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First published in 1971, The Economics of the Distributive Trades is a comprehensive analysis of all sectors of the British retailing sector, written by the then-head of the Research Department of the John Lewis Partnership. Using economic statistics and modelling, Patrick McAnally examines the the full range of the retailing business, from output to competition, pricing, assortment and transport to location, staff and finance, and in doing so provides an invaluable snapshot of the state of the distributive trades at the end of the Sixties. First published 1971.
While many consider the World Trade Organization to be a major contributor to growth in world income, others --including many environmentalists --view it with suspicion and even animosity. With the failure to launch a new round of WTO negotiations in Seattle, dealing with the principal issues in the trade and environment debate will preoccupy negotiators at the next meeting of Trade Ministers in late 2001 in Qatar, and well into the millennium. This book provides an overview of the key issues for negotiation at the Qatar meeting and well beyond. The authors are world authorities in their respective areas. Their contributions to the first edition of Trade, Environment and the Millennium have been broadened and deepened in the light of the experience of the failed negotiations in Seattle, and other relevant developments in the WTO over the past two years. Gary P. Sampson is currently on leave from the WTO. He holds the posts of professor of International Economic Governance at the Institute of Advanced Studies at the United Nations University and visiting academic at the London School of Economics. W. Bradnee Chambers is an associate fellow and coordinator of the Environment, Multilateralism and Governance Programme of the Institute of Advanced studies, United Nations University, Tokyo.
The physical distribution of products is an important element in the marketing operations of all productive enterprises, and in many cases efficient distribution is the most important single factor leading to success. With the emergence of post-industrial society the role of distribution has come to increasingly be viewed as a generator of wealth in the economy, attracting the interest of public policy makers anxious to influence investment, employment and efficiency in the sector.
First published in 1982, this book isolates the major trends affecting the main institutions in distribution and contrasts the processes of change amongst the countries and regions of the European Economic Community. Structural change in the industry is related to spatial change in the regions and comparisons made of the varied public policy responses in member countries. An interesting and relevant reissue, this title will be of particular value to economics and business students with an interest in the development of the European consumer and post-industrial Europe.
With Belfast's dramatic increase in trade during the seventeenth century, large numbers of Scottish families were attracted by the town's economic potential, the availability of business premises, the ease with which one could attain the status of freeman, and the atmosphere of tolerance of Presbyterianism. This immigrant community formed the basis of Belfast's new merchant community. In this book Dr. Agnew provides detailed profiles of over thirty such merchant families, revealing a complex kinship network and a community hierarchy based on wealth, status and land ownership. Insights are given into commercial and social mobility: the merchants of Belfast often attained the position of gentry, and many merchant families used their wealth to move abroad, establishing new trading links and extending their kinship-based commercial network to other centres of Irish, British and European trade.
This book integrates the concept of design into the existing framework of industrial performance, international trade and comparative advantage in trade and industrial phenomena, which increasingly have been affected by design characteristics of tradable goods. Design, capability and their evolution are introduced into current theories of trade to explain the reality of international trade in the early twenty-first century and the possibility of design-based comparative advantage is explored. Toward that end, the concepts of design, architecture, organizational capability and productivity are introduced, as are their interactions and evolution. The author starts from the fact that firms' selection of design locations precedes that of production locations and that a new product's initial production location is usually the same as its design location. In other words, design matters in explaining today's trade phenomena. Thus, this book analyzes product design and its evolution in the context of the comparative advantage theory. The author argues that the concept of Ricardo's comparative advantage must be reinterpreted in a more dynamic way than in the past, with changing labor input coefficients treated as variables and driven by international capability-building competition between factories. Some of the many topics dealt with in this volume include a capability-architecture view of industrial comparative advantage, a design-based view of manufacturing, the evolution of manufacturing capabilities, Ricardian comparative advantage with changing labor input coefficients, comparative design cost and selection of design locations and a design process model behind comparative design cost. In this way, the behaviors of factories, product development projects, firms, industries and national economies in today's global competition are described and analyzed in the most realistic way.
