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The end of the Cold War and subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in a new unipolar international system that presented fresh challenges to international relations theory. Since the Enlightenment, scholars have speculated that patterns of cooperation and conflict might be systematically related to the manner in which power is distributed among states. Most of what we know about this relationship, however, is based on European experiences between the seventeenth and twentieth centuries, when five or more powerful states dominated international relations, and the latter twentieth century, when two superpowers did so. Building on a highly successful special issue of the leading journal World Politics, this book seeks to determine whether what we think we know about power and patterns of state behaviour applies to the current 'unipolar' setting and, if not, how core theoretical propositions about interstate interactions need to be revised.
This book addresses the environmental, legal, social, and economic aspects of corporate social responsibility in the maritime industry. It discusses the voluntary aspects of the CSR concept and how the lines between informal and formal rules are merging and becoming fuzzy. Further, it shows how regulation is enhancing responsibility and sustainability in the maritime industry.The book gathers the experiences of the WMU, IMO, UN and public and private actors in developing and developed countries in the maritime industry.
With the rising relevance of international organizations in international affairs, and the general turn to litigation to settle disputes, international institutional law issues have increasingly become the subject of litigation, before both international and domestic courts. The judicial treatment of this field of international law is addressed in Judicial Decisions on the Law of International Organizations through commentary on excerpts of the most prominent international and domestic judicial decisions that are relevant to the law of international organizations, providing in-depth analysis of judicial decisions. The commentaries written and edited by leading experts in the field of international institutional law, they are opinionated and critically engage with the decision in question, with commentators' and stakeholders' reactions thereto, and with later decisions, codifications, and reports.
Governments across the globe have begun evolving from lumbering bureaucracies into smaller, more agile special jurisdictions - common-interest developments, special economic zones, and proprietary cites. Private providers increasingly deliver services that political authorities formerly monopolized, inspiring greater competition and efficiency, to the satisfaction of citizens-qua-consumers. These trends suggest that new networks of special jurisdictions will soon surpass nation states in the same way that networked computers replaced mainframes. In this groundbreaking work, Tom W. Bell describes the quiet revolution transforming governments from the bottom up, inside-out, worldwide, and how it will fulfill its potential to bring more freedom, peace, and prosperity to people everywhere.
This book discusses megatrends and subsequently applies them to the air transport industry from a legal, ethical and economic perspective. Starting with a detailed discussion on what these megatrends are, the book provides an essential overview of megatrends and air transport, including analytical discussions on how megatrends could affect basic issues such as nationalism and sovereignty, market access in air transport, and commercial space transport. It also delves into the rights of the airline passenger as affected by megatrends. Further, the book analyses a broad range of topics, including: the digital transformation of air transport; technology and air transport; robotic pilots and their legal ramifications; the human-robot interface and the law with focus on the pilot; cognitive computing; and issues of empowerment and connectivity. It discusses in detail United Nations initiatives and initiatives of the International Civil Aviation Organization, considering aspects such as: the new world order; e-trends and air transport; apps that make air travel easier; and apps designed to help the aviation authorities. Further topics include artificial intelligence and air transport and related technical, ethical and economic issues, as well as a legal inquiry into manufacturer's defects; design defects; and liability for failure to warn of defects. Questions are posed and answers provided on the effects of artificial intelligence and legal issues stemming from its use in air transport. Two major discussions follow on millennials and air transport, and on the Internet of everything as related to air transport. The conclusion ties in megatrends with air transport and offers the industry a way forward for adapting to these trends.
The rule of law is sometimes expressed as 'no person is above the law'. A more comprehensive description of the concept has been elusive for generations of scholars, lawyers and judges. What does the phrase mean? More specifically, what does the rule of law mean in the context of 21st century issues and challenges? Professor Robert A Stein and Justice Richard J Goldstone are the distinguished editors and authors of The Rule of Law in the 21st Century. Joining Stein and Goldstone is an array of internationally distinguished leaders of the legal profession (including US Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Paul Volcker, former Chairman of the Federal Reserve) from North America, Europe, Africa and Asia to explore the meaning of the rule of law today in a variety of circumstances. The book opens with chapters covering the basic concepts of the rule of law, independence of the judiciary and whether there is such a concept as an international rule of law. The book examines the concept of the rule of law from a variety of perspectives. Does the rule of law promote or impede economic development? How can we meet the major threat to the rule of law in the form of corruption? What is the relationship between the Great Charter, Magna Carta and the rule of law today? How can the rule of law be of assistance when addressing the challenge of inequality of women in society? It also includes chapters describing law reform programmes that have strengthened the rule of law around the world in recent decades. The rule of law is humankind's best hope for freedom and justice. The Rule of Law in the 21st Century gives a better understanding of this important concept in the world today.
