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China sometimes plays a leadership role in addressing global challenges, but at other times it free rides or even spoils efforts at cooperation. When will rising powers like China help to build and maintain international regimes that sustain cooperation on important issues, and when will they play less constructive roles? This study argues that the strategic setting of a particular issue area has a strong influence on whether and how a rising power will contribute to global governance. Two strategic variables are especially important: the balance of outside options the rising power and established powers face, and whether contributions by the rising power are viewed as indispensable to regime success. Case studies of China's approach to security in Central Asia, nuclear proliferation, global financial governance, and climate change illustrate the logic of the theory, which has implications for contemporary issues such as China's growing role in development finance.
Since the Revolutionary War, America's military and political leaders have recognized that U.S. national security depends upon the collection of intelligence. Absent information about foreign threats, the thinking went, the country and its citizens stood in great peril. To address this, the Courts and Congress have historically given the President broad leeway to obtain foreign intelligence. But in order to find information about an individual in the United States, the executive branch had to demonstrate that the person was an agent of a foreign power. Today, that barrier no longer exists. The intelligence community now collects massive amounts of data and then looks for potential threats to the United States. As renowned national security law scholar Laura K. Donohue explains in The Future of Foreign Intelligence, the internet and new technologies such as biometric identification systems have not changed our lives in countless ways. But they have also led to a very worrying transformation. The amount and types of information that the government can obtain has radically expanded, and information that is being collected for foreign intelligence purposes is now being used for domestic criminal prosecution. Traditionally, the Courts have allowed exceptions to the Fourth Amendment rule barring illegal search and seizure on national security grounds. But the new ways in which we collect intelligence are swallowing the rule altogether. Just as alarming, the ever-weaker standards that mark foreign intelligence collection are now being used domestically-and the convergence between these realms threatens individual liberty. Donohue traces the evolution of foreign intelligence law and pairs that account with the progress of Fourth Amendment jurisprudence. She argues that the programmatic surveillance that the National Security Agency conducts amounts to a general warrant-the prevention of which was the point of introducing the Fourth Amendment. The expansion of foreign intelligence surveillance - leant momentum by significant advances in technology, the Global War on Terror, and the emphasis on securing the homeland - now threatens to consume protections essential to privacy, which is a necessary component of a healthy democracy. Donohue offers an agenda for reining in the national security state's expansive reach, primarily through Congressional statutory reform that will force the executive and judicial branches to take privacy seriously, even as it provides for the continued collection of intelligence central to U.S. national security. Both alarming and penetrating, this is essential reading for anyone interested in the future of foreign intelligence and privacy in the United States.
The book shows that self-help in commercial law is a fast, inexpensive and efficient alternative to court enforcement. Self-help remedies and private debt collection are largely but not exclusively features of common law jurisdictions, since remnants of private enforcement can still be found in contract law in civilian systems. The book argues that - despite their usefulness - self-help and private debt collection entail significant risks, especially for consumer debtors. This means that private enforcement needs to be accompanied by the introduction of tailor-made consumer-debtor protection regulation. Specific attention is given to factoring, which functions in many instances as a form of pseudo-private debt collection and which has been exploited to bypass sector-specific consumer protection regulations.
What would United States Supreme Court opinions look like if key decisions on gender issues were written with a feminist perspective? Feminist Judgments brings together a group of scholars and lawyers to rewrite, using feminist reasoning, the most significant US Supreme Court cases on gender from the 1800s to the present day. The twenty-five opinions in this volume demonstrate that judges with feminist viewpoints could have changed the course of the law. The rewritten decisions reveal that previously accepted judicial outcomes were not necessary or inevitable and demonstrate that feminist reasoning increases the judicial capacity for justice. Feminist Judgments opens a path for a long overdue discussion of the real impact of judicial diversity on the law as well as the influence of perspective on judging.
Established as one of the main sources for the study of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, this volume provides an article-by-article analysis of the Statute; the detailed analysis draws upon relevant case law from the Court itself, as well as from other international and national criminal tribunals, academic commentary, and related instruments such as the Elements of Crimes, the Rules of Procedure and Evidence, and the Relationship Agreement with the United Nations. Each of the 128 articles is accompanied by an overview of the drafting history as well as a bibliography of academic literature relevant to the provision. Written by a single author, the Commentary avoids duplication and inconsistency, providing a comprehensive presentation to assist those who must understand, interpret, and apply the complex provisions of the Rome Statute.This volume has been well-received in the academic community and has become a trusted reference for those who work at the Court, even judges. The fully updated second edition of The International Criminal Court incorporates new developments in the law, including discussions of recent judicial activity and the amendments to the Rome Statute adopted at the Kampala conference.
