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Since the 1980s, economists have used the concept of strategic
trade policy, which takes account of imperfect competition and
increasing returns in the international marketplace, to criticize
conventional views about free trade. According to the new view, a
government can take strategic steps to raise its income at another
country's expense--by subsidizing exports or erecting trade
barriers, protecting certain firms from foreign competition, or
promoting the development of new industries. This volume looks at
the experience of specific industries in order to determine the
effectiveness of strategic trade policy in promoting economic
Praise for the first edition: 'Accomplishes its task to provide readers with a broad multi-disciplinary view on globalization's many impacts on Latin America ... the organization of the collection is logical and thoughtful, and the structural perspectives offered are convincing and powerful. I recommend it to other Latin American social scientists.' Growth and Change 'An impressive, timely and lively volume, which is especially valuable for teaching purposes.' Journal of Latin American Studies 'Authoritatively written by leading scholars in their respective fields.' Area Latin America Transformed, 2nd Edition explains the region's economic, political, social and cultural transformations, its association with globalization and the search for modernity, and contributes to a greater understanding of how these transformations are affecting the people of Latin America. Using a political economy approach to unravel the concepts of globalization and modernity within Latin America, emphasis is placed on interpreting the macro-level structures that frame the transformations taking place. The book also investigates the dynamics of people's livelihoods as they make sense of, rework and live out these structural transformations. The international team of authors involved with the successful first edition have updated their focus and substantially rewritten their material to examine the challenges facing Latin America in the twenty-first century. Three completely new chapters have also been added. Latin America Transformed, 2nd Edition is now even more useful for undergraduate and postgraduate courses that examine economic, political, social and cultural change in Latin America.
The most difficult but most exciting aspect of online business is that there are no rules. Everyone has a business plan, but the real secret is being able to re-write it and change shape, again and again, as you interact with your customers. The victors in the online battle are those that can provide instant gratification, by anticipating their customers' needs and by being flexible enough to remain one step ahead. These are the QuicksilverCompanies and this book is about them. As the creator of the BBC online site and advisor to businesses such as The Financial Times, SkyDigital, BP, Amoco, and others, Alan Griffiths has been at the frontline of online business for several years. In this book he provides the reader with practical advice on how to make the great ideas in the e-business books work in practice and real-life stories to show how to avoid the pitfalls.
Addressing the current dearth of available literature on this topic, the editors use a range of international case studies to explore street vending and informal economies which continue to be, especially in developing countries, a vital economic driver. This volume collects essays from authors around the world about the markets and vendors they know best, including studies of USA, China, Mexico, Turkey. The contributors speak of the struggles that vendors have faced to legitimize their activity, the role that they play in helping societies adapt to and survive catastrophes as well as the practical roles that they play in both the local and global social and economic system. As well as highlighting the importance of street markets as a phenomenon of interest in itself to a growing body of scholarship, this study demonstrates how an analysis of street vending can provide insights not only into economic anthropology, but also urban studies, post modernism, spatial geography, political sociology and globalization theory.
Changes in the philosophy of planning and the political influences behind it have led to an increasingly ambivalent approach to retail and commercial matters and a lack of clear goals and objectives as to what both central government and the local authorities should be concerned with. At the same time, changes within the distribution industry have brought new pressures to bear upon the environment which the conventional planning process seems ill-equipped to accommodate. This book, by an established leading authority, takes stock of the new problems to be confronted and provides the rudiments of an alternative planning approach to dealing with them.
It begins by examining the growth of office blocks and shopping centres, and goes on to analyse and criticise the existing planning processes, suggesting alternative procedures. It looks at the dual needs of development on the one hand and renovation and redevelopment on the other and discusses how these should be dealt with in the future. More specific problems are also examined: the impact created by new shopping schemes, the decline of small shops and related activities, the conflict over transport demands and provisions and the special physical needs of particular urban and rural environments. Throughout, the argument is supported by detailed examples of particular developments.
Originally published 1984.
Studies of the organisation and location of retailing activity have played a central role in the emergence of urban geography as a major area of academic study. Moreover, retailing is increasingly the focus of interdisciplinary research, with economists, sociologists, psychologists and marketing specialists all contributing.
This book surveys and sets in context the wide range of research work that has recently been done on retailing. It concentrates on western industrial societies, particularly Britain and the USA, and considers empirical research, theory and theoretical applications. Topics covered include location analysis which is a traditional area of academic interest; consumer behaviour, which is of particular interest to psychologists, and retail organisation and government involvement, which will interest all those concerned, especially those actually involved in retail planning and management.
This comprehensive book is the first substantial review of research in retail geography and suggests many future lines of research within the field.
Originally published 1980.
The shopping centre has become an established feature of urban structure over the past thirty years. Development of centres has been rapid and little attempt has been made to consider the development process and the problems caused by it. There is a growing awareness that centres are not always wholly beneficial to their host cities and that some public policy control is necessary.
This book examines the shopping centre development process and analyses the control policies which have been taken and which are needed. It draws on material from throughout the developed world.
First published 1985.
Retailer s buying power has significantly increased in recent years as a result of a process of market concentration. As vertical relationships in marketing channels have strengthened their influence over the shape of the industry, the producer-distributor relationship has become more central to an understanding of both marketing practice and the conduct and performance of consumer goods industries.
This comprehensive and detailed book covers the theory and practice of national and international retail and marketing channels. It provides a structural overview of the producer-distributor relationship as well as analyses of specific aspects of channel control and management. Finally, the book assesses the implications of new developments in the evolution of marketing channels.
First published 1989.
