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In their contributions, the authors connect general philosophical reasoning about the foundational role of human dignity for human rights with more concrete demands as to how to deal with basic human needs and to end poverty. These legal and political arguments are based on recent rulings of regional courts and international human rights bodies. They discuss obligations that result from human rights and ask which institutions or corporations are responsible for their realisation.
Controversy over Iranian nuclear policy has been mounting in both legal and political circles since the early 2000s. Most recently, the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA), tasked with verifying compliance of Member States with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, has been expressing concern that Iran's nuclear efforts are directed not solely toward peaceful uses, but also for military purposes. In response, various States have tried, individually and collectively, to engage Iran in agreed frameworks of action that would include an Iranian self-imposed restraint regarding its nuclear development. This volume documents the Iranian nuclear issue, tracing the evolution of international interest and concern with Iran's nuclear policy since the 1970s, when Iran began earnest efforts to acquire nuclear capabilities. Emphasis is nonetheless placed on events since 2002-2003, when it was established that Iran had concealed certain aspects of its nuclear activities from the IAEA. Alongside reports of the IAEA and Security Council documents, the volume covers diverse sources rather than relying solely on UN organs and agencies, international organizations, or dedicated ad hoc bodies.
This volume brings together both academic and institutional perspectives to examine the production, use and contestation of indicators in global governance. It provides a unique and comprehensive guide to the latest research in the study of indicators and their use in global governance and policy making. The editors provide a guide to the recent vast body of literature and practice on measuring governance and measurement as governance at the global level, and present a state-of-the-art analysis of social science research on indicators at both the transnational and the global level. The Handbook brings together scholars from a variety of disciplines and perspectives, as well as policy-makers from international organisations and non-government organisations working in the field. This volume will be a valuable resource for students and academics in the fields of public policy, administration and management, international relations, political science, law, and globalisation, as well as policy makers and practitioners.
This book provides a comprehensive and updated legal analysis of the equality principle in EU law. To this end, it argues for a broad definition of the principle, which includes not only its inter-individual dimension, but also the equality of the Member States before the EU Treaties. The book presents a collection of high-quality academic and expert contributions, which, in light of the most recent developments in implementing the post-Lisbon legal framework, reflect the current interpretation of the equality principle, examining its performance in practice with a view to suggesting possible solutions in order to overcome recurring problems. To this end the volume is divided into three Parts, the first of which addresses a peculiar aspect of the EU equality that is mostly overlooked in the investigations devoted to this topic, namely, equality among States. Part II shifts to the inter-individual dimension of equality and explores some major developments contributing to (re)shaping the global framework of EU anti-discrimination law, while Part III undertakes a more practical investigation devoted to the substantive strands of that area of EU law.
In the past ten years, Europe has faced challenges that are unprecedented in its contemporary history. The economic and financial crisis revealed the weaknesses in the functioning of the Eurozone, notably the European Union's macro-economic structure. The neo-liberal measures intended to remedy it have caused, however, fierce reactions on both poles of the political spectrum. The reduction of Member States' sovereignty in fiscal and economic policy gave rise to right wing populism and Euro-skeptic political forces. Resisting the politics of austerity, the social movements across Europe have resorted occasionally to extra-institutional mechanisms and channels. Violence has indeed become Europe's new normal, but not only due to the rise of radical left-wing and, even more so, right-wing social movements. Hit by a series of terrorist attacks, European polities have descended into a latent (and in moments real) "state of nature." Eleven contributions to this volume are all concerned with the different facets of the European crisis and the possibilities of overcoming it. They address themselves to the philosophers, political scientists, and legal scholars interested in the European Union studies. (Series: Democracy and the Rule of Law, Vol. 7) [Subject: Constitutional Law, Politics, Human Rights Law]
Is the EU isolated within the emergent multipolar world? Concentrating on interregional relations and focussing on the European Union's (EU) evolving international role with regards to regional cooperation, this innovative book collects a set of fresh empirical analyses of interregional ties binding the EU with its Eastern and Southern neighbourhood, as well as with Asia, Africa and the Americas. The 25 leading authors from 5 continents have contributed original and diverse chapters and the book advances a novel theoretical 'post-revisionist' approach beyond both the Eurocentrism of 'Europe First' perspectives as well as the Euroscepticism of those advocating to simply move 'Beyond Europe'. After a Foreword by A. Acharya, the book's five sections reflect the main drivers of EU interregional policies: The European Union as a Sophisticated Laboratory of Regional and Interregional Cooperation (with chapters by M. Telo, L. Fawcett and T. Risse), De Facto Drivers of Regionalism (F. Ponjaert, M. Shu, A. Valladao and C. Jakobeit), De Jure Drivers of Regionalism (S. Lavenex, G. Finizio, C. Jakobeit, R. Coman, C. Cocq & S. Teo L-Shah), Cognitive Drivers of Regionalism (J. Ruland, E. Fitriani, S. Stavridis & S. Kingah, P. Bacon), and Instrumental Drivers of Regionalism (B. Delcourt, C. Olsson & G. Muller, A. Malamud & P. Seabra and L. Fioramonti & J. Kostopoulos).
