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The Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law is a landmark reference work, providing definitive and comprehensive coverage of this dynamic field. Each volume probes the key elements of law, the essential concepts, and the latest research through concise, structured entries written by international experts. Each entry includes an extensive bibliography as a starting point for further reading. The mix of authoritative commentary and insightful discussion will make this an essential tool for research and teaching, as well as a valuable resource for professionals and policymakers. The unprecedented degradation of the planet's vital ecosystems and species, and the consequent damage to the variability of life on Earth, are one of the most pressing issues confronting the international community. The purpose of this volume of the Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law is to provide a critical assessment of international biodiversity law in the face of the failed attempts to reduce the global trend in irreversible biodiversity loss and the need to increase efforts, including through indirect drivers of change such as institutions, governance and legal frameworks. The volume assesses comprehensively how and to what extent international law has addressed the key concerns presently facing biodiversity conservation, made recourse to conventional and market-based approaches to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, tackled cross-cutting issues, and considered direct as well as indirect changes in socio-economic conditions. In doing so, the volume examines the historical development, principles, themes and cross cutting issues of international biodiversity law. Each article, written by an invited expert in that field, contains an overview of the topic, provides a concise review of current knowledge, identifies new directions for cutting-edge research and offers an extensive bibliography. This major research-focused resource and its in-depth exploration of the field of biodiversity law is an essential reference for university students, teachers, researchers, practitioners and policy makers.
This edited volume examines the role of international law in a changing global order. Can we, under the current significantly changing conditions, still observe an increasing juridification of international relations based on a universal understanding of values? Or are we, to the contrary, facing a tendency towards an informalization or a reformalization of international law, or even an erosion of international legal norms? Would it be appropriate to revisit classical elements of international law in order to react to structural changes, which may give rise to a more polycentric or non-polar world order? Or are we simply observing a slump in the development towards an international rule of law based on a universal understanding of values? In eleven chapters, distinguished scholars reflect on how to approach these questions from historical, system-oriented and actor-centered perspectives. The contributions engage with the rise of European international law since the 17th century, the decay of the international rule of law, compliance as an indicator for the state of international law, international law and informal law-making in times of populism, the rule of environmental law and complex problems, human rights in Europe in a hostile environment, the influence of the BRICS states on international law, the impact of non-state actors on international law, international law's contribution to global justice, the contestation of value-based norms and the international rule of law in light of legitimacy claims.
This book examines how international law prohibits state and individual complicity. Complicity is a derivative form of responsibility that links an accomplice to the wrongdoing of a principal actor. Whenever a legal system prohibits complicity, it must address certain questions as to the content and structure of the rules. To understand how international law answers these questions, this book proposes an analytical framework in which complicity rules may be assessed and defends a normative claim as to how they should be structured. Anchored by this framework and normative claim, this book shows that international criminal law regulates individual complicity in a comprehensive way, using the doctrines of instigation and aiding and abetting to inculpate complicit participants in international crimes. By contrast, international law's regulation of state complicity was historically marked by an absence of complicity rules. This is changing. In respect of state complicity in the wrongdoing of another state, international law now imposes both specific and general complicity obligations, the latter prohibiting states from aiding or assisting another state in the commission of any internationally wrongful act. In respect of the ways that states participate in harms caused by non-state actors, the traditional normative structure of international law, which imposed obligations only on states, foreclosed the possibility of prohibiting the state's participation as a form of complicity. As that traditional normative structure has evolved, so the possibility of holding states responsible for complicity in the wrongdoing of non-state actors has emerged. More and more, both the wrongs that international actors commit, and the wrongs they help or encourage others to commit, matter.
Each year the European Court of Justice delivers over a thousand decisions on the basis of EU law that affect the Member States as well as the lives of their citizens. Most of these decisions are the result of requests for a preliminary ruling sent by national courts and tribunals seeking an interpretation of EU law. While this procedure is seen as central to the transformation of Europe, significant ambiguity remains on why it is used, and who is primarily responsible for its success. The current book examines the practice of the preliminary reference procedure. By approaching it from the perspective of those who participate in it, the study takes on prevalent assumptions about the how and why of national court cases that reach the European Court of Justice through a request for a preliminary ruling. This empirical research will appeal to scholars engaged in the relationship between law and European integration as well as practitioners and litigants interested in the practice of the preliminary reference procedure.
