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The Research Handbook on International Competition Law brings together leading academics, practitioners and competition officials to discuss the most recent developments in international competition law and policy. This comprehensive Handbook explores the dynamics of international cooperation and national enforcement. It identifies initiatives that led to the current state of collaboration and also highlights current and future challenges. The Handbook features 22 contributions on topical subjects including: competition in developed and developing economies, enforcement trends, advocacy and regional and multinational cooperation. In addition, selected areas of law are explored from a comparative perspective. These include intellectual property and competition law, the pharmaceutical industry, merger control worldwide and the application of competition law to agreements and dominant market position. Presenting an overview of the current state of cooperation and convergence as well as a comparative analysis of substance and procedure, this authoritative Handbook will prove an invaluable reference tool for competition officials, practitioners and academics with an interest in competition law.
Progress is a familiar slogan in international law, commonly used to accompany claims for improvement or change. At the same time, the notion of progress is rarely explored as such in the literature. The book begins to address this gap by examining the function of the notion of progress in international law rhetoric and writing. By looking at three concrete case studies taken from 'everyday' international law, the book concentrates on explaining 'what is it' that makes a specific international law event synonymous with progress. The book engages questions of narrativity, objectivity, and truth in some of international law's founding progress narratives. The book is valuable reading for international law academics and practitioners alike, especially for those interested in the history and theory of international law. Dr. Thomas Skouteris is currently Associate Professor and Director of the Ibrahim Shihata Memorial LLM Program in International and Comparative Law at The American University in Cairo as well as Secretary General of the European Society of International Law. Before AUC, Skouteris taught at the Faculty of Law of Leiden University and other universities as Visiting Professor. He is General Editor of the Leiden Journal of International Law and he teaches and publishes in public international law, legal history and theory, international dispute settlement, and international criminal law.
Since the establishment of the Permanent Court of Arbitration for international dispute resolution in 1899, the number of international courts and tribunals has multiplied and the reach of their jurisdiction has steadily expanded. By providing a synthetic overview and critical analysis of these developments from multiple perspectives, this Research Handbook both contextualizes and stimulates future research and practice in this rapidly developing field. Made up of specially commissioned chapters by leading and emerging scholars, the book takes a thematic and interpretive, system-wide and inter-jurisdictional comparative approach to the main issues, debates and controversies related to the growth of international courts and tribunals. Its review of influential international judgements traverses the areas of international peace and security law, international human rights law, international criminal law and international economic law, while also including critical reflection by practitioners. This nuanced review of the latest thinking on scholarly debates and controversies in international courts and tribunals will be both a key resource for academic researchers and a concise introduction to the subject for post-graduate students. Its chapters also contain topics of practical relevance to lawyers and international decision-makers.
This book examines the establishment of trust funds by States and international organizations in respect of international development, environmental protection, fiscal stabilization, democracy-building and others. It traces their foundational legal attributes, their investment potential and legal status as investors and the legal means by which they are set up, particularly treaties, resolutions of international organizations, informal agreement, memoranda of understanding, unilateral acts and others. The book examines the various decision-making and management models adopted in contemporary trusts, the fiduciary and other duties of the trustee, as well as the status and rights of beneficiaries. Moreover, it examines the personality of trusts funds, whether as mere accounts, informal associations, foundations under domestic law or even international organizations. Finally, the book discusses the potential of trust funds in enhancing participatory democracy, budgeting and governance, revenue sharing and fiscal management, as well as the role of environmental trust funds. A useful resource for international lawyers, academics and international organisations.
The First Amendment to the US Constitution protects free speech, freedom of the press, freedom of association and assembly, and the right to petition the government. Why did the Framers protect these particular rights? What role were these rights intended to play in our democracy? And what force do they retain in today's world? In this highly readable account, Ashutosh Bhagwat explores the answers to these questions. The first part of the book looks at the history of the First Amendment, early political conflicts over its meaning, and the lessons to be learned from those events about the nature of our system of government. The second part applies those lessons to our modern, fractious democracy as it has evolved in the age of the Internet and social media. Now as then, the key to maintaining that democracy, it turns out, is an active citizenry that fully embraces the First Amendment.
The OSPAR Arbitration (2003) between Ireland and the United Kingdom was the first round in the MOX Plant case concerning their dispute over alleged potential radioactive pollution of the Irish Sea from a mixed oxide ("MOX") fuel plant at the Sellafield nuclear facility in England. This volume contains the Final Award of the Arbitral Tribunal established pursuant to the dispute resolution procedures of the 1992 Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic ("OSPAR Convention"), to decide the dispute concerning Ireland's request for access to information about the United Kingdom's decision to commission the MOX plant under Article 9 of the Convention. Ireland requested access to material deleted from the published versions of certain reports prepared as part of the approval process for the MOX plant. The United Kingdom declined to provide the information requested, arguing, among other things, that the information was properly withheld on commercial confidentiality grounds. The Arbitral Tribunal addressed a relatively narrow legal issue concerning information exchange between States. In doing so, the Tribunal considered the nature and duty of the right to access to information, and the relationship of the OSPAR regime to other legal rules on access to information. Daniel Bodansky, Woodruff Professor of International Law at the University of Georgia, provides a perceptive introduction on the contribution of the OSPAR Award to international law.