This book investigates the strengths and weaknesses - in terms of transparency and compliance with the democratic principle - of Bretton Woods Institutions, considering the most important innovations from the original framework achieved through the introduction of independent accountability and complaint mechanisms (the Inspection Panel and Independent Evaluation Office), but also due to relevant reforms in the internal governance of the International Monetary Fund and the new financial assistance tools. One of its main focuses is on evaluating the socio-economic impact of conditionality in the countries requiring financial assistance, acknowledging the need to strengthen social protection policies in the adjustment programs. In addition, emphasis is given to the effects of the "constitutionalization" of the Washington Consensus in the European Union, with the establishment of the so-called "Berlin-Brussels-Frankfurt Consensus."
Die Europaische Union hebt sich durch ausdifferenzierte Rechtsetzungsmechanismen und Handlungsformen vom klassischen, durch zwischenstaatliche Vertrage gepragten Voelkerrecht ab. Angesichts dessen erstaunt es, dass zwischen den einzelnen Mitgliedstaaten nach wie vor ein dichtes Netz voelkerrechtlicher Vertrage besteht. Eine Auswertung der Vertragspraxis zeigt, dass die Abkommen passgenau auf gleichzeitig geltendes einschlagiges Unionsrecht abgestimmt sind. Sie konkurrieren in aller Regel nicht mit ihm, sondern sind Bestandteil eines ebenenubergreifenden Rechts des Europaischen Verbunds. Soweit mit der Rechtserzeugung ausserhalb der Unionsorgane Gefahren fur die Einheit des Unionsrechts und die Inklusivitat unionaler Rechtsetzung verbunden sind, begegnet ihnen das Europaische Verfassungsrecht mit den bewahrten Instrumenten der Kompetenzordnung, des Loyalitatsgebots und des Vorrangs.
Addressing a pressing issue in space policy, Pelton explores the new forms of technology that are being developed to actively remove the defunct space objects from orbit and analyzes their implications in the existing regime of international space law and public international law. This authoritative review covers the due diligence guidelines that nations are using to minimize the generation of new debris, mandates to de-orbit satellites at end of life, and innovative endeavours to remove non-functional satellites, upper stage rockets and other large debris from orbit under new institutional, financial and regulatory guidelines. Commercial space services currently exceed 100 billion USD business per annum, but the alarming proliferation in the population of orbital debris in low, medium and geosynchronous satellite orbits poses a serious threat to all kinds of space assets and applications. There is a graver concern that the existing space debris will begin to collide in a cascading manner, generating further debris, which is known as the Kessler Syndrome. Scientific analysis has indicated an urgent need to perform space debris remediation through active removal of debris and on-orbit satellite servicing.
Complete International Law combines a wide range of case extracts
with incisive author commentary to clearly demonstrate legal
principles and the significance of case law.
