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Focusing on global value chains and their importance to trade, this edited collection explores the strategic role of logistics and supply chain infrastructure in the development of Africa. Skilled authors present critical analysis of the current state of logistics in Africa, and suggest improvements to policy and practice which address the issue of poor trading relationships. This book will engage entrepreneurs, academics and policy-makers interested in international business, raising awareness of the need for better trade infrastructure in Africa in order to ensure the continent's economic development.
Introduction to Operations Management: A Supply Chain Process Approach details how firms buy, make, deliver, and return goods and services around the globe, providing students with a solid foundation of operations management concepts and techniques. The text offers a set of activities that guide the effectiveness of organizations and prepare operations managers and other employees to ensure their firms are competitive. The book is organized from a strategic to a tactical perspective, beginning with foundational concepts and ending with broader discussions of managing supply chains. Dedicated chapters address corporate strategy, services design, inventory management, aggregate planning, forecasting, lean systems, quality management, integrating processes along the supply chain, and more. Numerous real-world examples, cases, and engaging exercises allow students to place themselves in the shoes of working operations management professionals. The second edition features examples of real companies using analytical tools in decision-making situations, as well as extensive web-based content including flashcards, YouTube videos, and graded chapter quizzes. The textbook's coverage also includes emerging trends for most chapters, such as sustainability, customer relationships, and working in the global marketplace. Written for today's students and the exciting, ever-evolving marketplace, the second edition of Introduction to Operations Management is the text to bring operations management into the modern era.
Imagine planning an event like the Olympics. Now imagine planning the same event but not knowing when or where it will take place, or how many will attend. This is what humanitarian logisticians are up against. Oversights result in serious consequences for the victims of disasters. So they have to get it right, fast.
This book addresses injury and causation issues in the context of antidumping, countervailing duty (CVD) and safeguard investigations that are covered under the WTO. The book traces the origin and the negotiating history of injury and causation in trade remedy instruments and examines how this requirement evolved in the United States and more specifically in the GATT as part of the Kennedy Code, the Tokyo Codes and later the Uruguay Round negotiating texts. The book demonstrates that terms such as "principal cause," "substantial cause" and "a cause in and of itself" are not necessarily warranted in such instruments. In the light of the experiences of key users of trade remedy instruments and the WTO Doha Round Rules negotiations, the book argues that causation determination does not require mathematical precision. Econometric or quantitative tools may be suggested, but such tools need not undermine the policy-laden nature of trade remedy instruments. Accordingly, the book suggests the use of weak-necessity and strong sufficiency test as a potentially viable causative framework with regard to injury and causation in trade remedies.
This anthology is an attempt to make sense of conferences and trade fairs as phenomena in contemporary society. The authors describe how these large-scale professional gatherings have become key sites for making and negotiating both industries and individual professions. In fact, during the past few decades, conferences and trade fairs have become a significant global industry in their own right. The editors assert that large-scale professional gatherings are remarkable events that require deeper analysis and scholarly attention.
In the last years electronic markets, especially online auctions, have become very popular and received more and more attention in both, business (B2B) as well as in public practice (B2C and C2C). Science, however, is still far from having studied all phenomena and effects which can be observed on electronic markets. Apart from theoretic analysis, other approaches are necessary to evaluate and understand market effects. This book shows that and how software agents can be used to simulate bidding behaviour in electronic auctions.
The main emphasis of this book is to apply computational economics to market theory. It summarizes the most common and up-to-date agent-based simulation methods and tools and develops the simulation software AMASE. On basis of the introduced methods a model is established to simulate bidding behaviour under uncertainty.
The book addresses researchers, computer scientists, economists and students who are interested in applying agent-based computational methods to electronic markets. It helps to learn more about simulations in economics in general and common agent-based methods and tools in particular. The reader finds basic definitions and learns how to build an appropriate model for the posed research question. It is the first time that quantitative results are presented for the problem of valuation uncertainty. These results significantly contribute to existing research in computational economics and supplements interesting research aspects.
This book addresses the lack of binding multi-lateral international agreement on cartels, through analysis of trials and failures. It also suggests strategic approaches to overcome current standstills. In addition, the book contrasts international agreement on cartels with inter-governmental commodity agreement which has been developed separately through international law. Through this project, the author puts forth that successful international law on cartels needs to reflect the interests and arguments of developing countries.