Few Canadians have seen a Hudson's Bay Company catalogue and understandably so. The Company's Department Store mail-order business was operated only from 1881 to 1913; today copies of the original catalogue are extremely rare. The Company opened Western Canada's first department store in Winnipeg in 1881, a stone's throw from walled Fort Garry. The treasures of the first store are all here in the Autumn and Winter 1910-11 catalogue. The choicest of prime furs, the best diagonal tweed, and the finest quality beaver are used in the manufacture of ladies' coats. Men's 'Renown' suits of pure worsteds in fashionable shades can be purchased for only $15.00; the finest 9 x 12 Wilton, Axminster, and Brussels rugs from European looms are priced from $24.50 to $36.50. The famous Point blankets, guns, camping equipment, and wines and spirits are prominently displayed. The catalogue is a visual delight--a welcome addition to libraries, a superb teaching aid for schools, and an exciting gift for all those interested in another era.
Multidimensional auction mechanisms is the new pricing model for e-business. By 2002 Business-to-business Internet auctions are estimated to reach $52.6 billion, while dynamically priced transactions will be 27% of the value of business-to-business electronic transactions. Combining economics with computer science this book is designed to empower business people to apply this new technology for the design, implementation and upgrade of electronic markets. For professionals, consultants, dotcomers and technology managers, as well as researchers in economics, information systems, operations management, computer science and observers of the e-Commerce phenomenon.
The focus of this volume is the rise and fall of the Indian maritime merchant in the early modern period: the heyday of Moghul Surat, the appearance of a group of independent merchant shipowners, and their eclipse at the end of the period in the face of European competition and monopolies. Much of the evidence for the activity of these Indian merchants comes from the records of the Dutch and English East India Companies, as well as the papers of English private merchants, and this is carefully assessed by Professor Das Gupta in these articles. He is also concerned to set the picture thus gained in the context of the trade of the Indian Ocean region as a whole, and to relate it to the questions of continuity and change raised by Van Leur.
By turns exotic, valuable and of cardinal importance in the development of world trade, spices, as the editor reminds us, are today a mundane accessory in any well-equiped kitchen; in the 15th-18th centuries, the spice trade from the Indian Ocean to markets all over the world was a major economic enterprise. Setting the scene with extracts from Garcia da Orta's fascinating contemporary Colloquies on the drugs and simples of India [Goa 1563], this collection reviews trade in a wide variety of spices, exploring merchant organisation, transport and marketing as well as detailing the quantitative evidence on the fluctuations in spice trade. The evidence and historical debates concerning the 16th-century revival of the Mediterranean and Red Sea spice trade at this time, are fully represented here
The most difficult but most exciting aspect of online business is that there are no rules. Everyone has a business plan, but the real secret is being able to re-write it and change shape, again and again, as you interact with your customers. The victors in the online battle are those that can provide instant gratification, by anticipating their customers' needs and by being flexible enough to remain one step ahead. These are the QuicksilverCompanies and this book is about them. As the creator of the BBC online site and advisor to businesses such as The Financial Times, SkyDigital, BP, Amoco, and others, Alan Griffiths has been at the frontline of online business for several years. In this book he provides the reader with practical advice on how to make the great ideas in the e-business books work in practice and real-life stories to show how to avoid the pitfalls.
Auf der Basis einer der bislang grossten europaweiten Untersuchungen zum Supply-Chain-Management im Handel zeigt Karl-Hendrik Magnus, dass der Erfolg von Supply Chains massgeblich durch die Gestaltung der Kooperation zwischen Einzelhandel und Herstellern beeinflusst wird und dass nicht jede Kooperationsform leistungssteigernd wirkt: Wahrend intensiver Informationsaustausch und hohe Transparenz erstrebenswert sind, lohnt sich eine enge Verzahnung der Prozesse meist nicht."
This Annual Editions reader is a compilation of current, carefully selected articles from Business Week. These selections provide effective and useful perspectives on todays important topics concerning the Internet and business. Annual Editions titles are supported by the student Web site Dushkin Online (www.dushkin.com/online).
The TPP was negotiated among 12 economically diverse countries, including some most highly developed and rich countries (i.e., the United States, Japan, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Singapore), some newly industrialized countries (i.e., Mexico and Malaysia), and some less-developed countries (i.e., Peru, Chile, and Vietnam). A new paradigm created in this context is that countries with vastly different economic developments can actually agree on a set of very high standards to regulate their economic activities, to liberalize their trade, and to protect intellectual property and foreign investment. The contents of the TPP also reflect its status of being a "new paradigm" as the "21st-Century Trade Agreement" and being a pioneer in rule making in many key regulatory areas. These include not only the improved and enhanced rules on traditional issues already covered by the WTO , such as goods, services, and IP rights, but also the carefully designed rules in areas that have never been addressed in the WTO or comprehensively covered in other FTAs , such as state-owned enterprises, electronic commerce, and labor and environmental issues. Although the United States has withdrawn from the TPP, the remaining countries are still putting efforts into establishing a TPP without the United States or a TPP with China. Economically speaking, the current 11 parties account for about 20 % of the global economy. If such agreement is put into force, there will be significant implications for the region, for the multilateral system, and even for other FTAs. The book addresses the potential of the TPP to change the ways trade and investments are conducted and argues for its potential to be the start of an international trade/economic law revolution. The book elaborates the relationship between the TPP and other existing trade agreements such as the WTO and other FTAs and explains how the TPP is to deal with traditional and new issues. Taken together, the authors argue that the implications of the TPP go beyond its current membership. It is hoped that the book will make an important contribution to the field of international economic law.
