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Between Fragmentation and Democracy explores the phenomenon of the fragmentation of international law and global governance following the proliferation of international institutions with overlapping jurisdictions and ambiguous boundaries. The authors argue that this problem has the potential to sabotage the evolution of a more democratic and egalitarian system and identify the structural reasons for the failure of global institutions to protect the interests of politically weaker constituencies. This book offers a comprehensive understanding of how new global sources of democratic deficits increasingly deprive individuals and collectives of the capacity to protect their interests and shape their opportunities. It also considers the role of the courts in mitigating the effects of globalization and the struggle to define and redefine institutions and entitlements. This book is an important resource for scholars of international law and international politics, as well as for public lawyers, political scientists, and those interested in judicial reform.
The combination of the words 'international law' and 'crisis' is intriguing and leads to a number of questions. How does international law react to crises and what are the typical conditions under which the term 'crisis' is invoked? Is international law a vivid field of law due to and thanks to crises? Are parts of international law maybe in crisis themselves? To what extent has the focus on crises taken away attention from important legal questions in the day-to-day application of international law? And does the focus on crisis undermine analytic progress amongst scholars, who might think about crises as being something completely new, asking for new answers while ignoring the relevance of the existing 'international law acquis'? This volume includes eight articles, in the domains of human rights law, migration law, environmental law, international criminal law, WTO law and European law, reflecting upon these pertinent questions, basically asking: do international lawyers do the things right or do they the right things? The Netherlands Yearbook of International Law (NYIL) was first published in 1970. It offers a forum for the publication of scholarly articles of a more general nature in the area of public international law including the law of the European Union.
In the interwar years, international lawyer James Brown Scott wrote a series of works on the history of his discipline. He made the case that the foundation of modern international law rested not, as most assumed, with the seventeenth-century Dutch thinker Hugo Grotius, but with sixteenth-century Spanish theologian Francisco de Vitoria. Far from being an antiquarian assertion, the Spanish origin narrative placed the inception of international law in the context of the discovery of America, rather than in the European wars of religion. The recognition of equal rights to the American natives by Vitoria was the pedigree on which Scott built a progressive international law, responsive to the rise of the United States as the leading global power and developments in international organization such as the creation of the League of Nations. This book describes the Spanish origin project in context, relying on Scott's biography, changes in the self-understanding of the international legal profession, as well as on larger social and political trends in US and global history. Keeping in mind Vitoria's persisting role as a key figure in the canon of international legal history, the book sheds light on the contingency of shared assumptions about the discipline and their unspoken implications. The legacy of the international law Scott developed for the American century is still with the profession today, in the shape of the normalization and de-politicization of rights language and of key concepts like equality and rule of law.
This invaluable book, for the first time, brings together the international and European Union legal framework on cultural property law and the restitution of cultural property. Drawing on the author's extensive experience of international disputes, it provides a very comprehensive and useful commentary. Theories of cultural nationalism and cultural internationalism and their founding principles are explored. Irini Stamatoudi also draws on soft law sources, ethics, morality, public feeling and the role of international organisations to create a complete picture of the principles and trends emerging today. This book will be highly useful to academics, postgraduate students, practitioners and policy makers in the field of cultural heritage or cultural property law. It will also be of great interest to those researching in the areas of museum studies or cultural diplomacy.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 184 is devoted to the 2018 judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in Ireland v. United Kingdom (Request for Revision of Judgment of 18 January 1978), the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in Al Nashiri v. Poland (concerning the United States' Central Intelligence Agency rendition programme) and the judgment of the Court of Appeal of Northern Ireland in Re Application by Finucane for Judicial Review (concerning the enforceability under domestic law of the procedural obligation under Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights).
The Netherlands Yearbook of International Law (NYIL) was first published in 1970. It offers a forum for the publication of scholarly articles of a more general nature in the area of public international law including the law of the European Union. With this volume on 'Legal Equality and the International Rule of Law', the Netherlands Yearbook of International Law celebrates Pieter Kooijmans' academic, diplomatic, and judicial career by picking up on an important subject in his early writings, the principle of legal equality of states. This volume studies if and how the principle of legal equality of states is still important in the international legal order of the early 21st century. In particular, this volume examines the principle's current relevance, e.g., in a pluralistic legal order, its relation to hegemony in international relations and international law, and how it functions in contemporary international organisations. The principle is further explored in the fields of international criminal law, international humanitarian law, and the international law of sovereign immunity.