This ground-breaking collection of essays outlines and explains the unique development of Latin American jurisprudence. It introduces the idea of the Ius Constitutionale Commune en America Latina (ICCAL), an original Latin American path of transformative constitutionalism, to an Anglophone audience for the first time. It charts the key developments that have transformed the region and assesses the success of the constitutional projects that followed a period of authoritarian regimes in Latin America. Coined by scholars who have been documenting, conceptualizing, and comparing the development of Latin American public law for more than a decade, the term ICCAL encompasses themes that cross national borders and legal fields, taking in constitutional law, administrative law, general public international law, regional integration law, human rights, and investment law. Not only does this volume map the legal landscape, it also suggests measures to improve society via due legal process and a rights-based, supranational and regionally rooted constitutionalism. The editors contend that with the strengthening of democracy, the rule of law, and human rights, common problems such as the exclusion of wide sectors of the population from having a say in government, as well as corruption, hyper-presidentialism, and the weak normativity of the law can be combatted more effectively in future.
Virtually every important question of public policy today involves an international organization. From trade to intellectual property to health policy and beyond, governments interact with international organizations in almost everything they do. Increasingly, individual citizens are directly affected by the work of international organizations. Aimed at academics, students, practitioners, and lawyers, this book gives a comprehensive overview of the world of international organizations today. It emphasizes both the practical aspects of their organization and operation, and the conceptual issues that arise at the junctures between nation-states and international authority, and between law and politics. While the focus is on inter-governmental organizations, the book also encompasses non-governmental organizations and public policy networks. With essays by the leading scholars and practitioners, the book first considers the main international organizations and the kinds of problems they address. This includes chapters on the organizations that relate to trade, humanitarian aid, peace operations, and more, as well as chapters on the history of international organizations. The book then looks at the constituent parts and internal functioning of international organizations. This addresses the internal management of the organization, and includes chapters on the distribution of decision-making power within the organizations, the structure of their assemblies, the role of Secretaries-General and other heads, budgets and finance, and other elements of complex bureaucracies at the international level. This book is essential reading for scholars, practitioners, and students alike.
This book is a collaborative effort of 22 authors, striving to provide a multi-discursive analysis of the structural challenges to rule of law at the beginning of the twenty-first century. It proposes critical assessment of the adjustment of rule of law to the shifts and changes in the socio-legal context and in the institutional design on all levels of socio-legal relations - national, international and supranational - as well as in many spheres of the social life. Rule of Law at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century puts forward a discussion on the capability of rule of law to cope with globalization, information revolution, financial capitalism, migration, social and political (dis)integration, terrorism, transnational corporate criminality, multilevel and supranational governance and constitutional pluralism. The book commences with deliberation on the conceptual, theoretical and normative features of rule of law. The aim is to advance discussion on the relationship between rule of law and other constitutional principles such as sovereignty, democracy, welfare state, subsidiarity and solidarity. Special emphasis is put on the role of the courts as well as on the investment arbitration for promotion or hindering of rule of law. Rule of law infringements are analyzed in comparative legal and socio-legal perspective in the light of the democratic backsliding hypothesis. Last but not least, the impact of migration on democracy, welfare state, solidarity and security as basic preconditions for well-established constitutional order based on rule of law is thoroughly researched.
This new edition provides a definitive, comprehensive and systematic analysis of the law governing the EU's action in the world. Updated to take into account the Lisbon Treaty and recent case law, the book covers all constitutional aspects of the EU's international action and the procedures for treaty-making. It analyses the relationship between the EU and its Members with emphasis on mixed agreements, and the status of international law in the EU legal order. It explores the links between the EU and international organisations (such as the WTO) and examines the EU's external economic and political relations and its various links with third countries, including its neighbours. It analyses, amongst others, the Common Commercial Policy, sanctions, the Common Foreign and Security Policy, and the Common Security and Defence Policy. This new edition is the most up-to-date work of its kind, examining both the law and practice in a wide range of external policies, placing the law in its political and economic context and exploring the links between the EU's external and internal actions.