Multidimensional auction mechanisms is the new pricing model for e-business. By 2002 Business-to-business Internet auctions are estimated to reach $52.6 billion, while dynamically priced transactions will be 27% of the value of business-to-business electronic transactions. Combining economics with computer science this book is designed to empower business people to apply this new technology for the design, implementation and upgrade of electronic markets. For professionals, consultants, dotcomers and technology managers, as well as researchers in economics, information systems, operations management, computer science and observers of the e-Commerce phenomenon.
This text investigates the racial dynamics that exist between Korean merchants, the African American community, and white society in general. Focusing on hostility toward Korean merchants in New York and Los Angeles, the book shows how the "middle-man" economic role which Koreans often occupy, between low-income, minority customers on the one hand and large corporate suppliers on the other, leads to conflict with other groups. Further, the book shows how ethnic conflicts strengthen ties within Korean communities as Koreans organize to protect themselves and their businesses. The book scrutinizes the targeting of Korean businesses during the 1992 Los Angeles riots and the 1990 African American boycotts of Korean stores in Brooklyn. it explores Korean merchants' relationships with each other as well as with Latin American employees, Jewish suppliers and landlords, and government agencies. In each case, the book's analysis reveals how Korean communities respond to general scapegoating through collective action, political mobilization and other strategies.
Jim Rouse: Capitalist/Idealist is the story of a very special businessman. A successful capitalist a real estate developer Jim Rouse led his life as a practicing idealist. He sought to help people enrich their lives. He wanted people to live in an enjoyable environment and to experience the joy in caring for each other. But he knew that to raise the capital to accomplish those goals his companies had to be profitable. As an enthusiast of urban renewal, he worked to rid core downtown areas of American cities of blight and despair. He created indoor malls in the new post-war suburbs that would be focal points for community life. He developed a whole new city Columbia, Maryland to show what an American city could be like. For one thing, it would be a city totally integrated racially, a city in which anyone could buy or rent on any street. In retirement, Rouse founded the Enterprise Foundation to produce profits that would be used to provide the poorest of Americans with a decent place to live. Rouse was one of America's first practitioners of social enterprise.
Explains the major changes in the textile and clothing industry that are taking place mostly in the USA. Shows the central role of information systems in providing data on sales at the retail level that is communicated back through the system to garment distributors, manufacturers, designers, and to the starting point: the manufacturers of the cloth from which the garments are made.
Coping with Retail Giants critically analyzes the modern retail market and identifies how businesses gain the competitive edge over the major retailers that currently control the market. Dr. Samli argues that as society advances economically, consumers will seek better values generated by the retailing sector.
Leading international food retailers have in recent years expanded beyond national boundaries and started to operate on a global scale. This book describes the current state of play, looking in detail at the main competitors worldwide and analyzing the factors underlying their successes and failures. The authors are leading commentators on this industry and identify the essential characteristics of a global strategy in food retailing and include many compelling examples.
Uncovering how cash-in-hand economies are composed of not only the underground sector (work akin to formal employment conducted for profit-motivated purposes), but also a hidden economy of favours more akin to mutual aid, this book displays the need to transcend conventional market-oriented readings of cash-in-hand work and radically rethink whether seeking its eradication through tougher regulations is always appropriate. It argues for a variegated policy approach that recognizes these two distinct forms of cash-in-hand work and which tailors policy accordingly.
Based on extensive archival research, Beyond Market and Hierarchy reconstructs how Fan waged modern China's war of salts. Led by his Jiuda Salt Industries, the nascent refined salt industry battled revenue farmers who, as a group, monopolized the production and distribution of evaporated salt.
Using original qualitative ethnographic field interviews and quantitative field survey results, Consumption, Informal Markets, and the Underground Economy explores the rationale for and model of 'off the books' consumption in a borderlands environment.
This book studies the relationship between administrative capacity and a member state's influence in the European Union. More specifically, it studies member states' ability to exert control over the European Commission during trade negotiations. But what determines administrative capacity and how do member states ensure their preferences are defended during trade negotiations? A combination of qualitative fieldwork and survey-analysis provides the answer. Interviews in Belgium, Poland, Estonia and Spain offer a privileged insight into the functioning of national trade administrations and its effects on their behavior in the Council of Ministers. Through survey data, these findings are further corroborated. The book is aimed at a readership interested in EU decision-making, negotiation theory, comparative public administration and the international political economy of trade.
Written by experts in Luxury and Fashion Management at SKEMA Business School this exciting new book offers a new perspective that challenges the established rules of the luxury and fashion industry. The authors and contributors examine the evolution of luxury strategy and how the luxury industry is being redefined in the twenty-first century.
Gaming markets are evolving rapidly. Spearheading this change is the internet, which has enabled cross-border gambling on an unprecedented scale. This book explores the changing landscape of the gaming market and is a crucial companion for all looking for informed discussion on the future of gaming.
China has become such an important element of the global economy that its influence cannot be ignored in almost any field of endeavour. The phenomenal impact of FDI in China and its (largely trade-related) consequences has been well documented and now there is a significant literature on the phenomenon of outward investment from China too. This book is an in depth study of the international business relationships of China covering both inward and outward foreign direct investment, its impact and related theoretical and policy issues. This volume of highly renowned author Peter Buckley's collected papers from 2005-8 continues his interest in the theory of international business (Section I) and policies towards foreign direct investment (FDI) (Section IV) but has a major concentration on China, both as regards outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) from China (Section II) and FDI in China (Section III).
This book investigates the transfer of parent country organizational practices by the retailers to their Chinese subsidiaries, providing insights into employment relations in multinational retail firms and changing labour-management systems in China, as well as their impact on consumer culture.
Post-colonial Africa is littered with regional trade agreements that amounted to little more than a photo opportunity for the leaders that signed them. This book explores conventional explanations for past failures and posits a new theory rooted in the symbiotic relationship between authoritarian politics and crony-capitalism.
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