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This comprehensive volume of the Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law provides an overview of the major elements of energy law from a global perspective. Based on an in-depth analysis of the energy chain, it offers insight into the impacts of climate change and environmental issues on energy law and the energy sector. This timely reference work highlights the need for modern energy law to consider environmental impacts and promote the use of clean energy sources, whilst also safeguarding a reliable and affordable energy supply. Featuring 65 entries written by leading international scholars and practitioners in the field, the volume is organised into eight thematic parts, each focusing on a specific area of the energy sector. Topics covered include international energy cooperation, the regulation and governance of energy markets, legal regimes governing renewable energy sources, regulation of the transport and supply of energy, consumer protection, and energy savings mechanisms. Providing an authoritative analysis of key developments in this significant area of law, this volume will be an invaluable resource for researchers, academics and students. Its insights into governance and regulation in the sector will also prove useful to practitioners and policymakers.
What happens when electric utility monopolies pursue their acquisition interests undisciplined by competition, and insufficiently disciplined by the regulators responsible for replicating competition? Since the mid-1980s, mergers and acquisitions of U.S. electric utilities have halved the number of local, independent utilities. Mostly debt-financed, these transactions have converted retiree-suitable investments into subsidiaries of geographically scattered conglomerates. Written by one of the U.S.'s leading regulatory thinkers--a litigating attorney, regulatory advisor, expert witness and law professor--this book combines legal, accounting, economic and financial analysis with insights from the dynamic field of behavioral economics. With a clear assessment of the 30-year march of U.S. electricity mergers, the author describes the economic losses that result when merger promoters and their transactions face neither the discipline of competition nor the rigors of regulation. This work is essential reading for regulatory practitioners, consumer advocates and investment advisors--as well as citizens concerned with concentration of economic power. The principles explored are relevant anywhere regulated utility monopolies have the legal right to merge, acquire or be acquired.
This illuminating book analyses energy transitions, carbon dioxide emissions and the security of energy supply in Mediterranean countries. Unpacking the history of energy transitions, from coal to oil and natural gas, and from non-renewable to renewable energy sources, Silvana Bartoletto offers a comparative approach to the major trends in energy consumption, production, trade and security in Mediterranean countries in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. Chapters illustrate the key similarities and differences between Mediterranean countries that have influenced energy supply and consumption patterns. Tracing economic convergence in the last century and highlighting its impact on energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions, this timely book offers critical insights into the problems of energy dependency and security in areas of political turmoil, as well as crucial insights into the future of the energy crisis. It concludes with a look to the future of energy consumption in the age of climate change and the slow but critical transition to renewable sources. Enlightening and provocative, this book is key reading for scholars of political science and economics engaged with energy production and consumption, as well as those studying climate change. Its historical insights and overview of significant energy trends will also be useful for policymakers and climate scientists.
Sustaining High Performing Public Enterprises presents steps taken by National Water and Sewerage Corporation of Uganda, a typical public enterprise, to sustain a high performance momentum after over 15 years of successful utility reforms. Specifically, the author pinpoints key achievements during the period 2013-2018 including growth in geographical coverage from 23 to 240 towns, increase in connections from 310,000 to about 600,000; revenues growing more than three times and network growth improving from 80kms per year to over 2000kms per year. The concept of new public management (NPM) is used to set the scene for a case description of various initiatives and innovations implemented. A balanced scorecard framework is used to characterize the various activities. The book highlights a shift from over-emphasis on positive cash-flows alone to a balanced approach to 'water for all' citizens. The need to balance technical work and political aspirations is highlighted. Also featured is the nexus between utility operations and environmental protection to ensure sustainable water supply. The cardinal role of aligning staff needs to organizational needs and working for win-win solutions is also highlighted. Sustaining High Performing Public Enterprises presents strong lessons and conclusions for utility leaders and policy makers intending to reform their utilities to create value for citizens. It is also of value to academicians and researchers for scholarly studies in water and sanitation governance and management.