This book revisits the economic relationship that ties the UK and Ireland to the United States in the aftermath of the greatest economic crisis of the past fifty years. When considering recent developments to these economic links, it appears that oppositional forces are at work. On one hand, globalization and the rise of new economic powers may undermine the ties. Besides, Ireland's and the UK's European Union membership could also loosen their economic ties with the US. Conversely, the future Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership agreement may well strengthen trade and investment links between the US and Europe. Are the economic bonds between the US, the UK and Ireland waning, as some pundits purport? Or are those claims overstated? Could their economic relationship simply be going through a process of change? Although there may not be a single and straightforward answer to these questions, the authors seek to address these issues and provide insight into the changing dynamics of this historic economic relationship.
Despite the recent misfortunes of many dotcoms, e-commerce will have major and lasting effects on economic activity. But the rise and fall in the valuations of the first wave of e-commerce companies show that vague promises of distant profits are insufficient. Only business models based on sound economic propositions will survive. This book provides professionals, investors, and MBA students the tools they need to evaluate the wide range of actual and potential e-commerce businesses at the microeconomic level. It demonstrates how these tools can be used to assess a variety of existing applications.
Advances in web-based technology--particularly automation and delegation technologies such as smart agents, shopping bots, and bidding elves--support the further growth of e-commerce. In addition to enabling consumers to conduct automated comparisons and sellers to access visitors' background information in real time, such software programs can make decisions for individuals, negotiate with other programs, and participate in online markets. Much of e-commerce's economic value arises from this kind of automation, which not only reduces operating costs but adds value by generating new market interactions.
This text teaches how to analyze the added value of such applications, considering consumer behavior, pricing strategies, incentives, and other critical factors. It discusses added value in several e-commerce arenas: online shopping, business-to-business e-commerce, application design, online negotiation (one-to-one trading), online auctions (one-to-many trading), and many-to-many electronic exchanges. Combining insights from several years of microeconomic research as well as from game theory and computer science, it stresses the importance of economic engineering in application design as well as the need for business models to take into account the "total game."
As the only serious treatment of the microeconomics of e-commerce, this book should be read by anyone seeking e-commerce solutions or planning to work in the field.
Ontologies have been developed and investigated for some time in artificial intelligence to facilitate knowledge sharing and reuse. More recently, the notion of ontologies has attracted attention from fields such as databases, intelligent information integration, cooperative information systems, information retrieval, electronic commerce, enterprise application integration, and knowledge management. This broadened interest in ontologies is based on the feature that they provide a machine-processable semantics of information sources that can be communicated among agents as well as between software artifacts and humans. This feature makes ontologies the backbone technology of the next web generation, i.e., the Semantic Web. Ontologies are currently applied in areas such as knowledge management in large company-wide networks and call centers, and in B2C, B2G, and B2B electronic commerce. In a nutshell, ontologies enable effective and efficient access to heterogeneous and distributed information sources. Given the increasing amount of information available online, this kind of support is becoming more important day by day. The author systematically introduces the notion of ontologies to the non-expert reader and demonstrates in detail how to apply this conceptual framework for improved intranet retrieval of corporate information and knowledge and for enhanced Internet-based electronic commerce. He also describes ontology languages (XML, RDF, and OWL) and ontology tools, and the application of ontologies. In addition to structural improvements, the second edition covers recent developments relating to the Semantic Web, and emerging web-based standard languages. ___________
An examination of the relationship between competition and the deregulation and liberalisation of the US and European air transport sectors reveals that the structure of the air transport sector has undergone a number of significant changes. A growing number of airlines are entering into horizontal and vertical cooperative arrangements and integration including franchising, codeshare agreements, alliances, `virtual mergers' and in some cases, mergers with other airlines, groups of airlines or other complementary lines of business such as airports. This book considers the current legal issues affecting the air transport sector incorporating recent developments in the industry, including the end of certain exemptions from EU competition rules, the effect of the EU-US Open Skies Agreement, the accession of new EU Member States and the Lisbon Treaty. The book explores the differing European and US regulatory approaches to the changes in the industry and examines how airlines have remained economically efficient in what is perceived as a complex and confused regulatory environment. Competition and Regulation in the Airline Industry will be of particular interest to academics and students of competition law as well as EU law.