This book represents a unique endeavor to elucidate the story of Kosovo's unilateral quest for statehood. It is an inquiry into the international legal aspects and processes that shaped and surrounded the creation of the state of Kosovo. Being created outside the post-colonial context, Kosovo offers a unique yet controversial example of state emergence both in the theory and practice of creation of states. Accordingly, the book investigates the legal pathways, strategies, developments and policy positions of international agencies/actors and regional players (in particular the EU) that helped Kosovo to establish its independence and gradually acquire statehood. Although contested, Kosovo, and its quest for statehood, represents a unique example of successful unilateral secession. The book therefore explores and analyses patterns of state formation and nation-building in Kosovo, and its transition to democracy. It presents a three-level assessment. First, seen from a historical perspective, the book examines the validity of the right of Kosovar-Albanians to self-determination and remedial secession. Second, from a legal positivist perspective, it scrutinizes all of the legalist arguments that support Kosovo's right to statehood, and claims that both traditional and legality-based criteria for statehood remain insufficient to determine whether Kosovo has achieved statehood. Third, from a post-factum perspective, the book analyzes the scope and extent to which the internationally blended element was decisive in Kosovo's state-formation and state-building processes. It explains how the EU's involvement as an 'internationally blended element' in Kosovo's efforts to achieve statehood was instrumental and played a crucial role in shaping the emerging state. In particular, the book elaborates on how the EU was able to streamline its mode of intervention in the context of state-building and reform.
This book is one of the few comprehensive works focusing on the sub-regional institutions in the Latin American and Caribbean region. These organisations and institutions enrich the co-operation at sub-regional level, but, in most cases, are neglected in legal literature. They have mainly economic purposes but they also contribute to new forms of institutional co-operation in other areas, including financial, political and social matters. The volume addresses some of the most representative of these institutions, such as the Mercosur, the Andean Community and sub-regional financial organisations (e.g. Central American Bank for Economic Integration and Andean Development Corporation) as well as new developments including the UNASUR and the Alliance for the Pacific. It provides updated information on the structure and changes of the institutions, and constitutes a valuable resource for those wishing to keep pace with legal developments in the fast-moving world of international institutional law. The book will appeal to a wide audience including researchers and practitioners specialising in international law and international organisations and related disciplines. Marco Odello, JD (Rome), LLM (Nottingham), PhD (Madrid) is a Reader in Law at Aberystwyth University, Wales, UK. Francesco Seatzu, JD (Cagliari), PhD (Nottingham) is Professor of International and European Law at the University of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Volume 156 reports on, amongst others, the 2012 Provisional Measures Order of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea in The ARA Libertad (Argentina v. Ghana) together with the 2013 judgment of the Supreme Court of Ghana on the immunity of warships, the 2013 judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in Vinter and Others v. United Kingdom, and the 2011 and 2012 judgments of the English High Court in Mutua and Others v. Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Volume 157 reports on, amongst others, the International Court of Justice Legality of Use of Force cases, the December 2013 Final Award and Decision on the Request for Clarification of the Court of Arbitration in the Indus Waters Kishenganga Arbitration, and the Translation of the German Decision of the Federal Prosecutor General to Terminate Proceedings in the Aerial Drone Deployment case.
In the past ten years, Europe has faced challenges that are unprecedented in its contemporary history. The economic and financial crisis revealed the weaknesses in the functioning of the Eurozone, notably the European Union's macro-economic structure. The neo-liberal measures intended to remedy it have caused, however, fierce reactions on both poles of the political spectrum. The reduction of Member States' sovereignty in fiscal and economic policy gave rise to right wing populism and Euro-skeptic political forces. Resisting the politics of austerity, the social movements across Europe have resorted occasionally to extra-institutional mechanisms and channels. Violence has indeed become Europe's new normal, but not only due to the rise of radical left-wing and, even more so, right-wing social movements. Hit by a series of terrorist attacks, European polities have descended into a latent (and in moments real) "state of nature." Eleven contributions to this volume are all concerned with the different facets of the European crisis and the possibilities of overcoming it. They address themselves to the philosophers, political scientists, and legal scholars interested in the European Union studies. (Series: Democracy and the Rule of Law, Vol. 7) [Subject: Constitutional Law, Politics, Human Rights Law]
This volume brings together articles on international development law from the Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, the definitive reference work on international law. It provides an invaluable resource for scholars, students, and practitioners of international development law, giving an accessible, thorough overview of all aspects of the field. Each article contains cross-references to related articles, and includes a carefully selected bibliography of the most important writings and primary materials as a guide to further reading. The Encyclopedia can be used by a wide range of readers. Experienced scholars and practitioners will find a wealth of information on areas that they do not already know well as well as in-depth treatments on every aspect of their specialist topics. Articles can also be set as readings for students on taught courses.