Observers of the USA's attitude towards international law seem to be perpetually taken aback by its actions, whether those relate to the use of force, the International Criminal Court or human rights. This book sets out to articulate the considerable degree of continuity in the nature of US engagement with international law. International Law, US Power explains that the USA has throughout its history pursued a quest for defensive and offensive legal security and that this was a key ingredient in the rise of the USA. Although skilful strategic involvement with international law was an ingredient in the USA 'winning' the Cold War, the rise of China and the growing negotiating strength of leading developing countries mean that the USA is likely to find it increasingly difficult to use the same set of techniques in the future.
Das Buch befasst sich mit der Fragestellung nach einer Konstitutionalisierung des Voelkerrechts und beleuchtet diese aus einer systemtheoretischen Sichtweise. Das Werk setzt sich zunachst intensiv mit der Systemtheorie von Niklas Luhmann auseinander und analysiert anschliessend sowohl vorherrschende Konstitutionalisierungs- als auch Fragmentierungstendenzen. Ausfuhrlich wird dabei auf den Ansatz des sog. Societal Constitutionalism eingegangen und die Hauptthese der Vertreter dieses Ansatzes kritisch gewurdigt. Schliesslich beleuchtet das Werk die Konstitutionalisierung des Voelkerrechts unter systemtheoretischen Gesichtspunkten und untersucht, inwieweit ein autonomes oder sogar autopoietisches Rechts- und Politiksystem auf internationaler Ebene existieren und ob diese beiden Systeme analog zur nationalstaatlichen Ebene durch eine Art strukturelle Kopplung verbunden sind. Im Kern bejaht das Werk ein Vorliegen einer strukturellen Kopplung und dadurch auch eine Konstitutionalisierung zumindest in einem abgeschwachten Mass.
Ballast water management is a complex subject with many issues and still limited knowledge, however, it is building up on new scientific researches and practical experience. The Ballast Water Management Convention is the global legal framework which still needs to be implemented. This book brings together a long-term and newest experience from practical work, scientific research, administration and policy involvements, offering unique insights to readers who would like to learn more about this subject. It also provides recommendations and practical solutions especially important for professionals, administrations and organizations in the process of the implementation of this Ballast Water Management Convention.
This book addresses the interactions between the domestic courts and the international investment arbitral tribunals, one of the most pressing issues confronting both domestic legal systems and the international legal system. It deals with the core issues inherent in the above interactions, especially with regard to countries outside the ICSID system. It contrasts this narrative with the position under classical international investment law, where national courts are assigned a very specific and minimalistic role in the process of investment disputes settlement. For this purpose, the book chooses India, which follows the non-ICSID model, as the major point of focus and considers both domestic judicial decisions and investment arbitral decisions for critical analysis. The ICSID Convention grants limited powers to domestic courts to issue provisional measures and to enforce ICSID awards. As the central theme of the book lies at the intersection of domestic law and international law, the work is indispensable for any scholar working in the areas of general international law, international investment law, international economic law, law and economics, international dispute settlement, or international law in domestic courts, as well as domestic judges and international arbitrators. Further, as the subject matter has great implications for both domestic and global governance, it will benefit civil servants, opinion leaders, policy planners and subject experts in economics, the political economy and regional studies, to name a few.
The volume discusses the legal interpretation and implementation of the three pillars of the Treaty of the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 1968, regarding the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons; the right to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes; and issues relating to nuclear disarmament. It examines the status of international law regarding nuclear capacity, considering competing legal approaches to the development of nuclear technology, non-proliferation, disarmament and regulating nuclear weapons within a contemporary international context.
This research collection offers a comprehensive view of the most notable contributions to the theory and philosophy of international law. In the first volume a number of philosophical inquiries have been selected, alongside contributions offering general theoretical insight into international law. The purpose is to identify general themes of discussion, such as the nature and functioning of international law, and to illustrate how philosophers and international law scholars tackle them in their respective fields of inquiry. In the second volume, the kaleidoscope of different contemporary theories and approaches to international law is presented. The collection is an indispensable reference for anyone interested in philosophical and theoretical investigations in international law.
This Handbook uses a thematic and interdisciplinary approach to discuss and analyse the various governance structures of the EU, focusing in particular on how these are administered. Key chapters, written by leading experts across the field, engage with important ongoing debates in the field of EU administrative law, focusing on areas of topical interest such as financial markets, the growing security state and problematic common asylum procedures. In doing so, they provide a summary of what we know, don't know and ought to know about EU administrative law. Examining the control functions of administrative law and the machinery for accountability, this Research Handbook eloquently challenges areas of authoritarian governance, such as the Eurozone and security state, where control and accountability are weak and tackles the seemingly insoluble question of citizen 'voice' and access to policy making. Practical and engaging, this timely Research Handbook is sure to appeal to scholars and researchers of EU administrative law and EU law more broadly. Legal practitioners and EU policy makers will also benefit from its high level of engagement with contemporary deliberations.