This book addresses injury and causation issues in the context of antidumping, countervailing duty (CVD) and safeguard investigations that are covered under the WTO. The book traces the origin and the negotiating history of injury and causation in trade remedy instruments and examines how this requirement evolved in the United States and more specifically in the GATT as part of the Kennedy Code, the Tokyo Codes and later the Uruguay Round negotiating texts. The book demonstrates that terms such as "principal cause," "substantial cause" and "a cause in and of itself" are not necessarily warranted in such instruments. In the light of the experiences of key users of trade remedy instruments and the WTO Doha Round Rules negotiations, the book argues that causation determination does not require mathematical precision. Econometric or quantitative tools may be suggested, but such tools need not undermine the policy-laden nature of trade remedy instruments. Accordingly, the book suggests the use of weak-necessity and strong sufficiency test as a potentially viable causative framework with regard to injury and causation in trade remedies.
The book examines the trade liberalization measures, which were initiated in India during 1991 and which focused on manufacturing industries. This industry was considered because of its strong inter-sectoral links and its capacity to stimulate the growth of other sectors. The resulting liberal trade policies, involving a reduction in trade barriers and inflows of FDI, capital and technologies, were adopted to increase the manufacturing output. However, these measures were most beneficial to those industries whose products have greater demand in developed countries. Against this backdrop, the book breaks down the overall effect of trade-induced manufacturing growth into scale, composition and technique effects to discuss the impact on environmental externality. In addition to manufacturing activity, it also investigates the effect of other factors that improve with economic growth and examines the extent to which India's trade-led economic growth allows production activities to move to cleaner technologies and whether India has achieved its economic growth by specializing in pollution-intensive (low technology) industries. The book also estimates the impact of these environmental externalities on society's wellbeing.
This book addresses topical development issues in India, ranging from land acquisition, poverty alleviation programs, labor market issues, the public-private partnership (PPP) model and fiscal federalism. It offers an Indian perspective on the dynamics of economic development and the impact the country's legal and public policies have on it. Economic development is a dynamic concept - old problems are solved, while at the same time new issues come to the fore. The emergence of these issues is unique to the development experience of an economy. The book includes sixteen recent contributions and is divided into four sections: law and contract; trade and foreign aid; issues in public economics; and the social sector and poverty alleviation. The chapters reflect on a number of development issues which were of concern for India in the recent past and will be important in her future development initiatives such as land acquisition, agricultural productivity, employment, protection of intellectual property rights, corruption, public-private partnership, regional development, poverty alleviations programs like the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) and the training of self-help group members, health and education of women, to name a few. The book is a valuable reference resource for policy practitioners and researchers working on the economics of development with special focus on developing economies.
This book investigates the less-explored dimensions of how industries in different Indian subnational spaces or states have responded to the growing phenomenon of internationalization. What factors have influenced firms participating in global business? Have state (both central and provincial) policies acted as catalyst for local firms? Not only does this study delve into these issues; it also painstakingly develops a comprehensive database that remains unique in the absence of reliable official statistics on this subject to date. Efforts have been made to establish a reasonably consistent dataset for the period 1990-2008 derived from the CMIE-PROWESS database. Care has been taken to condense the data and classify it by sector, location, size and ownership. The study delineates export patterns by firm and state and explores factors influencing export decisions according to sector, size and location. A further interesting aspect is the book's critical examination of industrial and trade promotion policies at the state/regional level that might have contributed to or hindered exporting by firms. The states considered for detailed policy discussions are highly diverse and include Gujarat, Odisha and Karnataka. To address the glaring absence of literature on the role of subnational factors in enterprises' export performance, a preliminary state-by-state analysis of the spatial determinants of firms' export activities is also provided.