Two major factors brought about the establishment of the Netherlands Yearbook of International Law in 1970: demand for the publication of national practice in international law, and the desirability for legal practitioners, state representatives and international lawyers to have access to the growing amount of available data, in the form of articles, notes etc. The Documentation section contains an extensive review of Dutch state practice from the parliamentary year prior to publication, an account of developments relating to treaties and other international agreements to which the Netherlands is a party, summaries of Netherlands judicial decisions involving questions of public international law (many not published elsewhere), lists of Dutch publications in the field and extracts from relevant municipal legislation. Although the NYIL has a distinctive national character it is published in English, and the editors do not adhere to any geographical limitations when deciding upon the inclusion of articles.
A World of Struggle reveals the role of expert knowledge in our political and economic life. As politicians, citizens, and experts engage one another on a technocratic terrain of irresolvable argument and uncertain knowledge, a world of astonishing inequality and injustice is born. In this provocative book, David Kennedy draws on his experience working with international lawyers, human rights advocates, policy professionals, economic development specialists, military lawyers, and humanitarian strategists to provide a unique insider's perspective on the complexities of global governance. He describes the conflicts, unexamined assumptions, and assertions of power and entitlement that lie at the center of expert rule. Kennedy explores the history of intellectual innovation by which experts developed a sophisticated legal vocabulary for global management strangely detached from its distributive consequences. At the center of expert rule is struggle: myriad everyday disputes in which expertise drifts free of its moorings in analytic rigor and observable fact. He proposes tools to model and contest expert work and concludes with an in-depth examination of modern law in warfare as an example of sophisticated expertise in action. Charting a major new direction in global governance at a moment when the international order is ready for change, this critically important book explains how we can harness expert knowledge to remake an unjust world.
From pirates to smugglers, migrants to hackers, from stolen fish to smuggled drugs, the sea is becoming a place of increasing importance on the global agenda as criminals use it as a theatre to conduct their crimes unfettered. This volume sets out to provide an introduction to the key issues of pertinence in Maritime Security today. It demonstrates why the sea is a space of great strategic importance, and how threats to security at sea have a real impact for people around the world. It examines an array of challenges and threats to security playing out at sea, including illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, irregular migration, piracy, smuggling of illicit goods, and cyber security, while also looking at some of the mechanism and role-players involved in addressing these perils. Each chapter provides an overview of the issue it discusses and provides a brief case study to illustrate how this issue is playing out in real-life. This book thus allows readers an insight into this evolving multidisciplinary field of study. As such, it makes for an informative read for academics and practitioners alike, as well as policymakers and students, offering a well-rounded introduction of the main issues in current Maritime Security.
This book comprehensively examines the different proposals put forward for reforming the UN Security Council by analysing their objectives and exploring whether the implementation of these proposals would actually create a representative and more effective Security Council. The book places the discussion on reform of Security Council membership in the context of the council s primary responsibility, which is at the helm of the UN collective security system. The author contends that only a Council that is adequately representative of the UN membership can claim to legitimately act on the members behalf. This book offers an inquiry into the Council s constitutional framework and how far that framework still reflects the expectations and intentions of the founding nations, whilst remaining flexible enough to satisfy today s, and possibly tomorrow s, membership. Through the use of policy-oriented jurisprudence and elements of the International Law/International Relations theory this book explores how reform can best be realised."
Reforming the UN Security Council Membership" will be of particular interest to scholars and students of International Law and International Relations."
This book examines the responsibility of States and international organizations for complicity (aid or assistance) in an internationally wrongful act. Despite the recognition of responsibility for complicity as a rule of customary international law by the International Court of Justice, this book argues that the effectiveness and utility of this form of responsibility is fraught with systemic and operational limits. These limits include a lack of clarity in its constituent elements, its co-existence with primary rules prohibiting complicity and the obligations of due diligence, its implementation and the underlying causal tests, its uncertain relationship to other forms of shared and indirect responsibility, and its potential as a form of attribution of conduct. This book submits that the content and elements of this form of responsibility need adjustments to respond more effectively to the phenomenon of complicity in international affairs. Awarded The Paul Guggenheim Prize in International Law 2017!