The Universal Product Code (U.P.C.)--a small rectangle of black and white bars--adorns virtually every retail item we purchase. Yet twenty-five years ago, the U.P.C. was a mere kernel of an idea shared by a small cadre of manufacturing and chain store executives. Here Stephen Brown, the legal counsel of those pioneering executives, traces its origin and evolution.
The development of the U.P.C. illustrates the process of setting industry standards without government intervention and shows how systems of complementary technologies evolve. The economic consequences of the U.P.C. are investigated in an introduction by Professor John T. Dunlop and Jan Rivkin.
The objective of this report is to examine the extent to which countries in Latin America and the Caribbean participate in global value chains and what are the drivers of such participation. Production processes have been increasingly fragmented worldwide. For example, the production of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner involves 43 suppliers located in 135 locations around the globe. There are many examples like the Dreamliner, from the 451 parts that go into the iPod to the less technologically intensive but still widespread multi-country production of a Barbie doll. All this reflects significant changes in the way world production is being reorganized across national borders. That is, for many goods, production has become a multi-country process in which different stages are carried out in specialized plants in different parts of the world. Countries which specialize in different stages of the production process are thus linked by these global value chains. For developing countries, a clear opportunity from the continuous international fragmentation of production arises in the form of participating in activities that were virtually not opened to them in the past. Therefore, the international fragmentation of production provides opportunities for trade diversification, an issue that can be of particular importance for Latin America and the Caribbean as the region's export base is in general highly concentrated in a few industries and particularly biased towards natural-resource intensive sectors. The aim is to identify whether there is policy space for implementing strategies that allow countries to improve their position in regional and global value chains.
This book examines the challenges that ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) members need to overcome in order to sustain and intensify economic growth. The ASEAN market is widely regarded as a new hub of growth, not least in light of increasing protectionism and declining economic growth of the three largest countries in Northeast Asia (China, Japan, and South Korea). Contributors address a range of issues with a concentrated focus on evidence from Indonesia, including globalisation, increasing populism, trade, FDI, the benefits of the production network, and related issues such as spill-over, crises, innovation and technology, and selected sectoral commodity and policy analysis of Indonesia. This book analyses and explains the relationship between trade and foreign direct investment, and technical changes, with regard to improving 'productivity' in the supply-side economic growth model using, in particular, Indonesia as the de facto leader of ASEAN. This book will be of interest to academics and students specialising in international economics and international development.
This book explores links and synergies between international trade and two of the most urgent challenges of the 21st century: achieving sustainable energy (i.e., energy that is affordable, secure, and clean) and mitigating climate change. It takes the unique approach of not only examining how international trade can help achieve energy and climate goals, but also the impact of emerging tools and technologies such as smart grids and demand response, and the potential role and impact of citizens and prosumers. The book analyzes energy- and trade-related regulations in a range of jurisdictions to assess how conducive the regulation is towards achieving sustainable energy, and identifies gaps and overlaps in the existing legal framework.
This book is the first book that provides comprehensive economic analysis of cross-border outsourcing by Japanese manufacturing firms based on microdata. Previous literature on many other countries has often been constrained by limited data availability about outsourcing, but research contained in this book exploits unique firm-level data and directly tests theoretical hypotheses derived from new firm heterogeneity trade models. Productivity, capital-labor ratio and R&D intensity are examined at the firm level. While rich empirical results in this book convince us how powerful the orthodox economic theory is in understanding Japanese firms, detailed firm-level findings, combined with accessible and concise overviews of Japanese international trade, are widely informative for international economists, experts of Japanese society, business strategists for offshoring, and policy makers in both developed and developing economies. This book further discusses how boundaries of Japanese firms, traditionally sheltered by language and cultural barriers, are affected by outsourcing decisions simultaneously crossing national borders and firm boundaries. The interpretations of Japanese characteristics in outsourcing have deep implications for understanding drastically changing Japanese business amid globalization.