A Wall Street Journal besteller and a USA Today Best Book of 2020! Named Energy Writer of the Year for The New Map by the American Energy Society Pulitzer Prize-winning author and global energy expert, Daniel Yergin offers a revelatory new account of how energy revolutions, climate battles, and geopolitics are mapping our future The world is being shaken by the collision of energy, climate change, and the clashing power of nations in a time of global crisis. Out of this tumult is emerging a new map of energy and geopolitics. The "shale revolution" in oil and gas has transformed the American economy, ending the "era of shortage" but introducing a turbulent new era. Almost overnight, the United States has become the world's number one energy powerhouse. Yet concern about energy's role in climate change is challenging the global economy and way of life, accelerating a second energy revolution in the search for a low-carbon future. All of this has been made starker and more urgent by the coronavirus pandemic and the economic dark age that it has wrought. World politics is being upended, as a new cold war develops between the United States and China, and the rivalry grows more dangerous with Russia, which is pivoting east toward Beijing. Vladimir Putin and China's Xi Jinping are converging both on energy and on challenging American leadership, as China projects its power and influence in all directions. The South China Sea, claimed by China and the world's most critical trade route, could become the arena where the United States and China directly collide. The map of the Middle East, which was laid down after World War I, is being challenged by jihadists, revolutionary Iran, ethnic and religious clashes, and restive populations. But the region has also been shocked by the two recent oil price collapses--and by the very question of oil's future in the rest of this century. A master storyteller and global energy expert, Daniel Yergin takes the reader on an utterly riveting and timely journey across the world's new map. He illuminates the great energy and geopolitical questions in an era of rising political turbulence and points to the profound challenges that lie ahead.
Bridging theory and practice, this book offers insights into how Europe has experienced the evolution of modern electricity markets from the end of the 1990s to the present day. It explores defining moments in the process, including the four waves of European legislative packages, landmark court cases, and the impact of climate strikes and marches. Leonardo Meeus explains the sequence of electricity markets in Europe from wholesale to balancing markets, forward transmission markets, capacity mechanisms, redispatching and flexibility markets. Chapters explore current issues including the new paradigm that places the citizen at the centre of the energy transition. Concluding that most of the market integration process in Europe so far has required horizontal coordination between transmission system operators in different countries, the book looks ahead to the importance of vertical coordination between the transmission and distribution. An invaluable book for energy policymakers and practitioners working in Europe, the solutions offered for contemporary issues will also be helpful for those working in international or multi-region electricity markets more widely. Academics involved in the world of electricity regulation will also find this an invigorating read.
The solar photovoltaic sector is moving forward very fast, both in terms of its own technological advancement and its standing among global renewable energy technologies. Rapid increases in solar cell efficiencies, fast technical change in solar batteries and solar glass, and economies of scale in production fuel its rapid adoption and it is becoming clear that existing forecasts about its adoption need to be updated extensively. This timely and distinctive examination of the economic side of the field takes into account solar PV's recent and growing lead among renewable energies competing to replace fossil fuels. The Revolution in Energy Technology examines the birth of this technology in the United States, where the main innovators are still located, the emergence of China as a main production hub, and new and growing contributions to the innovation cascades from other countries including Germany, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. The participation of universities as investors and the role of venture capital are discussed, and particular emphasis is given to the domination of the sector by large firms. The book is interesting for both academics and graduate students as well as policy makers, technicians, engineers and companies involved in the field.
This book addresses the question: how effective are countries in promoting the innovation needed to facilitate an energy transition? Chapters explore energy policy and institutions, innovation policy in general, as well as energy innovation in key countries, including the US, Germany, the UK, China, Japan and Korea, and the EU. At the heart of Energy Innovation for the 21st Century is a fascinating set of international empirical case studies covering supply and demand side technologies at different levels of maturity. These are set within an analytical framework encompassing the functions of technological innovation systems and innovation metrics. The book explores energy, science and technology policies, contextualising the case studies to aid the assessment of the overall performance of innovation systems. Drawing together lessons for energy innovation policy and institutional design, this book is a much-needed resource for sustainability and innovation scholars and researchers. Policy-makers and practitioners will also benefit from the practical advice offered in this timely volume.
Infrastructure systems provide the services we all rely upon for our day-to-day lives. Through new conceptual work and fresh empirical analysis, this book investigates how financialisation engages with city governance and infrastructure provision, identifying its wider and longer-term implications for urban and regional development, politics and policy. Proposing a more people-oriented approach to answering the question of 'What kind of urban infrastructure, and for whom?', this book addresses the struggles of national and local governments to fund, finance and govern urban infrastructure. It develops new insights to explain the socially and spatially uneven mixing of managerial, entrepreneurial and financialised city governance in austerity and limited decentralisation across England. As urban infrastructure fixes for the London global city-region risk undermining national 'rebalancing' efforts in the UK, city statecraft in the rest of the country is having uneasily to combine speculation, risk-taking and prospective venturing with co-ordination, planning and regulation. This book will be of interest to researchers and scholars in the fields of business and management, economics, geography, planning, and political science. Its conclusions will be valuable to policymakers and practitioners in both the public and private sectors seeking insights into the intersections of financialisation, decentralisation and austerity in the UK, Europe and globally.