This book provides a theoretical framework for explaining the choices made by international decision-makers in terms of what constitutes law. It comprehensively analyzes the practice of human rights courts in applying legal instruments outside their competence and proposes that this practice recognizes that different normative instruments coexist in an un-ordered space, and that meaning can be produced by the free interaction of those instruments around a problem. Based on this, the book advances its normative plurality hypothesis, which states that decision-makers must survey the acquis of international law in order to identify all the instruments containing relevant normative information for a particular situation. The set of rules of law applicable to the situation must then be complemented with other instruments containing specific normative information relevant to the situation, resulting in a complete system of norms advancing a common purpose.
The importance of the law of international organizations is continually increasing. This textbook, first published in German, explains and analyses not only the structures of international organizations in general, but also focuses on the interplay between the creation of institutional structures and important substantive areas of public international law. Thus, in the first and second parts of the book the general aspects of the law of international organizations are surveyed, whereas in the third part international security, human rights protection, trade, development and environmental protection are analyzed in terms of the interplay between substantive and institutional law. This third part is built on the assumption that the law of international organizations needs to be studied in action, i.e. by looking at highly institutionalized areas of international law as a way of analyzing the mutual influences between institutional and substantive international law. In fact all important parts of international law are today institutionalized in different international organizations, a phenomenon which is reflected in the title.Up to now, there has been no other book on international law which brings together institutional and substantive aspects in a comparable manner. This text book is aimed at students of the law of international organizations but also to students in the social sciences, above all, political science. It will also be useful to practitioners in the field of international institutions.
This book provides the first detailed history of the Constitution's treaty supremacy rule. It describes a process of invisible constitutional change. The treaty supremacy rule was a bedrock principle of constitutional law for more than 150 years. It provided that treaties are supreme over state law and that courts have a constitutional duty to apply treaties that conflict with state laws. The rule ensured that state governments did not violate U.S. treaty obligations without authorization from the federal political branches. In 1945, the United States ratified the UN Charter, which obligates nations to promote human rights for all without distinction as to race. In 1950, a California court applied the Charters human rights provisions along with the traditional supremacy rule to invalidate a state law that discriminated against Japanese nationals. The implications were shocking: the decision implied that the United States had abrogated Jim Crow laws throughout the South by ratifying the UN Charter. Conservatives reacted by lobbying for a constitutional amendment, known as the Bricker Amendment, to abolish the treaty supremacy rule. The amendment never passed, but Bricker's supporters achieved their goals through de facto constitutional change. Before 1945, the treaty supremacy rule was a mandatory constitutional rule that applied to all treaties. The de facto Bricker Amendment converted the rule into an optional rule that applies only to self-executing treaties. Under the modern rule, state governments are allowed to violate national treaty obligationsincluding international human rights obligationsthat are embodied in non-self-executing treaties.
This book provides an introduction to the legal system in Hong Kong. Understanding Hong Kong's legal system today requires both an understanding of the British origins of much of the laws and legal institutions as well as the uniquely Hong Kong developments in the application of the Basic Law under 'one country, two systems'. These features of the Hong Kong legal system are explored in this book, which takes into account developments in the two decades or so of the new legal framework in Hong Kong since the 1997 handover. In providing both an exposition of the legal institutions in Hong Kong and legal method under Hong Kong's legal system (including practical guidance and examples on case law, statutory interpretation and legal research), this book is ideal for first-year law students, students of other disciplines who study law and readers who have an interest in Hong Kong's unique legal system.
This book contains a collection of articles written mostly by Hungarian authors covering developments in the field of international law and EU law, as well as the progress in domestic implementation and application of these fields of law. The thematic chapter on the significance of EU values, authored, among others, by renowned international experts, gives an in-depth analysis of a current issue of international law or European law. It also contains numerous articles analyzing well-known Hungary-related cases and their assessment from the perspective of Hungarian legal experts. The book offers a comprehensive picture of the state of application and implementation of EU law and international law in Hungary.