This book brings together a collection of papers on international trade and international finance, instead of treating the two as disjoint fields of study. The volume, while focusing on the recent developments and frontiers of research in international trade and international finance, also emphasizes the inherent integrated nature of the two subjects; some of the papers are overlapping across the two areas. A unique feature of the proposed volume is that it unravels some new issues in addition to re-examining certain old issues in a new perspective and thus covers wide ranging issues with an emphasis on policy. The book covers issues mostly relating to emerging market economies, which has increasingly assumed importance in the context of globalization. The book contains some survey papers covering the frontiers of current knowledge on important themes like recent developments in trade theory and empirics, foreign exchange market, institutions in trade and finance, interrelation and interaction between international trade and international finance. The papers, fruit of rigorous and original research, are written by internationally and nationally reputed authors along with promising young researchers on the subjects. The book substantially contributes to the growing literature on issues relating to trade and international finance in emerging market economies and extends the frontiers of knowledge. The book is expected to have the widest possible readership comprising of advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as senior researchers working in international trade and international finance.
This open access book belongs to the Maritime Business and Economic History strand of the Palgrave Studies in Maritime Economics book series. This volume highlights the contribution of the shipping industry to the transformations in business and society of the postwar era. Shipping was both an example and an engine of globalization and structural change. In turn, the industry experienced and pioneered, mirrored and enabled key developments that led to the present-day globalized economy. Contributions address issues such as the macro-level shift of shipping's centre of gravity from Europe to Asia, the political and legal frameworks within which it developed, the strategies and performance of both successful and unsuccessful firms, and the links between the shipping industry and the wider economy and society. Without shipping and its ability to forge connections and networks of a global reach, the modern world would look very different. By bringing together scholars from various disciplinary and national backgrounds, this book advances our understanding of the linkages that bind economies and societies together.
A "digital divide" threatens the global trade regime. And it is not narrowing - it is rapidly becoming an unbridgeable chasm. Nor is this a problem merely for developing countries: the headlong trend toward dematerialisation of trade documents in the developed world will grind to a halt unless all trading countries without exception possess the legal and operational ability to participate in paperless trade. This work not only describes the obstacles to universal support for paperless trade, but also provides solutions that can be implemented if stakeholders make the collective effort to achieve this goal. Dr. Laryea investigates such central issues as the following: legal problems and security risks not encountered in paper documentation; accommodating low-tech problems with electronic documentation; and funding the construction of information and communication technology infrastructure in developing countries. The presentation focuses on each of the essential contract documents in turn, from the quotation to the documentary credit, explaining exactly how the electronic versions of each work (particularly in terms of security), and why each is desirable.
In the debate over the treatment of China in trade remedy investigations, this book focuses exclusively on anti-subsidy law. As such, it brings a long neglected and often underestimated area of international trade law to the fore.Exploring the delicate relations between the WTO, the EU and China, it focuses on the current legal framework for the use of alternative benchmarks in anti-subsidy law and analyses the consequences that arise from its practical application in investigations against China. Scrutinizing recent developments in WTO anti-subsidy law, in particular the adoption of country-specific rules in accession protocols, the book reveals the shortcomings of the current approach and argues for fundamental reforms. Accordingly, the book provides academics and practitioners alike with vital insights into the legal evolution and practical application of alternative benchmark methodologies in the context of WTO and EU anti-subsidy law, while also putting forward a critical analysis of the status quo.
Major building blocks of an e-commerce system and how they interact are detailed in this practical book. It presents the key tools and technologies in use today and shows how to choose the best architectures for business-to-business, business-to-consumer and intrabusiness sites. Online commercial transactions over cellular and pager networks also are covered.
With more and more businesses shifting emphasis towards the Internet, new ways of protecting transacting parties are needed in the world of e-commerce. This volume shows the reader how to create, collect, validate and maintain cryptographic evidence, such as digital signatures, in order to support the settlement of possible electronic transaction disputes. It presents a systematic description of non-repudiation services, examples on the integration of these services into specific e-commerce applications, and a detailed analysis and comparison of typical non-repudiation mechanisms.
This book charts the development of Liverpool's trade, shipping and business culture in the third quarter of the nineteenth century. Using previously neglected evidence, it assesses the causes and consequences of major changes in the port's economy, and considers the activities of the international trading community that had to work in this complex business environment. Shipowners and merchants confronted difficult choices, whether in adopting the new steamship technology, diversifying into new commodity trades, competing for government contracts, or managing their port through the elected Mersey Docks & Harbour Board.
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