Justice among Nations tells the story of the rise of international law and how it has been formulated, debated, contested, and put into practice from ancient times to the present. Stephen Neff avoids technical jargon as he surveys doctrines from natural law to feminism, and practices from the Warring States of China to the international criminal courts of today. Ancient China produced the first rudimentary set of doctrines. But the cornerstone of later international law was laid by the Romans, in the form of natural law--a universal law that was superior to early laws and governments. As medieval European states came into contact with non-Christian peoples, from East Asia to the New World, practical solutions had to be devised to the many legal quandaries that arose. In the wake of these experiences, international legal doctrine began to assume its modern form in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. New challenges in the nineteenth century encompassed the advance of nationalism, the rise of free trade and European imperialism, the formation of international organizations, and the arbitration of disputes. Innovative doctrines included liberalism, the nationality school, and solidarism. The twentieth century witnessed the formation of the League of Nations and a World Court, but also the rise of socialist and fascist states and the advent of the Cold War. Yet the collapse of the Soviet Union brought little respite. As Neff makes clear, further threats to the rule of law today come from environmental pressures, genocide, and terrorism.
Under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law (now the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition). And Institutum Iurisprudentiae, Academia Sinica, a group of twenty scholars from around the world gathered to study the experiences made with regards to compulsory licensing. The results are demonstrated in this book. Different articles analyze how the international conventions on intellectual property may be interpreted and explore the related doctrinal groundwork surrounding compulsory patent licensing and beyond. It is shown how the compulsory licensing regime could be transformed into a truly workable mechanism facilitating the speedy use and dissemination of innovation and other subject matters of protection.
This work is a translation of de Raynevals 1803 classic The Institutions of Natural Law and the Law of Nations. Having been translated into Spanish shortly after its appearance, The Institutions was the reference point of international law for much of the French- and Spanish-speaking world during the Nineteenth Century. As a result, arguably, it is the single most important text of international law to appear between the 1814 Congress of Vienna and the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. This, the first ever English translation of de Raynevals The Institutions, provides the English-language world with the last text conceived of, and written, during the era of bilaterial, European, Law of Nations; before the waltz into the Concert of Europe and the growth of multilateral diplomacy, with its end point todays United Nations. De Rayneval is a product of the Ancien Regime who turned to writing The Institutions after having been purged from the Quai dOrsay by the French Revolution. It may be said that in brokering the 1782 Peace of Paris which saw the United Kingdom recognise the United States of America, that Rayneval ended the war which his brother started; as it was Conrad-Alexandre de Rayneval who was the architect of the previous French policy of supporting, and later recognising, the American insurgence of the Thirteen Colonies. Through his faithful translation and introductory essay, Jean Allain makes this classic work accessible to the new audience of the English-language World.
This book takes the reader on a sweeping tour of the international legal field to reveal some of the patterns of difference, dominance, and disruption that belie international law's claim to universality. Pulling back the curtain on the "divisible college of international lawyers", Anthea Roberts shows how international lawyers in different states, regions, and geopolitical groupings are often subject to distinct incoming influences and outgoing spheres of influence in ways that reflect and reinforce differences in how they understand and approach international law. These divisions manifest themselves in contemporary controversies, such as debates about Crimea and the South China Sea. Not all approaches to international law are created equal, however. Using case studies and visual representations, the author demonstrates how actors and materials from some states and groups have come to dominate certain transnational flows and forums in ways that make them disproportionately influential in constructing the "international". This point holds true for Western actors, materials, and approaches in general, and for Anglo-American (and sometimes French) ones in particular. However, these patterns are set for disruption. As the world moves past an era of Western dominance and toward greater multipolarity, it is imperative for international lawyers to understand the perspectives and approaches of those coming from diverse backgrounds. By taking readers on a comparative tour of different international law academies and textbooks, the author encourages them to see the world through the eyes of others - an essential skill in this fast changing world of shifting power dynamics and rising nationalism.
Paul F. Diehl and Charlotte Ku's new framework for international law divides it into operating and normative systems. The authors provide a theory of how these two systems interact, which explains how changes in one system precipitate changes and create capacity in the other. A punctuated equilibrium theory of system evolution, drawn from studies of biology and public policy studies, provides the basis for delineating the conditions for change and helps explain a pattern of international legal change that is often infrequent and sub-optimal, but still influential.
Since 2007 the world has lurched from one crisis to the next. The rise of new powers, the collapse of our global financial system, the proliferation of nuclear weapons and crisis in the Eurozone have led to a build up of risks that is likely to provoke a more general crisis in our system of global governance if it cannot be made fairer, more effective and accountable. In this book, nine leading scholars explore the fault lines and mounting challenges that are putting pressure on existing institutions, the ways in which we are currently attempting to manage them or failing to and the prospects for global governance in the 21st century. In doing so, the contributors offer a fresh look at one of the most important issues confronting the world today and they suggest strategies for adapting current institutions to better manage our mutual interdependence in the future. Contributors include Ha-Joon Chang, Benjamin Cohen, Michael Cox, David Held, George Magnus, Robert Skidelsky, Robert Wade, Martin Wolf and Kevin Young.
