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This book aims to advance the understanding of pre-commercial procurement (PCP) as innovation policy instrument and as means to fulfil public needs. To this end, it places PCP within its political and legal context and elucidates its origins and its economic rationale. Based on this analysis, it suggests a clear conceptualization of PCP and a clear delineation from other innovation policy instruments. Subsequently, the book assesses the value and achievements of the more established type of PCP policy programmes, and draws lessons for improvement. In this context, it raises awareness of the remaining obstacles to its wide and effective implementation and suggests appropriate solutions ranging from policy guidance to law interpretation and legislative reform. The text makes use of illustrative practical examples of policy-making and project implementation in various public programmes of R&D procurement. This is a highly relevant book for academics and practitioners in the field of public procurement. Ramona Apostol is Senior Procurement Adviser at Corvers Procurement Services B.V. in the Netherlands. She holds a Ph.D. in Law from Leiden University, the Netherlands. She has been involved in a wide range of procurement projects related to the implementation of R&D and innovation procurement and regularly acts as independent expert for the European Commission on this topic.
The book provides a comprehensive analysis of the advisory role of the International Court of Justice in light of its jurisprudence and overall contribution over a period of more than 55 years. The author highlights the "organic connection" between UN organs and the Court and the Court 's contribution as one of the UN 's principal organs to the Organisation. The basic argument of this study is that the advisory function should be understood as a two-sided process involving the interplay between UN organs and the ICJ. The request for and the giving of an advisory opinion is a collective coordinated process, involving more than one organ or part of the Organisation.
In Autonomy and Cooperation, noted legal scholar Dimitris Liakpolous explores the content of powers attributed by the Statute of Rome to United Nations Security Council. It begins by investigating the power to activate the investigations of the prosecutor before examining the power to suspend judicial activity. The book then defines the characteristics of Security Council intervention in the context of cooperation and judicial assistance and examines prerogatives regarding the crime of aggression. The study concludes with an appreciation of the effect of Security Council action on the jurisdictional activity of the International Criminal Court. Final considerations aim to examine the relevance of the possible coordination models of the action of the two bodies, proposed during this introduction, in defining the forms that the interactions between the two bodies.
This book analyses the governance foundations of innovation, brands, inventions, secrets and expression, which are the keys to a century based on knowledge. They are reflected in legal rights that have been fermenting over centuries of national policy deliberations on intellectual property rights, constantly in flux in the face of new advances in science, but overall a trend towards greater protectionism. As countries are challenged by the strictures of international agreements, often extorted through imbalanced power relationships, they seek their own national means for beneficial differentiation from the new global norms, whilst complying with international obligations. This book deals with the outcomes of regional governance of intellectual property, which often creates ripples in the search for harmony in the laws that form the basis for the future of intellectual property. The work has contributions that come from developing and developed nations, showing a common theme of the struggle to find the balance in an area of law that often does not provide clearcut solutions to real world environments. There are many intellectual property struggles illustrated in this work: patent at the boundaries of nature and invention, the need for drug development, which is driven by profit based on the patent monopoly; copyright, the expression of original thought, seeking to maximise exposure facilitated by the internet, but a system that facilitates rampant copying; trade marks, supporting company branding, seeks to exploit global branding through naming domains names; and other areas concomitant to the globalisation of intellectual property governance, such as foreign direct investment. This book holds up a mirror to the issues of world governance of intellectual property rights in this century, asking whether the direction we are currently following is in the best interest of global citizens, and showing the divergence that constraints are stimulating on a national level.
This book explores the regulations, goals and functioning of preparatory proceedings in four Nordic countries and eight former communist countries. The contributions discuss whether, and how the regulation and practice of preparatory proceedings enhance swift civil justice that is both inexpensive and has quality outcomes. A central question is whether the main hearing model of civil justice, in which preclusion of new evidence and claims occur at the end of the preparatory stage, results in greater efficiency, or whether the functioning of civil proceedings largely depends on other factors. It also examines regulation and use of court-connected mediation and judicial settlement efforts. This book offers comparative insights into the functioning of the preparatory civil proceedings in the countries covered. Preparatory proceedings are considered a key tool for achieving efficient civil proceedings. The claims and factual background of the case are clarified at an early stage, and the main hearing is focused. Judicial settlement efforts and court-connected mediation contribute to early resolution of cases, and are important elements of Nordic civil procedure The Nordic countries have used the main hearing model of civil proceedings for some decades, and recent reforms have further enhanced the role of the preparatory stage. Former communist countries are reforming their earlier piecemeal- format civil proceedings by introducing and strengthening written and oral preparation, as well as court-connected mediation.
