship and innovation management, the book presents a framework to diagnose entrepreneurial behaviour within existing firms. Drawing upon research and reflecting practice across a range of industries, from football, through Silicon Valley, to the retail sector, it includes insights from leading practitioners. The authors build an understanding of entrepreneurship in context to provide diagnostic tools to help organisations make entrepreneurship central to their culture. This unique text is therefore useful reading for business students from advanced undergraduate to executive education.
Decentralization in Infinite Horizon Economies brings together a collection of essays that attempt to explore one of the basic themes in microeconomics - can a decentralized economy attain an efficient or optimal allocation of resources when it is allowed to evolve without a predetermined terminal date? The failure of a price-guided competitive system to ensure efficiency/Pareto optimality with an infinite horizon was exposed by Malinvaud and Samuelson. Subsequent research, reported in this volume, achieved a deeper understanding of the problem, and obtained definitive results that are of interest in a much broader framework.
Economic inequality continues to contribute to political and social instability around the world. This instability stifles development and results in widening the wealth gap between the "haves" and "have nots," further eroding stability. It has been argued that entrepreneurship is a prime contributor to this vicious cycle. Using Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation to Mitigate Wealth Inequality contends that this is only true when the opportunity for entrepreneurship is limited to a few. The authors maintain that when entrepreneurship is open to anyone who is properly motivated, innovative, and has a goal of growth for their enterprise, it helps build wealth for a greater number of people. The concept of "social entrepreneurship" is introduced, where entrepreneurship becomes a vehicle for explicitly addressing community-based economic and social challenges using markets. The book uses examples of entrepreneurial projects and programs that have attempted to address inequality to discuss entrepreneurship as an economic development strategy and its role in addressing the challenges of economic inequality. It advocates thinking and acting systemically, creating and sustaining entrepreneurial support ecosystems, in order to generate the synergy required to scale-up development and transform our economies and provides a distinctive perspective on a pressing social and economic issue, with significant implications for the future of the United States and the world.
The book provides a comprehensive examination of patterns and determinants of production networks in East Asia, a key driver in the region's global success. It provides the reader with an accessible understanding of the theoretical literature on production networks and recent developments in empirical analysis at the industry and firm-levels. The topics covered in the book include: gross trade in parts and components and gravity models, trade in value added, industry case studies, and micro data econometric studies of firm heterogeneity in production networks. The micro data econometric studies explore key aspects of the heterogeneity of firms in East Asian production networks such as technological capability, the entry of small and medium enterprises into production networks, business use of free trade agreements, and access to credit. Blending new sources of data, empirical tools and econometric methods this book is highly recommended for readers who seek to understand the workings of the complex web of production networks in East Asia.
Most volumes in the environmental economics literature consider the environment to be a public good and hence write out a role for the private sector in a source of supply. Yet there is ample evidence of the private sector being involved, driven both by profit and altruism. This book provides the necessary conceptual base for the inclusion of the private sector in the environmental protection supply equation and deliver an extensive set of examples in a wide range of contexts. In an economic climate where governments are attempting to reduce expenditures, the increased role for the private sector will be readily embraced by policy makers.The aim of the book is to establish the principles of markets in the provision of environmental protection and to provide an extensive experience-based set of contexts in which the private sector has acted to enhance the supply of environmental goods and services. These contexts include both pure-private sector initiatives in terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems and public-private sector 'joint initiatives' such as payment for environmental services (PES) schemes.
This book is one of the first comprehensive works to fill the knowledge gap resulting from the limited number of empirical studies on interfirm networks. The in-depth empirical research presented here is based on a massive transaction relationship database of approximately 400,000 Japanese firms. This volume, unlike others, focuses on the role of interfirm networks in three different fields: (1) macroeconomic activities, (2) economic geography and firm dynamics, and (3) firm-bank relationships. The database for this work is constructed in collaboration with Japan's largest credit research company, Teikoku Data Bank, and covers a substantial portion of Japanese firms with information on firms' transaction partners, shareholders, financial institutions, and other attributes, including their locations and performance. Networks prevail in many aspects of economic activities and play a major role in explaining a wide variety of economic phenomena from business cycles to knowledge spillovers, which has motivated economists to produce a number of excellent works. In the policy arena, there has been a growing concern on the vulnerabilities of networks based on the casual observation that idiosyncratic shocks on firms can be amplified through inter-firm connections and leads to a systemic crisis. Typical examples are the manufacturing supply-chain networks in the automobile and electronics industries which propagated regionally concentrated shocks (the Great East Japan Earthquake and floods in Thailand in 2011) into global ones. An abundance of theoretical literature on the formation and functions of networks is available already. This book breaks new ground, however, and provides an excellent opportunity for the reader to gain a more integrated understanding of the role of networks in the economy. The Economics of Interfirm Networks will be of special interest to economists and practitioners seeking empirical and quantitative knowledge on interfirm and firm-bank networks.