The structure of the book makes it easy to analyse and compare the rules cross-border. This is relevant due to the close historical and cultural relationship of the five countries and due to decades of practical cooperation in criminal matters between the countries. The trend to extend domestic jurisdiction is also seen outside the Nordic countries, which makes the book relevant both for readers within and outside the Nordic countries.
International arbitration has developed into a global system of adjudication, dealing with disputes arising from a variety of legal relationships: between states, between private commercial actors, and between private and public entities. It operates to a large extent according to its own rules and dynamics - a transnational justice system rather independent of domestic and international law. In response to its growing importance and use by disputing parties, international arbitration has become increasingly institutionalized, professionalized, and judicialized. At the same time, it has gained significance beyond specific disputes and indeed contributes to the shaping of law. Arbitrators have therefore become not only adjudicators, but transnational lawmakers. This has raised concerns over the legitimacy of international arbitration. Practising Virtue looks at international arbitration from the 'inside', with an emphasis on its transnational character. Instead of concentrating on the national and international law governing international arbitration, it focuses on those who practise international arbitration, in order to understand how it actually works, what its sources of authority are, and what demands of legitimacy it must meet. Putting those who practise arbitration into the centre of the system of international arbitration allows us to appreciate the way in which they contribute to the development of the law they apply. This book invites eminent arbitrators to reflect on the actual practice of international arbitration, and its contribution to the transnational justice system.
It is a settled rule of international law that a State may not rely on the provisions of its 'internal law' as justification for failing to comply with international obligations. However, the judiciaries of most countries, including those with a high record of compliance with international norms, have increasingly felt the need to preserve the area of fundamental principles, where the State's inclination to retain full sovereignty seems to act as an unbreakable 'counter-limit' to the limitations deriving from international law. This volume explores this trend by adopting a comparative perspective, addressing the question of how conflicts between international law and national fundamental principles are dealt with and resolved within a specific legal system. The contributing authors identify common tendencies and fundamental differences in the approaches and evaluate the implications of this practice for the future of the principle of supremacy of international law.
This innovative Research Handbook brings together leading international law scholars from around the world to discuss and highlight the contemporary debate regarding issues of conflict prevention and the legality of resorting to the use of armed force through to those arising during an armed conflict and in the phase between conflict and peace. The Handbook covers key conceptual topics drawn from across the three areas of jus ad bellum, jus in bello and jus post bellum. The subject matter of the included chapters range from conflict prevention through to reparation and compensation, via coverage of issues such as disarmament, the role of the Security Council, self-defence, humanitarian intervention and the responsibility to protect, targets, war crimes, private military contractors, peacekeeping, and the protection of human rights. Being the first to examine topics under these areas in one volume, the book will be of interest to scholars, academics, postgraduate and research students as well as government lawyers from various disciplinary backgrounds looking for a contemporary grounding in issues under the broad theme of international conflict and security law.
There is a wealth of material that shapes the law of State responsibility for breaches of investment contracts. First impressions of an unsettled or uncertain law have thus far gone unchallenged. But unchallenged first impressions point to the need for a detailed study that investigates and analyses the sources, the content, the characteristics, and the evolution of this law. The argument at the heart of this monograph is that the law of state responsibility for breaches of investment contracts has carved a unique and distinct trajectory from the traditional route for the creation of international law, developing principally from arbitral awards, and mimicking, to a considerable extent, the general international law on the protection of aliens and alien property. This book unveils the remarkable journey of the law of state responsibility for breaches of investment contracts, from its origins, to its formation, to its arrival at the cusp of maturity.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Volume 159 reports on, amongst others, the 2014 Judgment (Just Satisfaction) of the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights in Cyprus v. Turkey, the 2013 Order on Request for Provisional Measures of International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea in The Arctic Sunrise (Netherlands v. Russian Federation) and the 2014 English Court of Appeal decision in Belhaj v. Straw.
In its first twenty years, the WTO dispute settlement system generated over 350 decisions totalling more than 60,000 pages. These decisions contain many statements by WTO adjudicators regarding the law of treaties, state responsibility, international dispute settlement, and other topics of general public international law. This book is a collection of nearly one thousand statements by WTO adjudicators relating to admissibility and jurisdiction; attribution of conduct to a State; breach of an obligation; conflicts between treaties; countermeasures; due process; evidence before international tribunals; good faith; judicial economy; municipal law; non-retroactivity; reasonableness; sources of international law; sovereignty; treaty interpretation; and words and phrases commonly used in treaties and other international legal instruments. This comprehensive digest presents summaries and extracts organized systematically under issue-specific sub-headings, making this jurisprudence easily accessible to students and practitioners working in any field of international law.