On the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Netherlands Institute of International Relations 'Clingendael' The Netherlands Institute of International Affairs 'Clingendael' celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2008. This is not only a reason to look in retrospect, but also to look into the future. In this book, research fellows from the Institute shed some light on the near future regarding their research topics. Various themes in the field of Diplomacy, European integration, Security, and Energy are dealt with. In the tradition of the Clingendael Institute, being a policy-relevant think-tank, the different contributions to this book are not hypothetical foresights written from an ivory tower, but thought-provoking, policy-oriented chapters that will be relevant to anyone interested in international relations. Prof. Dr Jaap de Zwaan is Director of the Clingendael Institute, Dr Edwin Bakker is Head of the Clingendael Security and Conflict Programme, Sico van der Meer MA is a Research Fellow in the Clingendael Security and Conflict Programme.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 164 reports on, amongst others, the 2012 Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice in Judgment No 2867 of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization upon a Complaint Filed against the International Fund for Agricultural Development, together with the related judgments of the ILO Administrative Tribunal, the 2015 judgment of the Federal Court of Australia in Ure v. Commonwealth of Australia and the 2013 United States Supreme Court decision in Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co.
Cities around the globe struggle to create better and more equitable access to important destinations and services, all the while reducing the energy consumption and environmental impacts of mobility. An Introduction to Sustainable Transportation illustrates a new planning paradigm for sustainable transportation through case studies from around the world with hundreds of valuable resources and references, color photos, graphics and tables. The second edition builds and expands upon the highly acclaimed first edition, with new chapters on urban design and urban, regional and intercity public transportation, as well as expanded chapters on automobile dependence and equity issues; automobile cities and the car culture; the history of sustainable and unsustainable transportation; the interrelatedness of technologies, infrastructure energy and functionalities; and public policy and public participation and exemplary places, people and programs around the globe. Among the many valuable additions are discussions of autonomous vehicles (AVs), electric vehicles (EVs), airport cities, urban fabrics, urban heat island effects and mobility as a service (MaaS). New case studies show global exemplars of sustainable transportation, including several from Asia, a case study of participative and deliberative public involvement, as well as one describing life in the Vauban ecologically planned community of Freiburg, Germany. Students in affiliated sustainability disciplines, planners, policymakers and concerned citizens will find many provides practical techniques to innovate and transform transportation.
The Max Planck Handbooks in European Public Law series describes and analyses the public law of the European legal space, an area that encompasses not only the law of the European Union but also the European Convention on Human Rights and, importantly, the domestic public laws of European states. Recognizing that the ongoing vertical and horizontal processes of European integration make legal comparison the task of our time for both scholars and practitioners, it aims to foster the development of a specifically European legal pluralism and to contribute to the legitimacy and efficiency of European public law. The first volume of the series begins this enterprise with an appraisal of the evolution of the state and its administration, with cross-cutting contributions and also specific country reports. While the former include, among others, treatises on historical antecedents of the concept of European public law, the development of the administrative state as such, the relationship between constitutional and administrative law, and legal conceptions of statehood, the latter focus on states and legal orders as diverse as, e.g., Spain and Hungary or Great Britain and Greece. With this, the book provides access to the systematic foundations, pivotal historic moments, and legal thought of states bound together not only by a common history but also by deep and entrenched normative ties; for the quality of the ius publicum europaeum can be no better than the common understanding European scholars and practitioners have of the law of other states. An understanding thus improved will enable them to operate with the shared skills, knowledge, and values that can bring to fruition the different processes of European integration.
Proportionality in Action presents an empirical and comparative exploration of the proportionality doctrine, based on detailed accounts of the application of the framework by apex courts in six jurisdictions: Germany, Canada, South Africa, Israel, Poland and India. The analysis of each country is written and contextualized by a constitutional scholar from the relevant jurisdiction. Each country analysis draws upon a large sample of case law and employs a mixed methodological approach: an expansive coding scheme allows for quantitative analysis providing comparable and quantifiable measurements, which is enriched by qualitative analysis that engages with the substance of the decisions and captures nuance, contextualizing the data and providing it with meaning. The book concludes with a comparative chapter that synthesizes some of the most interesting findings. Focusing on deviations of the practice of proportionality from theory, the authors conclude their argument in support of an integrated approach to the application of proportionality.