Network industries such as electricity, gas, rail, local public transport, telecommunications and postal services are recognised by the EU as crucial for fostering European social and territorial cohesion. Providing an overview of key policy reforms in these industries and an empirical evaluation, this thought-provoking book offers a critical perspective on the functioning of the networks that provide vital services to EU citizens. Key features include: analysis of policy reforms and their effects on the welfare of citizens as users an innovative focus on the neglected topic of the role of state-owned or state-invested enterprises assessment of changes in policy framework reform from the consumer's point of view a comparative country analysis evaluation of cross-cutting issues related to reform including privatisation, unbundling, performance and impact. The Reform of Network Industries will appeal to academic researchers in the fields of industrial economics, policy and regulation and the economics of European integration, as well as students of business and law. Policymakers, regulators and public administrators will also find this book a stimulating read. Contributors include: P. Bance, R. Cardinale, P. Castelnovo, A. Chassy, S. Clo, A. Cosic, L. Diestelmeier, J. Doleschel, S. Drufuca, G. Esposito, M. Florio, S. Groenblom, R. Hirsch, T. Holvad, T. Kaloud, M. Lampropoulou, A. Maxim, A. Negrelli, T.A. Nguyen, N. Rosetto, A. Roukouni, R.P. Sanchez, S. Thomas, J. Urban-Kozlowska, J. Willner
A thoroughly updated introduction to the current issues and challenges facing managers and administrators in the investor and publicly owned utility industry, this engaging volume addresses management concerns in five sectors of the utility industry: electric power, natural gas, water, wastewater systems and public transit. Beginning with a brief overview of the historical development of the industry, the author examines policy issues including the consequences of dealing with deteriorating infrastructure, an aging workforce, climate warming, funding for repair and replacement of facilities, and the demands for meeting the needs of a growing population. In addition to reviewing issues related to various management tasks, he includes chapters on physical and cyber threats and management ethics, liberally laced with real-life examples of utilities' dealings with these challenges. Many tables, figures and boxes expand on key points from the text. Accessible and comprehensive, this thoughtful exploration of the various issues facing administrators and operators in public utilities in the new century will prove a useful overview for students of business and economics, utility staff, and directors of local utility governing boards.
This collection highlights materials research and innovations for a wide breadth of energy systems and technologies. The volume includes papers organized into the following sections:Energy and Environmental Issues in Materials Manufacturing and ProcessingMaterials in Clean PowerMaterials for Coal-Based PowerMaterials for Energy Conversion with Emphasis on SOFCMaterials for Gas TurbinesMaterials for Nuclear EnergyMaterials for Oil and Gas
This Handbook offers a comprehensive overview of the latest research from leading scholars on the international political economy of energy and resources. Highlighting the important conceptual and empirical themes, the chapters study all levels of governance, from global to local, and explore the wide range of issues emerging in a changing political and economic environment. The original contributions analyse energy as a highly complex, interconnected policy area, including how energy markets and regimes are constituted and the governance institutions that are being designed to challenge existing establishments. A number of contributors focus on intersections between energy and other policy fields or sectors, or nexes. These include the climate change, energy and low carbon transitions nexus; the food, water and forestry nexus; the energy, resources and development nexus, and the global?national?local nexus in energy. Significantly, this Handbook ties the contributions together by exploring opportunities for sustainable transitions and avoiding resource scarcity whilst taking other social needs, such as development, into account. This Handbook will be an essential resource for scholars and students of international political economy, governance and development studies as it covers: the environment, development, human rights, global production, energy transitions and energy security. Contributors include: L. Baker, T. Boersma, J. Britton, E. Brutschin, J. Burton, A.A. Camba, R. Falkner, T. Foxon, C. Fraune, A. Goldthau, D. Gritsenko, A. Hira, R. Hiteva, L. Hughes, J. Jewell, M.F. Keating, C. Kuzemko, A. Lawrence, F. Lira, A. Losz, K. Lovell, H.E.S. Nesadurai, M. Nilsson, S. Onder, R. Quitzow, S. Raszewski, W.B. Renfro, J. Sharples, N. Sitter, M. Skalamera, B.K. Sovacool, C. Strambo, J. Wilson
While canvassing for the Scottish independence referendum in 2014 Neil Findlay made a discovery. Visiting the home that used to be his grandparents', he was shown a plywood panel where John 'Jock' Findlay, his grandfather, had written his life's tale. This is Jock's story. Jock grew up and grew old in the West Lothian village of Pumpherston - a village dominated by one industry, shale oil mining. In his own words he describes the good times, and the hard times, of living and working in Pumpherston. This is a story about a Scottish industry, a village and, most of all, a community.