The focus of this book is the legal analysis of the evolution of federal relationships from an asymmetric treaty-constitutional federation to a de facto unitary state. Questioned is whether it is worth returning to the asymmetric federative form, while the aim is to review the origins of federalism in the New Russia, assess the present de jure and de facto situations and analyze whether Russia has a chance of reviving federalism. Steps forward on the way to developed federal relationships in the 1990s have been replaced by steps backwards owing to unitary tendencies in the 2000s and the 2010s. But is this a sustainable state of affairs? The possible ways of framing relations between the center and the constituent units for the next four years and beyond are also discussed. This book is aimed at researchers and students in the field of comparative constitutional law, Russian studies and federal and regional studies. Gulnara R. Shaikhutdinova is Professor and Doctor of International Law in the Faculty of Law of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Among the cases reported in Volume 117 is the ICJ 1998 ruling on preliminary objections in the Lockerbie decision relating to the trial before a Scottish court in the Netherlands, along with additional materials. Six leading cases of the ECJ concerning the implementation of United Nations sanctions are also reported. In addition the United Nations Compensation Commission Egyptian Workers' Claims case, and the Sandline and Papua New Guinea 1998 arbitration under the UNCITRAL rules are reported. M/V Saiga (No 2) in 1998 and the Southern Bluefin Tuna Cases provisional measures rulings in 1999 from the International Tribunal for the Law of Sea are also included. Lastly, the volume contains Australia/New Zealand immigration cases.
Underground warfare, a tactic of yesteryear, has re-emerged as a global and rapidly diffusing threat. This book is the first of its kind to examine tunnel warfare in a systematic and comprehensive way, addressing the legal issues while keeping in mind operational and strategic challenges. Like many other aspects of contemporary warfare, the renewed use of the subterranean in armed conflict presents a challenge for democracies wishing to abide by the law. To Dr. Richemond-Barak, this challenge has not only been under-explored, it is also largely underestimated by the community of states, security experts, and public opinion. She analyzes traditional concepts of the laws of war as they relate to tunnels and underground operations, contemplating questions such as whether tunnels constitute legitimate targets, the assessment of proportionality in anti-tunnel operations, and the availability of advanced warning in this complex terrain. She also identifies issues that are unique to underground warfare, including those that arise when cross-border tunnels burrow under a state's own civilian infrastructure.
This book offers an in-depth account of the failure of popular constitution making in Turkey from 2011 to 2013, which was an anomaly in the otherwise authoritarian history of Turkish constitutional politics. The authors demonstrate that, even in unfavorable conditions, constitution making that brings together different stakeholders can potentially lead to significant improvement of constitutional regimes. Long-standing societal divides regarding cultural and religious diversity, which were evident in political parties' negotiations, played a significant role in the failure of the process in Turkey. Most notably, the ruling AKP's insistence on establishing a presidential system - supported by neither other political parties nor the public - destabilized the process and exacerbated distrust among the drafters. Unfavorable procedures, particularly an unrealistic deadline and the unanimity principle, prevented consensus and allowed the AKP to hijack the process. The process was a missed opportunity for democratization before Turkey plunged into full-fledged democratic backsliding.