In response to a climate in which respect for international law and the law of the European Union is rapidly losing ground, Paul Gragl advocates for the revival of legal monism as a solution to potentially irresolvable normative conflicts between different bodies of law. In this first comprehensive monograph on the theory as envisaged by the Pure Theory of Law of the Vienna School of Jurisprudence, the author defends legal monism against the competing theories of dualism and pluralism. Drawing on philosophical, epistemological, legal, moral, and political arguments, this book argues that only monism under the primacy of international law takes the law and the concept of legal validity seriously. On a practical level, it offers policy-makers and decision-makers methods of dealing with current problems and a means to restore respect for international law and peaceful international relations. While having the potential to revive and elicit further interest and research in monism and the Pure Theory of Law, the comprehensiveness and scope of the book also make it a choice text for inter-disciplinary scholars.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 167 reports on, amongst others, the arbitration award in the Bay of Bengal Maritime Boundary Arbitration (Bangladesh v. India), the European Court of Human Rights Grand Chamber 2011 and 2015 decisions in Chiragov v. Armenia and the judgment of the Supreme Court of Uganda in Uganda v. Kwoyelo.
As international organizations become ever more prominent in global politics it is increasingly urgent to understand their power, their limits, and their effects. Now in its fourth edition, this leading textbook provides the definitive introduction to modern international organizations, from the legal charters of their beginnings, to the issues they engage with in the contemporary world. In his analysis of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the International Criminal Court and ten other prominent global institutions, Hurd combines legal, empirical, and theoretical approaches in an accessible and cohesive package. Fully revised and updated, this latest edition includes topical cases and controversies involving international organizations, such as Brexit, trade wars, environmentalism, forced migration and border disputes. It will be of interest to undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in international organizations, international institutions, global governance, and international law.
This book examines the simultaneous protection of fundamental rights by various norms and jurisdictional organs, focussing on the multilevel protection of the principle of legality in Criminal Law.Written by accredited specialists in criminal law, constitutional law, international public law, and the philosophy of law, the majority of them ex-Counsels of the Spanish Constitutional Court, it addresses various manifestations of the principle of legality: the requirement of precision, the judicial subjection to law and the prohibition of bis in idem. It does so not only from a theoretical perspective, but also through a comparative study of the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, the Court of Justice of the European Union and state constitutional courts. This practical approach characterizes the book, which culminates in a detailed analysis of the relevant ECtHR Judgement Del Rio Prada v. Spain on the retroactivity of unfavourable jurisprudence."Multilevel protection of the principle of legality in Criminal Law" is a useful instrument of reflection for scholars of both the principle of criminal legality and the problems that arise from the concurrency of protective jurisdictions of human rights.
This book explores how international organizations (IOs) have expanded their powers over time without formally amending their founding treaties. IOs intervene in military, financial, economic, political, social, and cultural affairs, and increasingly take on roles not explicitly assigned to them by law. Sinclair contends that this 'mission creep' has allowed IOs to intervene internationally in a way that has allowed them to recast institutions within and interactions among states, societies, and peoples on a broadly Western, liberal model. Adopting a historical and interdisciplinary, socio-legal approach, Sinclair supports this claim through detailed investigations of historical episodes involving three very different organizations: the International Labour Organization in the interwar period; the United Nations in the two decades following the Second World War; and the World Bank from the 1950s through to the 1990s. The book draws on a wide range of original institutional and archival materials, bringing to light little-known aspects of each organization's activities, identifying continuities in the ideas and practices of international governance across the twentieth century, and speaking to a range of pressing theoretical questions in present-day international law and international relations.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 165 reports on, amongst others, the 2012 judgment of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in Artavia Murillo ('In vitro fertilization') v. Costa Rica, the judgments of the English High Court and Court of Appeal and the European Court of Human Rights in Misick, and the 2014 English High Court judgment in Iraqi Civilians v. Ministry of Defence.
This book reflects the research output of the Committee on the International Protection of Consumers of the International Law Association (ILA). The Committee was created in 2008, with a mandate to study the role of public and private law to protect consumers, review UN Guidelines, and to model laws, international treaties and national legislations concerning protection and consumer redress. It has been accepted to act as an observer not only when the UNCTAD was updating its guidelines, but also at the Hague Conference on Private International Law. The book includes the contributions of various Committee members in the past few years and is a result of the cooperation between the Committee members and experts from Australia, Brazil, Canada and China. It is divided into three parts: the first part addresses trends and challenges in international protection of consumers, while the second part focuses on financial crises and consumer protection and the third part examines national and regional consumer law issues.