Microcredit has been seen in recent decades as having great potential for aiding development in poor developing countries, with Bangladesh being one of the countries which has pioneered microcredit and implemented it most widely. This book, based on extensive original research, explores how microcredit works in practice, and assesses its effectiveness. It discusses how microcredit, usually channelled through women, is often passed to the men of the family, a practice disapproved of by some, but regarded as acceptable by borrowers who have a communal approach to debt, rather than viewing debt as something held by single individuals. The book demonstrates how the rules around microcredit are often seem as irksome by the borrowers, how lenders often charge high rates of interest and work primarily to preserve their institutions, thereby going against the spirit of the microcredit movement, and how borrowers often end up on a downward spiral, deeper and deeper in debt. Overall, the book argues that although microcredit does much good, it also has many drawbacks.
Microeconomics, 2nd European Edition offers comprehensive and accessible coverage of microeconomic theory, explaining how this is used to analyse and evaluate contemporary market systems. The book draws on relevant real world examples to highlight how theory can help to solve or understand a range of problems and is a central basis for thinking like an economist.
This book offers extensive and quality research on and original insights into China's internal regional dynamics. It provides a focused analysis of the internal dynamics and regional economic diversity of China covering the eastern, central and western regions through case study, data analysis and review of state-initiated policy measures. The book also identifies and analyses existing and potential challenges facing China's regions in their pursuit of sustainable development. Different regions in China have attempted to achieve fast economic growth and move up the industrial value chain through industrial restructuring and upgrading, inter-regional industrial transfer, urbanization or seeking central government's endorsement of new regional policies. The book examines the difference and similarities among local government policies to boost regional industrial and economic growth and assesses their implications and effectiveness. The author had conducted detailed studies in this field in order to bridge the existing research gap and the book will help to give rise to useful and illuminating discussion.
Few other economists have been read and cited as often as R.H.
Coase has been, even though, as he admits, "most economists have a
different way of looking at economic problems and do not share my
conception of the nature of our subject." Coase's particular
interest has been that part of economic theory that deals with
firms, industries, and markets--what is known as price theory or
microeconomics. He has always urged his fellow economists to
examine the foundations on which their theory exists, and this
volume collects some of his classic articles probing those very
foundations. "The Nature of the Firm" (1937) introduced the
then-revolutionary concept of transaction costs into economic
theory. "The Problem of Social Cost" (1960) further developed this
concept, emphasizing the effect of the law on the working of the
economic system. The remaining papers and new introductory essay
clarify and extend Coarse's arguments and address his critics.
This study identifies gender- and age-specific production patterns. The book examines the combination of time use data, input-output analysis, and material balances which allow for the simultaneous consideration of women's and men's working time and their contributions to GDP, household production, and CO2 emissions. It also foresees the gender- and age-specific analysis of the demand side, where a model separates women's and men's consumption of market and non-market goods and services. The identification of genders' production and consumption patterns enables the modeling of gender-linkages. Thus, the study shows, for example, to which extent women benefit from women's or men's work. While men's roles are strong regarding highly acknowledged paid work, the provision of private non-market services heavily relies on women's work. To balance the distribution of work, the study finally introduces the concept of a 'Desired World, ' which accounts for a desired reduction of paid working time and foresees a higher recognition of unpaid work. Thus, women's role with regard to paid work and men's participation in the field of unpaid work can be strengthened
This unique and inexpensive book provides a demographic and economic history of urban America over the last 65 years. The growth and decline of most northern cities is contrasted with the steady growth of western and southern cities. Various urban government policies are explored, including federal, state, and local policies. There is a chapter focusing on Detroit and its rapid decline toward bankruptcy and its recent strategies to slow recovery. The final two chapters speculate on what's next for urban America and gives suggestions for stimulating growth.
This book attempts to provide an effective strategy for industrial development based on the KAIZEN management training experiments conducted in Ghana, Kenya, Ethiopia, Vietnam, and Tanzania. We focus on micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in industrial clusters, because clusters consisting of MSEs are ubiquitous and have high potential to grow.
This Report objectively reflects the whole year's progress of politics, economy, society, culture, system, environment, innovation and reform as well as the problems, challenges and countermeasures in traditional special economic zones and new special economic zones. It makes analysis of China's Special Economic Zones, including overall review on the whole year's development state of the reform experimental zone and part of new special economic zones, which focuses on analyzing the transformation of special economic zones, use of resources, the sustainable development, economic and social development, social security and technical innovation from the aspects of present situation of development, the comparative analysis, and policy suggestions and puts forward development suggestions for each specific issue.
Covering both noncooperative and cooperative games, this comprehensive introduction to game theory also includes some advanced chapters on auctions, games with incomplete information, games with vector payoffs, stable matchings and the bargaining set. Mathematically oriented, the book presents every theorem alongside a proof. The material is presented clearly and every concept is illustrated with concrete examples from a broad range of disciplines. With numerous exercises the book is a thorough and extensive guide to game theory from undergraduate through graduate courses in economics, mathematics, computer science, engineering and life sciences to being an authoritative reference for researchers.
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