In 2011, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1973, authorizing its member states to take measures to protect Libyan civilians from Muammar Gadhafi's forces. In invoking the "responsibility to protect," the resolution draws on the principle that sovereign states are responsible and accountable to the international community for the protection of their populations and specifies that the international community can act to protect populations when national authorities fail to do so. The idea that sovereignty includes the responsibility to protect is often seen as a departure from the classic definition, but it actually has deep historical roots. In Sovereignty and the Responsibility to Protect, Luke Glanville argues that this responsibility extends back to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and that states have since been accountable to God, the people, and the international community. Over time, the right to national self-governance came to take priority over the protection of individual liberties, but the noninterventionist understanding of sovereignty was only firmly established in the twentieth century, and it remained for only a few decades before it was challenged by renewed claims that sovereigns are responsible for protection. Glanville traces the relationship between sovereignty and responsibility from the early modern period to the present day, and offers a new history with profound implications for the present.
The Shared Responsibility in International Law series examines the underexplored problem of allocation of responsibilities among multiple states and other actors. The International Law Commission, in its work on state responsibility and the responsibility of international organisations, recognised that attribution of acts to one state or organisation does not exclude possible attribution of the same act to another state or organisation, but has provided limited guidance on allocation or reparation. From the new perspective of shared responsibility, this volume reviews the main principles of the law of international responsibility as laid down in the Articles on State Responsibility and the Articles on Responsibility of International Organizations, such as attribution of conduct, breach, circumstances precluding wrongfulness and reparation. It explores the potential and limitations of current international law in dealing with questions of shared responsibility in areas such as military operations and international environmental law.
This series contains summaries of judgments, advisory opinions and orders of a substantive nature issued by the International Court of Justice, the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. The present volume includes summaries of all the judgments, advisory opinions and orders issued by the Permanent Court of International Justice, the predecessor of the International Court of Justice. From 1922 to 1946, the Permanent Court dealt with 29 contentious cases and delivered 27 advisory opinions, thus participating in the settlement of numerous international disputes and contributing to the development of international law. The decisions summarized in the present volume have played and continue to play an important role in understanding the jurisprudence of the International Court of Justice.
Ideas in Conflict: International Law and the War on Terror describes the transformation of international law and sovereignty in the post-war world. It imparts the causes and consequences of the rise of non-State actors' importance in international law, with a focus on human rights and terrorism as two examples of this phenomenon. After World War II, international law transformed itself radically: human rights took a central role in the post-war world as the legitimator of States, and as a key objective of the international system as one of the steps to prevent another global war. State sovereignty likewise transformed from an absolute, indivisible, and ultimate power of States into relativized and transferable quanta of State power, which in turn were partially parceled upward to international organizations, downward to sub-State public law actors, and outward to private law actors. Terrorism is one of the latest challenges posed to the international system by non-State actors.
China sometimes plays a leadership role in addressing global challenges, but at other times it free rides or even spoils efforts at cooperation. When will rising powers like China help to build and maintain international regimes that sustain cooperation on important issues, and when will they play less constructive roles? This study argues that the strategic setting of a particular issue area has a strong influence on whether and how a rising power will contribute to global governance. Two strategic variables are especially important: the balance of outside options the rising power and established powers face, and whether contributions by the rising power are viewed as indispensable to regime success. Case studies of China's approach to security in Central Asia, nuclear proliferation, global financial governance, and climate change illustrate the logic of the theory, which has implications for contemporary issues such as China's growing role in development finance.