This book was originally published by Claeys and Casteels, now formally part of Edward Elgar Publishing. Since 2010, the Eastern Mediterranean region has become a hotspot of international energy discussions due to a series of gas discoveries in the offshore of Israel, Cyprus and Egypt. This book seeks to provide a comprehensive analysis of all these developments, with the ultimate aim of assessing the realistic implications of regional gas discoveries for both Eastern Mediterranean countries and the EU.
World Statistics on Mining and Utilities 2016 provides a unique biennial overview of the role of mining and utility activities in the world economy. This extensive resource from UNIDO provides detailed time series data on the level, structure and growth of international mining and utility activities by country and sector. Country level data is clearly presented on the number of establishments, employment and output of activities such as: coal, iron ore and crude petroleum mining as well as production and supply of electricity, natural gas and water. This unique and comprehensive source of information meets the growing demand of data users who require detailed and reliable statistical information on the primary industry and energy producing sectors. The publication provides internationally comparable data to economic researchers, development strategists and business communities who influence the policy of industrial development and its environmental sustainability.
As an essential component for economic growth, energy has a significant impact on the global economy. The need to meet growing energy demand has prompted cutting-edge innovation in clean technology in an attempt to realise environmental and cost objectives, whilst ensuring the security of energy supply. This Handbook offers a comprehensive review of the economics of energy, including contributions from a distinguished array of international specialists. It provides a thorough discussion of the major research issues in this topical field of economics. Themes addressed include the theory of energy supply, demand and policy, empirical modelling of energy demand, holistic energy models, an analysis of coal, gas, electricity, oil and the 'markets' within which they operate, and a discussion of the current key energy policy issues. The topics of pricing, transmission, regulation, security, energy efficiency, new technologies and climate change are also discussed. The International Handbook on the Economics of Energy presents a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art research making it an indispensable reference for researchers, advanced students, practitioners and policy-makers alike.
World Statistics on Mining and Utilities 2020 provides a unique biennial overview of the role of mining and utility activities in the world economy. This extensive resource from UNIDO provides detailed time series data on the level, structure and growth of international mining and utility activities by country and sector. Country level data is clearly presented on the number of establishments, employment and output of activities such as coal, iron ore and crude petroleum mining as well as the production and supply of electricity, natural gas and water.This unique and comprehensive source of information meets the growing demand of data users who require detailed and reliable statistical information on the primary industry and energy producing sectors. The publication provides internationally comparable data for economic researchers, development strategists and business communities who influence the policy of industrial development and its environmental sustainability.
Stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases to safe levels will require, at least in the longer term, some kind of technological revolution. This, in turn, can only be achieved through investments in the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) of carbon-free energy technologies. Innovation under Uncertainty presents original research and insights on the uncertain future of carbon-free energy technologies. The authors, by means of structured interviews with technology experts, portray a probabilistic landscape of future technologies' costs, potentials and limits to diffusion.This book collates the results of interviews with more than a hundred and twenty energy technology experts on a wide range of topics, from the impact of public European RD&D investment on the future cost of different low-carbon energy technologies to issues such as technological and diffusion barriers. The results offer important and concrete insights and recommendations concerning the potential role for public expenditure in innovation to bring clean generation technologies to the market. This unprecedented collection of qualitative and quantitative estimates will be invaluable to academics and policy makers drafting future energy policies, and integrated assessment and energy modelers characterizing the future development of different technological options. Contributors: L. Aleluia, V. Bosetti, M. Bunn, M. Catenacci, L.A. Diaz, G. Fiorese, A. Lee, E. Verdolini,
Energy security is a burning issue in a world where 1.4 billion people still have no access to electricity. This book is about finding solutions for energy security through the international trading system. Focusing mainly on the European Union as a case study, this holistic and comprehensive analysis of the existing legal and geopolitical instruments strives to identify the shortcomings of the international and EU energy trade governance systems, concluding with the notion of a European Energy Union and what the EU is politically prepared to accept as part of its unified energy security. This snapshot of multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance deals with energy transit from the perspective of the Energy Charter Treaty as a means to enhance EU energy security, and examines the system of law and governance of international trade in unconventional fossil fuels. The authors analyze concerns that arise from preferential trade agreements and renewable energy from the EU's perspective, and explain how the EU can diversify its energy supply to improve its energy security. This book will be of interest to students, scholars, lawyers, economists, policymakers, and think tanks dealing with the links between energy security and international trade, as well as those communities relating to other energy-related disciplines.
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