Globalization is an extraordinary phenomenon affecting virtually everything in our lives. And it is imperative that we understand the operation of economic power in a globalized world if we are to address the most challenging issues our world is facing today, from climate change to world hunger and poverty. This revolutionary work rethinks globalization as a power system feeding from, and in competition with, the state system. Cutting across disciplines of law, politics and economics, it explores how multinational enterprises morphed into world political organisations with global reach and power, but without the corresponding responsibilities. In illuminating how the concentration of property rights within corporations has led to the rejection of democracy as an ineffective system of government and to the rise in inequality, Robe offers a clear pathway to a fairer and more sustainable power system.
Global climate change is a topic of continuously growing interest. As more international treaties come into force, media coverage has increased and many universities are now starting to conduct courses specifically on climate change laws and policies. This textbook provides a survey of the international law on climate change, explaining how significant international agreements have sought to promote compliance with general norms of international law. Benoit Mayer provides an account of the rules agreed upon through lengthy negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and multiple other forums on mitigation, geoengineering, adaptation, loss and damage, and international support. The International Law on Climate Change is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students studying climate, environmental or international law. It is supported by a suite of online resources, available at www.internationalclimatelaw.com, featuring regularly updated lists of complementary materials, weblinks and regular updates for each chapter.
Traditionally the issues concerning the exercise of administrative powers by public authorities were considered a type of national enclave. It was the responsibility of the state to ensure that adequate procedural safeguards were in place to prevent the government from interfering with the rights of its citizens. During the last few decades, however, a variety of sets of rules regarding procedural due process has developed to govern the conduct of those public authorities who operate on a regional or world regulatory footing, such as the European Union and the World Trade Organization. Analysing the procedural due process requirements applicable to administrative procedure beyond the borders of the States, this volume demonstrates how regional and global regulatory regimes impose requirements that are strikingly similar to those set out by the most developed legal systems of the world. The book argues that such requirements of administrative procedure are justified not only by the traditional concerns for the protection of individual interests against the misuse of power by public authorities, but also by other values, such as good governance and cooperation between public authorities. Finally, the book conceptualizes such rules as legal requirements which arbitral tribunals and other agencies should respect when interpreting standards of justice.
International law's role in governing disasters is undergoing a formative period in its development and reach, in parallel with concerted efforts by the international community to respond more effectively to the increasing number and intensity of disasters across the world. This Research Handbook examines a broad range of legal regimes directly and indirectly relevant to disaster prevention, mitigation and reconstruction across a spectrum of natural and manmade disasters, including armed conflict. The editors take a broad, encompassing approach to the concept of disaster, concluding that a new corpus of international disaster law may be emerging. Key contributions interweave a number of important themes from an international law perspective across a wide range of discrete topics as diverse as water, food and energy security, dispute settlement, protection of vulnerable groups, cyber terrorism, international criminal law, climate change migration and international economics and trade law. This comprehensive study makes an important contribution to international law scholarship governing disasters, which in the past has largely focused on disaster response and relief law. The different perspectives incorporated in this Research Handbook are likely to appeal not only to students and academics, but equally to governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental actors drawn across the crisis, conflict and disaster management sectors.
Constitutionalism has become a byword for legitimate government, but is it fated to lose its relevance as constitutional states relinquish power to international institutions? This book evaluates the extent to which constitutionalism, as an empirical idea and normative ideal, can be adapted to institutions beyond the state by surveying the sophisticated legal and political system of the European Union. Having originated in a series of agreements between states, the EU has acquired important constitutional features like judicial review, protections for individual rights, and a hierarchy of norms. Nonetheless, it confounds traditional models of constitutional rule to the extent that its claim to authority rests on the promise of economic prosperity and technocratic competence rather than on the democratic will of citizens. Critically appraising the European Union and its legal system, this book proposes the idea of 'functional constitutionalism' to describe this distinctive configuration of public power. Although the EU is the most advanced instance of functional constitutionalism to date, understanding this pragmatic mode of constitutional authority is essential for assessing contemporary international economic governance.
We are in a moment where peoples and states are interested, directly or indirectly, in asserting their "national interest," unilaterally if necessary. In the White House, the national security policy is premised on "America First," while Catalans and Iraqi Kurds have taken steps to unilaterally declare their independence. All of these actions have generated tension both domestically and internationally. However, even though the potential for unilateral action has been receiving a lot of attention, the larger issue of the legality of unilateral acts is often hard to discern. This book provides a history of the doctrine of unilateral acts in international law, tracing their treatment in the international sphere from consent based acts, to obligations erga omnes, to acts of estoppel. Through chapter-by-chapter case studies, this book traces the "legalization" of the category of unilateral acts from its 19th Century foundations into a broad category of obligation. To understand why and how this occurred, this book examines the history of the legal doctrine of unilateral acts, which shows that in spite of efforts to progressively make unilateral acts "legal" they are still not precisely defined or easy to apply, challenging the very commitment these acts are meant to establish.
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