Unrelenting demands for energy, infrastructure and natural resources, and the need for developing states to augment income and signal an 'enterprise-ready' attitude mean that transnational development projects remain a common tool for economic development. Yet little is known about the fragmented legal framework of private financial mechanisms, contractual clauses and discretionary behaviours that shape modern development projects. How do gaps and biases in formal laws cope with the might of concessionaires and financiers and their algorithmic contractual and policy technicalities negotiated in private offices? What impacts do private legal devices have for the visibility and implementation of Indigenous peoples' rights to land? This original perspective on transnational development projects explains how the patterns of poor rights recognition and implementation, power(lessness), vulnerability and, ultimately, conflict routinely seen in development projects will only be fully appreciated by acknowledging and remedying the pivotal role and priority enjoyed by private mechanisms, documentation and expertise.
Well-selected and authoritative, Palgrave Core Statutes provide the key materials needed by students in a format that is clear, compact and very easy to use. They are ideal for use in exams.
This new book systematically examines the current process for distressed Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs), and proposes a different, more appropriate, 'modular' approach to the treatment of such entities when faced with insolvency proceedings. MSMEs play a vital role in virtually all global economies. They are a primary means by which entrepreneurs bring new business propositions to the market, and deliver a range of products and services to local economies. MSMEs tend to be more reliant on favourable legal and regulatory climates to survive and thrive than larger businesses, and insolvency regimes are often more tailored to these larger businesses, assuming an extensive insolvency estate of significant worth, and the presence of creditors and other concerned stakeholders to participate in and oversee the process. These assumptions and features are generally incongruous with the reality of MSMEs, for whom assets are of less value and whose stakeholders are generally more disinterested. The modular approach proposed in this book addresses the imbalances, inconsistencies, and lack of supervision which is often apparent in treatment of insolvent MSMEs. It provides an overview of existing approaches to MSME insolvency, the place of MSMEs in the global economy, and the particular needs of MSMEs in financial distress. It then sets out the procedural framework, policy objectives, and key components of the modular approach, detailing how a choice of modules enables national policy-makers a more flexible process for resolution. It then outlines the roles, positions, and obligations of key stakeholder groups, and explains the managerial, administrative, and judicial functions of this approach. Finally, it explains how elements of the broader legal system should be aligned with, and supportive of, the optimal functioning of the modular approach.
This edited collection fills a significant gap in the literature by gathering contributions from the most prominent academics and practitioners of aid and procurement. It explores the economic, political and legal relationship between procurement and aid effectiveness in developing countries, and takes stock of current debates in the field. More specifically, the contributions analyse the failures and successes of current initiatives to foster effectiveness and streamline the aid procurement process, and address current themes emerging in the literature related to development, procurement and aid success. A pivotal and timely publication, Public Procurement and Aid Effectiveness will be of interest to a varied and multicultural international audience and a wide range of actors working on aid effectiveness, development, procurement and good governance initiatives in both donor and beneficiary countries.
Of the many challenges that society faces today, possibly none is more acute than the security of ordinary citizens when faced with a variety of natural or man-made disasters arising from climate and geological catastrophes, including the depletion of natural resources, environmental degradation, food shortages, terrorism, breaches of personal security and human security, or even the global economic crisis. States continue to be faced with a range of security issues arising from contested territorial spaces, military and maritime security and security threats relating to energy, infrastructure and the delivery of essential services. The theme of the book encompasses issues of human, political, military, socio-economic, environmental and energy security and raises two main questions. To what extent can international law address the types of natural and man-made security risks and challenges that threaten our livelihood, or very existence, in the twenty-first century? Where does international law fall short in meeting the problems that arise in different situations of insecurity and how should such shortcomings be addressed?