This first volume of EtYIL focuses on issues concerning the developing world in general and (the Horn of) Africa - and Ethiopia - specifically. It argues that rebalancing the international law narrative to reflect Africa's legitimate interests is an urgent priority, and can only succeed through the fair representation of African countries in the creation and interpretation of international law.The book begins by reflecting on the ICJ's West African Cases and provides a unique perspective on decolonisation as a source of jus cogens and obligations erga omnes. This is followed by a comprehensive analysis of the reception of international law in the Ethiopian legal system, and of the potential implications of Ethiopia joining the WTO. The book then delves into such topical issues as the relationship between competition for natural resources and international investment law, the UN Global Goals and the fledgling international climate change regime, with particular emphasis on the Paris Climate Agreement and their implications for developing countries. Further issues include the Declaration of Principles on the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam signed by Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt in light of Nile colonial treaties and contemporary international watercourses law, as well as selected legal implications of the armed conflict in South Sudan. Gathering high-quality scholarship from diverse researchers, and examining a constellation of critical international law issues affecting developing countries, especially African countries, the book offers a unique resource.
Presently, many of the greatest debates and controversies in international criminal law concern modes of liability for international crimes. The state of the law is unclear, to the detriment of accountability for major crimes and of the uniformity of international criminal law. The present book aims at clarifying the state of the law and provides a thorough analysis of the jurisprudence of international courts and tribunals, as well as of the debates and the questions these debates have left open. Renowned international criminal law scholars analyze, in discrete chapters, the modes of liability one by one; for each mode they identify the main trends in the jurisprudence and the main points of controversy. An introduction addresses the cross-cutting issues, and a conclusion anticipates possible evolutions that we may see in the future. The research on which this book is based was undertaken with the Geneva Academy.
As international organisations gain greater power to monitor and manage the domestic affairs of their member states, the relationship between state sovereignty and international intervention becomes increasingly fraught. This book examines international rule-making in the Global South, tracing how the status of state sovereignty has evolved since decolonization. Coe argues that regional organizations flout the former norm of non-interference, becoming involved in the domestic affairs of their member states in Africa, Latin America, and (to a much lesser extent) Southeast Asia. In the name of democracy, human rights, and security, regional organizations increasingly assume jurisdiction over once off-limits domestic matters: they monitor elections and human rights and they respond to intrastate crises with mediation, fact-finding and sanctions. Coe explores the effects of democratization and economic crisis on regional institutions to explain the uneven development of 'intrusive regionalism' across the postcolonial world.
This book provides a concise account of the principles and norms of international law applicable to the main-type of international organisation - the inter-governmental organisation (IGO). That law consists of principles and rules found in the founding documents of IGOs along with applicable principles and rules of international law. The book also identifies and analyses the law produced by IGOs, applied by them and, occasionally, enforced by them. There is a concentration upon the United Nations, as the paradigmatic IGO, not only upon the UN organisation headquartered in New York, but on other IGOs in the UN system (the specialised agencies such as the World Health Organisation). -- .
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 185 is devoted to the International Court of Justice's 2017 Order on Provisional Measures in Application of the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism and of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Ukraine v. Russian Federation), 2019 judgment of the Norwegian Supreme Court in SIA North Star Ltd v. Public Prosecution Authority and the 2018 judgment of the United States Supreme Court in Animal Science Products Inc v. Hebei Welcome Pharmaceutical Co Ltd.
This book outlines the protection standards typically contained in international investment agreements as they are actually applied and interpreted by investment tribunals. It thus provides a basis for analysis, criticism, and stocktaking of the existing system of investment arbitration. It covers all main protection standards, such as expropriation, fair and equitable treatment, full protection and security, the non-discrimination standards of national treatment and MFN, the prohibition of unreasonable and discriminatory measures, umbrella clauses and transfer guarantees. These standards are covered in separate chapters providing an overview of textual variations, explaining the origin of the standards and analysing the main conceptual issues as developed by investment tribunals. Relevant cases with quotations that illustrate how tribunals have relied upon the standards are presented in depth. An extensive bibliography guides the reader to more specific aspects of each investment standard permitting the book's use as a commentary of the main investment protection standards.
Indonesia is the world's third largest democracy and its courts are an important part of its democratic system of governance. Since the transition from authoritarian rule in 1998, a range of new specialised courts have been established from the Commercial Courts to the Constitutional Court and the Fisheries Court. In addition, constitutional and legal changes have affirmed the principle of judicial independence and accountability. The growth of Indonesia's economy means that the courts are facing greater demands to resolve an increasing number of disputes. This volume offers an analysis of the politics of court reform through a review of judicial change and legal culture in Indonesia. A key concern is whether the reforms that have taken place have addressed the issues of the decline in professionalism and increase in corruption. This volume will be a vital resource for scholars of law, political science, law and development, and law and society.
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