This Handbook explores the main themes and topics of the emerging field of Global Administrative Law with contributions by leading scholars and experts from universities and organizations around the world. The variety of the subjects addressed and the internationality of the Handbook's perspectives make for a truly global and multi-dimensional view of the field. The book first examines the growth of global administrations, their interactions within global networks, the emergence of a global administrative process, and the development of the rule of law and democratic principles at a global level. It goes on to illustrate the relationship between global law and other legal orders, with particular attention to regional systems and national orders. The final section, devoted to the emergence of a global legal culture, brings the book full circle by identifying the growth of a global epistemic community. The Research Handbook on Global Administrative Law provides a contemporary overview of the nascent field in detailed yet accessible terms, making it a valuable book for university courses. Academics and scholars with an interest in international law, administrative law, public law, and comparative law will find value in this book, as well as legal professionals involved with international and supranational organizations and national civil servants dealing with supranational organizations.
Taking as a starting point that hunger results from social exclusion and distributional inequities and that lasting, sustainable and just solutions are to be found in changing the structures that underlie our food systems, this book examines how law shapes global food systems and their ongoing transformations. Using detailed case studies, historical mapping and legal analysis, the contributors show how various actors (farmers, civil society groups, government officials, international bodies) use or could use different legal tools (legislative, jurisprudential, norm-setting) on various scales (local, national, regional, global) to achieve structural changes in food systems. Section 1, Institutionalizing New Approaches, explores the possibility of institutionalizing social change through two alternative visions for change - the right to food and food sovereignty. Individual chapters discuss Via Campesina's struggle to implement food sovereignty principles into international trade law, and present case studies on adopting food sovereignty legislation in Nicaragua and right to food legislation in Uganda. The chapters in Section 2, Regulating for Change, explore the extent to which the regulation of actors can or cannot change incentives and produce transformative results in food systems. They look at the role of the state in regulating its own actions as well as the actions of third parties and analyze various means of regulating land grabs. The final section, Governing for Better Food Systems, discusses the fragmentation of international law and the impacts of this fragmentation on the realization of human rights. These chapters trace the underpinnings of the current global food system, explore the challenges of competing regimes of intellectual property, farmers rights and human rights, and suggest new modes of governance for global and local food systems. The stakes for building better food systems are high. Our current path leaves many behind, destroying the environment and entrenching inequality and systemic poverty. While it is commonly understood that legal structures are at the heart of food systems, the legal academy has yet to make a significant contribution to recent discussions on improving food systems - this book aims to fill that gap."
Published since 1929 (and featuring cases from 1919) the International Law Reports is devoted to the regular and systematic reporting of decisions of international courts and arbitrators and judgments of national courts. Cases are drawn from every relevant jurisdiction--international and national. This series is an essential holding for every library providing even minimal international law coverage. It offers access to international case law in an efficient and economical manner.
Among the cases reported in Volume 119 are Pinochet decisions from English, Spanish, Belgian, and Luxembourg courts. The volume also includes an important ICSID arbitral award in Metalclad (and British Columbia decision), and the arbitration tribunal maritime delimitation Phase Two of the Eritrea/Yemen dispute. Finally, Volume 119 reports the Southern Bluefin Tuna (Australia and New Zealand v. Japan) arbitration tribunal award of August 2000.
Written by a team of international lawyers with extensive academic and practical experience of international criminal law, the fourth edition of this leading textbook offers readers comprehensive coverage and a high level of academic rigour while maintaining its signature accessible and engaging style. Introducing the readers to the fundamental concepts of international criminal law, as well as the domestic and international institutions that enforce that law, this book engages with critical questions, political and moral challenges, and alternatives to international justice. Suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate students, academics and practitioners in the field, and cited by the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Court, the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, and the highest courts in domestic systems, this book is a must-read for anyone interested in learning more about international criminal law.