Hard and soft law developed by international and regional organizations, transgovernmental networks, and international courts increasingly shape rules, procedures, and practices governing criminalization, policing, prosecution, and punishment. This dynamic calls into question traditional approaches that study criminal justice from a predominantly national perspective, or that dichotomize the study of international from national criminal law. Building on socio-legal theories of transnational legal ordering, this book develops a new approach for studying the interaction between international and domestic criminal law and practice. Distinguished scholars from different disciplines apply this approach in ten case studies of transnational legal ordering that address transnational crimes such as money laundering, corruption, and human trafficking, international crimes such as mass atrocities, and human rights abuses in law enforcement. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of the changing transnational nature of criminal justice policymaking and practice in today's globalized world.
Advance Praise for Indian Mujahideen: Computational Analysis and Public Policy This book presents a highly innovative computational approach to analyzing the strategic behavior of terrorist groups and formulating counter-terrorism policies. It would be very useful for international security analysts and policymakers. Uzi Arad, National Security Advisor to the Prime Minister of Israel and Head, Israel National Security Council (2009-2011) An important book on a complex security problem. Issues have been analysed in depth based on quality research. Insightful and well-balanced in describing the way forward. Naresh Chandra, Indian Ambassador to the USA (1996-2001) and Cabinet Secretary (1990-1992). An objective and clinical account of the origins, aims, extra-territorial links and modus-operandi, of a growingly dangerous terrorist organization that challenges the federal, democratic, secular and pluralistic ethos of India s polity. The authors have meticulously researched and analysed the multi-faceted challenges that the Indian Mujahideen poses and realistically dwelt on the ways in which these challenges could be faced and overcome. G. Parthasarathy, High Commissioner of India to Australia (1995-1998) and Pakistan (1998-2000). This book provides the first in-depth look at how advanced mathematics and modern computing technology can influence insights on analysis and policies directed at the Indian Mujahideen (IM) terrorist group. The book also summarizes how the IM group is committed to the destabilization of India by leveraging links with other terror groups such as Lashkar-e-Taiba, and through support from the Pakistani Government and Pakistan s intelligence service.
Foreword by The Hon. Louis J. Freeh."
This book attempts to systematise the present interrelationship between fundamental rights and the EU internal market in the field of positive integration. Its intention is simple: to examine the way in which, and the extent to which, fundamental rights protection is realised through EU internal market legislation. To that end, the analysis is conducted around four rights or sets of rights: data protection, freedom of expression, fundamental labour rights and the right to health. The book assesses not only what substantive level of protection is achieved for these fundamental rights, but it also estimates whether there is a 'fundamental rights culture' that informs current legislative practice. Finally, it asks the overarching question whether the current state of harmonisation amounts to a 'fundamental rights policy'. The book offers a much more varied picture of the EU's fundamental rights policy in and through the EU internal market than perhaps initially expected. Moreover, it builds the case for a more conscious approach to dealing with and enhancing fundamental rights protection in and through internal market legislation, and advocates a leading role for the legislature in the establishment of an internal market that is firmly based on respect for fundamental rights.
Experts are increasingly relied on in decision-making processes at international and European levels. Their involvement in those processes, however, is contested. This timely book on the role of 'experts' provides a broad-gauged analysis of the issues raised by their involvement in decision-making processes. The chapters explore three main recurring themes: the rationales for involving experts and ensuing legitimacy problems; the individual and collective dimensions of expert involvement in decision making; and experts and politics and the politics of expertise. With contributions from leading scholars and practitioners, they theorize the experts' involvement in general and address their role in the policy areas of environment, trade, human rights, migration, financial regulation, and agencification in the European Union.
The question of what constitutes norms for global justice is of considerable concern for all those interested in world peace and cooperation. In order to define these global norms, Jean-Marc Coicaud, while working at the United Nations University, initiated a project centered around conversations with leading theorists and policy practitioners in global affairs. Conversations on Justice from National, International, and Global Perspectives features world-class authors and activists, from around the world, and from a variety of disciplines, to discuss the central questions of justice at the national, international, and global levels. Made up of a compilation of dialogues, this volume's unique format makes it highly accessible and even fun to read. The insights and observations of these leading intellectuals and scholars provide a rich contribution to theories on how global justice might become a reality.
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