Since the Revolutionary War, America's military and political leaders have recognized that U.S. national security depends upon the collection of intelligence. Absent information about foreign threats, the thinking went, the country and its citizens stood in great peril. To address this, the Courts and Congress have historically given the President broad leeway to obtain foreign intelligence. But in order to find information about an individual in the United States, the executive branch had to demonstrate that the person was an agent of a foreign power. Today, that barrier no longer exists. The intelligence community now collects massive amounts of data and then looks for potential threats to the United States. As renowned national security law scholar Laura K. Donohue explains in The Future of Foreign Intelligence, the internet and new technologies such as biometric identification systems have not changed our lives in countless ways. But they have also led to a very worrying transformation. The amount and types of information that the government can obtain has radically expanded, and information that is being collected for foreign intelligence purposes is now being used for domestic criminal prosecution. Traditionally, the Courts have allowed exceptions to the Fourth Amendment rule barring illegal search and seizure on national security grounds. But the new ways in which we collect intelligence are swallowing the rule altogether. Just as alarming, the ever-weaker standards that mark foreign intelligence collection are now being used domestically-and the convergence between these realms threatens individual liberty. Donohue traces the evolution of foreign intelligence law and pairs that account with the progress of Fourth Amendment jurisprudence. She argues that the programmatic surveillance that the National Security Agency conducts amounts to a general warrant-the prevention of which was the point of introducing the Fourth Amendment. The expansion of foreign intelligence surveillance - leant momentum by significant advances in technology, the Global War on Terror, and the emphasis on securing the homeland - now threatens to consume protections essential to privacy, which is a necessary component of a healthy democracy. Donohue offers an agenda for reining in the national security state's expansive reach, primarily through Congressional statutory reform that will force the executive and judicial branches to take privacy seriously, even as it provides for the continued collection of intelligence central to U.S. national security. Both alarming and penetrating, this is essential reading for anyone interested in the future of foreign intelligence and privacy in the United States.
The book shows that self-help in commercial law is a fast, inexpensive and efficient alternative to court enforcement. Self-help remedies and private debt collection are largely but not exclusively features of common law jurisdictions, since remnants of private enforcement can still be found in contract law in civilian systems. The book argues that - despite their usefulness - self-help and private debt collection entail significant risks, especially for consumer debtors. This means that private enforcement needs to be accompanied by the introduction of tailor-made consumer-debtor protection regulation. Specific attention is given to factoring, which functions in many instances as a form of pseudo-private debt collection and which has been exploited to bypass sector-specific consumer protection regulations.
Established as one of the main sources for the study of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, this volume provides an article-by-article analysis of the Statute; the detailed analysis draws upon relevant case law from the Court itself, as well as from other international and national criminal tribunals, academic commentary, and related instruments such as the Elements of Crimes, the Rules of Procedure and Evidence, and the Relationship Agreement with the United Nations. Each of the 128 articles is accompanied by an overview of the drafting history as well as a bibliography of academic literature relevant to the provision. Written by a single author, the Commentary avoids duplication and inconsistency, providing a comprehensive presentation to assist those who must understand, interpret, and apply the complex provisions of the Rome Statute.This volume has been well-received in the academic community and has become a trusted reference for those who work at the Court, even judges. The fully updated second edition of The International Criminal Court incorporates new developments in the law, including discussions of recent judicial activity and the amendments to the Rome Statute adopted at the Kampala conference.
Observers of the USA's attitude towards international law seem to be perpetually taken aback by its actions, whether those relate to the use of force, the International Criminal Court or human rights. This book sets out to articulate the considerable degree of continuity in the nature of US engagement with international law. International Law, US Power explains that the USA has throughout its history pursued a quest for defensive and offensive legal security and that this was a key ingredient in the rise of the USA. Although skilful strategic involvement with international law was an ingredient in the USA 'winning' the Cold War, the rise of China and the growing negotiating strength of leading developing countries mean that the USA is likely to find it increasingly difficult to use the same set of techniques in the future.
Das Buch befasst sich mit der Fragestellung nach einer Konstitutionalisierung des Voelkerrechts und beleuchtet diese aus einer systemtheoretischen Sichtweise. Das Werk setzt sich zunachst intensiv mit der Systemtheorie von Niklas Luhmann auseinander und analysiert anschliessend sowohl vorherrschende Konstitutionalisierungs- als auch Fragmentierungstendenzen. Ausfuhrlich wird dabei auf den Ansatz des sog. Societal Constitutionalism eingegangen und die Hauptthese der Vertreter dieses Ansatzes kritisch gewurdigt. Schliesslich beleuchtet das Werk die Konstitutionalisierung des Voelkerrechts unter systemtheoretischen Gesichtspunkten und untersucht, inwieweit ein autonomes oder sogar autopoietisches Rechts- und Politiksystem auf internationaler Ebene existieren und ob diese beiden Systeme analog zur nationalstaatlichen Ebene durch eine Art strukturelle Kopplung verbunden sind. Im Kern bejaht das Werk ein Vorliegen einer strukturellen Kopplung und dadurch auch eine Konstitutionalisierung zumindest in einem abgeschwachten Mass.
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