This book analyses how the European Union should react to the threats and challenges it faces today. Europe's external problems concern first of all the geopolitical threats at its external borders, such as the Russia/Ukraine crisis, the ongoing conflicts in the Middle East, the anti-democratic developments in Turkey and the unrest in Northern Africa; and secondly the challenges of refugee flows, terrorism, climate change and the changing relationship with the United States. Internally, the Union has to deal with the aftereffects of the economic crisis, the impact of migration on national societies, the rise of populism and `Brexit'. These threats and challenges can only be countered effectively through concerted action by the Member States. However, EU cooperation is essentially a voluntary process, while the abovementioned problems are politically highly sensitive issues. Moreover, for every step forward in the integration process consensus is required between all Member States. Yet such a consensus becomes more and more difficult to attain, due to the growing number of Member States and their increased heterogeneity. The author therefore presents several concrete proposals for more flexible and differentiated EU integration, such as new models of enhanced cooperation, the establishment of an EU Security Council, and the simplification of the ordinary treaty amendment procedure.
With the resurgence of Asian nations such as China, current West-centric international law is changing in the twenty-first century. There is a pressing need to address these changes within international legal studies and overcome potential conflicts between existing and emerging powers. This structural transformation also demands a change in understanding of existing ideas and institutions. This book explores a 'trans-civilizational' approach to international law, supplementing and modifying two other prevalent perspectives: international and transnational. By considering these three layered viewpoints, this book highlights the complex phenomena surrounding the history and development of international law. The author also considers how international law operates and functions within diverse forums such as diplomatic negotiation, international organizations, and domestic political processes. This book will appeal to international law scholars and students, as well as those interested in the rise of non-Western powers and its impact on the prevalent ideas and institutions of the world.
Policing is commonly thought to be governed by domestic legal systems and not international law. However, various international legal standards are shown to have an impact in situations where police use force. Police Use of Force under International Law explores this tension in detail for the first time. It critically reviews the use of force by law enforcement agencies in a range of scenarios: against detainees, during protests, and in the context of counterterrorism and counterpiracy operations. Key trends, such as the growing use of private security services, are also considered. This book provides a human rights framework for police weaponry and protection of at-risk groups based on critical jurisprudence from the last twenty years. With pertinent case law and case studies to illustrate the key principles of the use of force, this book is essential reading for anyone interested in policing, human rights, state use of force or criminology.
Scholars have long argued that transparency makes international rule violations more visible and improves outcomes. Secrets in Global Governance revises this claim to show how equipping international organizations (IOs) with secrecy can be a critical tool for eliciting sensitive information and increasing cooperation. States are often deterred from disclosing information about violations of international rules by concerns of revealing commercially sensitive economic information or the sources and methods used to collect intelligence. IOs equipped with effective confidentiality systems can analyze and act on sensitive information while preventing its wide release. Carnegie and Carson use statistical analyses of new data, elite interviews, and archival research to test this argument in domains across international relations, including nuclear proliferation, international trade, justice for war crimes, and foreign direct investment. Secrets in Global Governance brings a groundbreaking new perspective to the literature of international relations.
For over a century states have co-operated in providing evidence for use in civil trials in other countries. The growth of international crimes such as drug-trafficking, money-laundering, terrorism, and insider-trading now pose a substantial threat to the economies and stability of states, and governments and international organizations have been quick to expand past experience into a variety of responses - both diplomatic and institutional - to the new international crimes. This book sets out the law applicable to co-operation between states in these areas, and investigates the relevant practice and case law. It discusses both the civil and criminal dimensions of international co-operation. The new edition incorporates the vast number of developments that have taken place since the previous edition published in 2002, including the European Union's resolve to build an area of freedom, security, and justice, and the recent major update of the Commonwealth Scheme.
During the early to mid-twentieth century, the Zionist Organization secured a series of political victories on the international stage, leading to the foundation of a Jewish state and to its ability to expand its territorial control within Palestine. The International Diplomacy of Israel's Founders provides a revisionist account of the founding of Israel by exposing the misrepresentations and false assurances of Zionist diplomats during this formative period of Israeli history. By comparing diplomatic statements at the United Nations and elsewhere against the historical record, it sheds new light on the legacies of such leaders as Chaim Weizmann, David Ben Gurion, Abba Eban, and Shabtai Rosenne. Including coverage of little-discussed moments in early Israeli history, this book offers an important new perspective for anyone interested in the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Why do political actors willingly give up sovereignty to another state, or choose to resist, sometimes to the point of violence? Jesse Dillon Savage demonstrates the role that domestic politics plays in the formation of international hierarchies, and shows that when there are high levels of rent-seeking and political competition within the subordinate state, elites within this state become more prepared to accept hierarchy. In such an environment, members of society at large are also more likely to support the surrender of sovereignty. Empirically rich, the book adopts a comparative historical approach with an emphasis on Russian attempts to establish hierarchy in post-Soviet space, particularly in Georgia and Ukraine. This emphasis on post-Soviet hierarchy is complemented by a cross-national statistical study of hierarchy in the post WWII era, and three historical case studies examining European informal empire in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
This forty-sixth volume of annotated leading case law of international criminal tribunals contains decisions taken by Special Court for Sierra Leone 1 January 2008 - 18 March 2009. It provides the reader with the full text of the most important decisions, identical to the original version and including concurring, separate and dissenting opinions. Distinguished experts in the field of international criminal law have commented the decisions. An index is included.