Das Buch versucht, zu einem besseren Verstandnis des Strukturwandels des Voelkerrechts beizutragen. Zu diesem Zweck entwirft es ein Prinzipienmodell des Voelkerrechts, mit dem sich die voelkerrechtlichen Entwicklungen, an die die Strukturwandelthese anknupft, theoretisch erklaren und dogmatisch erfassen lassen. Es weist nach, dass die Regeln des Voelkerrechts in normativer Hinsicht auf voelkerrechtlichen Grundprinzipien aufbauen, zeigt, dass der Bestand dieser Prinzipien wachst und analysiert, inwieweit das Aufkommen neuer Voelkerrechtsprinzipien das Verstandnis bestehender Voelkerrechtsregeln beeinflusst. Ausgehend hiervon pladiert das Werk dafur, die Erscheinungen des voelkerrechtlichen Strukturwandels als Konsequenz von Veranderungen im Bestand voelkerrechtlicher Grundprinzipien zu verstehen. An Fallstudien aus unterschiedlichen Teilbereichen des Voelkerrechts wird die Theorie abschliessend erprobt.
Rules controlling State aid and subsidies on the EU and the WTO level can have a decisive influence on both regulatory and distributive decision-making. This field of law has grown exponentially in importance and complexity over the past decades. Rules on State aid and subsidies control are one of the key instruments to ensure that public spending and regulatory measures do not lead to discriminatory distortions of competition. As a consequence, hardly any part of national law is free from review under criteria of State aid and subsidy regulation. In turn, State aid and subsidies law is linked to economic, constitutional, administrative law of the EU and the Member States as well as to public international law. This book brings together leading experts from academia, the judiciary, civil servants from the European Commission, and practising lawyers to provide expert opinion and commentary on the diverse dimensions of the complex and vital area of law. Critically analysing and explaining developments and current approaches in State aid law and subsidies, the chapters take into account not only the legal dimensions but also the economic and political implications. They address the EU law applicable to State aid in the aftermath of the recent State Modernisation reform, and coverage includes: an in-depth analysis of the notion of State aid as interpreted by the Court's cases-law and the Commission's practice; the rules on compatibility of State aid with the internal market; the rules governing the procedure before the Commission; the litigation before the Court of Justice of the European Union; and analysis of the other trade defence instruments, including WTO subsidy law and EU anti-subsidy law.
Based on the author's Hague Lectures on ICSID, this book on ICSID and the ICSID Convention provides a detailed introduction to the worlds leading institution devoted to international investment dispute settlement. Fully up-to-date as of mid-2019, the book presents a full and accessible picture of an increasingly important dispute settlement mechanism. The author delves into the origins and evolutions of the Convention and Centre and its jurisdiction, then navigates the reader through the process of arbitration proceedings under the Convention, applicable law, and the enforcement of Convention awards. The author also discusses efforts to reform international investment dispute settlement in general and ICSID arbitration in particular. ICSID: An Introduction to the Convention and Centre is an authoritative, essential guide for students, practitioners, policymakers, investors, NGO activists, and journalists with an interest in investor-state dispute settlement.
Counter-terrorism is now a permanent and sprawling part of the legislative and operational apparatus of the state, yet little is known about the law and practice of how it is reviewed, how effective the review mechanisms are, what impact they have or how they interact with one another. This book addresses that gap in knowledge by presenting the first comprehensive, critical analysis of counter-terrorism review in the United Kingdom, informed by exclusive interviews with policy makers, politicians, practitioners and civil society.
The global economic downturn has led to increased commercial litigation and insolvency proceedings in financial centres across the world. As a result, there has been a growing need to seek the assistance of courts in offshore jurisdictions where significant assets and/or evidence are likely to be found. Informed judgements must be made about what rules of law and practice govern the relevant judicial cooperation regimes, both by lawyers who manage litigation onshore concerning assets or evidence located offshore, and by offshore lawyers asked to advise their onshore counterparts. Although geographically small, the British territories of Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man are well established international financial centres. These six commercially significant jurisdictions are home to a vast array of commercial entities which conduct business throughout the world. There is growing concern over how the courts of these jurisdictions will cooperate with courts in other centres of commerce in responding to letters of request, enforcing foreign judgments, or assisting foreign liquidators. This book is the only publication to provide a detailed explanation of the law and practice in each of these six British territories and how each approaches the judicial cooperation issues of obtaining evidence for use in foreign proceedings, enforcing foreign judgments, and cross-border insolvency. It is edited by a commercial judge and two experienced commercial litigators with contributions from experts in each jurisdiction, all written from the perspective of the practitioner.
The Netherlands is once again at the helm of the EU in the spring of 2016. This volume brings together contributions on topics related to the Dutch Presidency Agenda 2016 from a number of scholars who are affiliated with Leiden University. Each of the authors reflects on elements and developments in EU law and policy that will be important to the EU agenda in the coming months from their own background or perspective. The volume offers unique contemporary, academic, and interdisciplinary insights on the functioning of the EU for national and European policy- and decision-makers.
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