In the debate over the treatment of China in trade remedy investigations, this book focuses exclusively on anti-subsidy law. As such, it brings a long neglected and often underestimated area of international trade law to the fore.Exploring the delicate relations between the WTO, the EU and China, it focuses on the current legal framework for the use of alternative benchmarks in anti-subsidy law and analyses the consequences that arise from its practical application in investigations against China. Scrutinizing recent developments in WTO anti-subsidy law, in particular the adoption of country-specific rules in accession protocols, the book reveals the shortcomings of the current approach and argues for fundamental reforms. Accordingly, the book provides academics and practitioners alike with vital insights into the legal evolution and practical application of alternative benchmark methodologies in the context of WTO and EU anti-subsidy law, while also putting forward a critical analysis of the status quo.
Proposing a comprehensive account of the global fashion industry this book aims to present fashion as a social and cultural fact. Drawing on six principles from the industry, Godart guides the reader through the economic, social and political arena of the world's most glamorous industry.
This book offers a critical analysis of recent developments in the automotive industry of East-Central Europe (ECE). Economists, industry specialists and national governments have considered the rapid development of the automotive industry in ECE in the past twenty years an unqualified success. This rapid growth has been based on large inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI) from Western Europe, North America, Japan and South Korea, and it significantly contributed to GDP growth, created thousands of new jobs, and completely transformed the previously existing automotive industry in the region. This volume offers an analysis that goes beyond uncritical celebratory accounts of this rapid growth. It is based on original, detailed firm-level research conducted by the author in Czechia and Slovakia between 2009 and 2015 that covered assembly firms and the networks of component suppliers. Theoretically and conceptually, the analysis will draw on the global production networks and global value chains perspectives. Drawing on the original empirical data and on additional available information, this volume concentrates on several important questions related to the development of the automotive industry in ECE in the 2000s:* The role of FDI in the rapid development of the automotive industry after 1990 and particularly in the 2000s.* The upgrading of the automotive industry in East-Central Europe through FDI* The position of ECE in the automotive industry research and development (R&D)* The effects of the 2008-2009 economic crisis in the automotive industry of ECE.* The role of state in the rapid development of the automotive industry in ECE in the 1990s and 2000s.* The effects of FDI on domestic firms in the form of linkages between foreign-owned and domestic firms and spillovers from foreign-owned to domestic firms.
This book presents the latest research on national brand and private label marketing - in a collection of original and highly relevant contributions to the 2018 International Conference on National Brand & Private Label Marketing in Barcelona. It covers a wide range of topics from fields as varied as retailing, marketing, general business, psychology, economics and statistics. Further, the papers address diverse areas of application, including: purchase-decision models, premium private labels, decisions involved in introducing new products, M-commerce, private label adoption, assortment decisions, private label pricing, brand equity and collaborative relationships. The main theme of the 2018 conference was "Building Strong Brands in the Digital Age".
Zurzeit gibt es im Bereich Marketing kaum ein Themengebiet, bei welchem die Praxis so nach Anregungen aus der Wissenschaft sucht wieim Produktmanagement. Andreas Herrmann und Frank Huber erlautern detailliert Strategien und Techniken des Produktmanagements. Alle Kapitel folgen einer einheitlichen Grundstruktur: betriebswirtschaftlich relevante Problemstellung, kurze theoretische Grundlage, Diskussion von Losungsansatzen, Veranschaulichung durch Beispiele.
Neu in der 3. Auflage
This book discusses the role historical events played in determining the pattern of growth of Indian manufacturing. Two important historical events significantly influenced the course of Indian manufacturing from the 15th century AD. The first was the arrival of European merchants via sea route pioneered by Vasco-da-Gamma in 1498 and the other was the dawn of the Mughal Empire in 1526. The book explores how these two events provided the appropriate stimulus for the emergence of traditional flexible manufacturing in India and how they played a vital role in the pattern of growth of the Indian manufacturing: The Mughal Empire created an integrated economy of continental size whereas European trading companies expanded the commercial connectivity of the Indian economy and South East Asia. It further investigates how the circumstances created by the colonial administration, factor endowment and market conditions created the complex forms of manufacturing enterprises that India inherited at the time of independence. It is a valuable resource for students of history, economic history, business history and the history of technology.
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