The conspicuous absence of private international law from the current global governance debate may be traced in part to its traditional 'public law taboo', fed by liberal understandings of statehood and its characteristic public/private divide, in the context of the modern schism between the public and private branches of international law. Alongside an original introduction, the materials assembled in this important collection are of immediate interest to both public and private international lawyers, and more broadly to all those interested in new forms of global governance and the theory of law beyond the state.
This forty-third volume of annotated leading case law of international criminal tribunals contains decisions taken by the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia between 2007 and 2010. It provides the reader with the full text of the most important decisions, identical to the original version and including concurring, separate and dissenting opinions. Distinguished experts in the field of international criminal law have commented the decisions.
In Justice in the EU: The Emergence of Transnational Solidarity, Floris de Witte argues that European Union law can be understood as an instrument for the elaboration of what justice is, means, and requires on the level beyond the nation state. Approaching the question of justice from the European perspective, however, challenges us to think beyond the contractarian idea that equates justice with national political self-determination. A proper model of justice demands a tiered institutional and normative understanding of justice, involving both the nation state and the EU, which can make sense of the new ties between individual citizens that the process of European integration continues to generate. It also requires that we construct a theory of transnational solidarity that can explain what those new ties tell us about our transnational obligations of justice. This book tackles three issues in turn. It explains which precise institutional and normative structures are indispensable in the pursuit of justice; how the European Union can be understood to increase our capacity for the attainment of justice; and formulates a theory of transnational solidarity that informs the interaction between national and European spheres. Three different types of transnational solidarity are identified and carefully traced throughout the case law of the Court of Justice: market solidarity, communitarian solidarity, and aspirational solidarity. Read together, these three transnational solidarities tell us exactly what justice means in the EU.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Volume 161 reports on, amongst others, the 2014 Opinion 2/13 of the Court of Justice of the European Union concerning the Accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights, the 2008 Order and 2011 Judgment of the International Court of Justice in the Application of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v. Russian Federation) and related cases before the European Court of Human Rights, and the 2014 judgment of European Court of Human Rights in Hassan v. United Kingdom.
The spread of violent extremism, 9/11, the rise of ISIL and movement of 'foreign terrorist fighters' are dramatically expanding the powers of the UN Security Council to govern risky cross-border flows and threats by non-state actors. New security measures and data infrastructures are being built that threaten to erode human rights and transform the world order in far-reaching ways. The Law of the List is an interdisciplinary study of global security law in motion. It follows the ISIL and Al-Qaida sanctions list, created by the UN Security Council to counter global terrorism, to different sites around the world mapping its effects as an assemblage. Drawing on interviews with Council officials, diplomats, security experts, judges, secret diplomatic cables and the author's experiences as a lawyer representing listed people, The Law of the List shows how governing through the list is reconfiguring global security, international law and the powers of international organisations.
The majority of European early modern empires - the Spanish, French, Dutch and English/British - are best characterised as developing practices of jurisdictional accumulation. These practices are distinguished by the three categories of extensions, transports, and transplants of authority, and this book is mostly concerned with various diplomatic and colonial agents which enabled the transports and transplants of their sovereign's authority. Through historical analyses of ambassadors and consuls in the Mediterranean based on primary and secondary material, and on the empires' Atlantic imperial expansions and conquests, the book makes two major analytical contributions. It firstly develops jurisdictional accumulation as a conceptual innovation, based, secondly, on an interdisciplinary mix of methodological angles. These intertwined contributions enable us to go beyond common binaries in both conventional and critical histories of international relations and international law through the use of a Political Marxist framework and its concept of social property relations.
Littoz-Monnet provides a fresh analysis of the enmeshment of expert knowledge with politics in global governance, through a unique investigation of bioethical expertise, an intriguing form of 'expert knowledge' which claims authority in the ethical analysis of issues that arise in relation to biomedicine, the life sciences and new fields of technological innovation. She makes the case that the mobilisation of ethics experts does not always arise from a motivation to rationalise governance. Instead, mobilising ethics experts - who are endowed with a unique double-edged authority, both 'democratic' and 'epistemic' - can help policy-makers manoeuvre policy conflicts on scientific and technological innovations and make their pro-science and innovation agendas possible. Bioethical expertise is indeed shaped in a political and iterative space between experts and those who do policy. The book reveals the mechanisms through which certain global governance narratives, as well as the types of expertise they rely on, remain stable even when they are contested.
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