Given that persons typically have a right not to be subjected to the hard treatment of punishment, it would seem natural to conclude that the permissibility of punishment is centrally a question of rights. Despite this, the vast majority of theorists working on punishment focus instead on important aims, such as achieving retributive justice, deterring crime, restoring victims, or expressing society's core values. Wellman contends that these aims may well explain why we should want a properly constructed system of punishment, but none shows why it would be permissible to institute one. Only a rights-based analysis will suffice, because the type of justification we seek for punishment must demonstrate that punishment is permissible, and it would be permissible only if it violated no one's rights. On Wellman's view, punishment is permissible just in case the wrongdoer has forfeited her right against punishment by culpably violating (or at least attempting to violate) the rights of others. After defending rights forfeiture theory against the standard objections, Wellman explains this theory's implications for a number of core issues in criminal law, including the authority of the state, international criminal law, the proper scope of the criminal law and the tort/crime distinction, procedural rights, and the justification of mala prohibita.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Among the consular relations cases reported are the ICJ decisions on the request for provisional measures in the 1998 Case Concerning the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (Paraguay v. United States) the 1999 LaGrand Case (Germany v. United States), and the corresponding decisions of the United States Supreme Court. Human rights cases include the 1999 decision of the European Court of Human Rights in Waite and Kennedy v. Germany, concerning whether the defendant's immunity from jurisdiction was considered compatible with right of access to court under Article 6(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights. Also included are fifteen important decisions of the United Nations Human Rights Committee and national courts during the 1990s.
Written as the decade-long Syria conflict nears an end, this is the first book-length treatment of how the Syrian war has changed international law. In The Syrian Conflict's Impact on International Law, the authors explain the history of the current conflict in Syria and discuss the principles and process of customary international law formation and the phenomenon of accelerated formation of customary international law known as Grotian Moments. They then explore specific examples, including how use of force against ISIS in Syria has changed the law of self-defense against non-state actors, how the allied airstrikes in response to Syria's use of chemical weapons have changed the law of humanitarian intervention, and others. This book seeks to contribute both to understanding the concept of accelerated formation of customary international law and the specific ways the Syria conflict has led to development of new norms and principles in several areas of international law.
This volume of essays casts light on the shape and future direction of the EU in the wake of the Lisbon Treaty and highlights the incomplete nature of the reforms. Contributors analyse some of the most innovative and most controversial aspects of the Treaty, such as the role and nature of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and the relationship between the EU and the European Court of Human Rights. In addition, they reflect on the ongoing economic and financial crisis in the Euro area, which has forced the EU Member States to re-open negotiations and update a number of aspects of the Lisbon 'settlement'. Together, the essays provide a variety of insights into some of the most crucial innovations introduced by the Lisbon Treaty and in the context of the adoption of the new European Financial Stability Mechanism.
The volume provides analyses and evaluations of the continuing importance of Europe's autonomy in its access to space as a key driver in the development of European space capabilities. From a detailed historical analysis of some of the pitfalls of dependence in the space industry, experts analyse the full range of current European space capabilities and identify areas where autonomy is both possible and required, even in a situation of severe budgetary constraints. The contributions present a comprehensive overview of European efforts in a broad range of areas including energy, culture, science, and security; access to space, space applications, human spaceflight, security and space situational awareness, and strategic issues. They make a cogent strategic and economic case for policy makers to continue to bear in mind the importance of autonomous space capabilities, even in an interdependent globalised world.
This book provides a thorough legal analysis of sovereign indebtedness, examining four typologies of sovereign debt bilateral debt, multilateral debt, syndicated debt and bonded debt in relation to three crucial contexts: genesis, restructuring and litigation. Its treatise-style approach makes it possible to capture in a systematic manner a phenomenon characterized by high complexity and unclear boundaries. Though the analysis is mainly conducted on the basis of international law, the breadth of this topical subject has made it necessary to include other sources, such as private international law, domestic law and financial practice; moreover, references are made to international financial relations and international financial history so as to provide a more complete understanding. Although it follows the structure of a continental "tractatus, "the work strikes a balance between consideration of doctrinal and jurisprudential sources, making it a valuable reference work for scholars and practitioners alike."
This fifth volume in the book series on Nuclear Non-Proliferation in International Law focuses on various legal aspects regarding nuclear security and nuclear deterrence. The series on Nuclear Non-Proliferation in International Law provides scholarly research articles with critical commentaries on relevant treaty law, best practice and legal developments, thus offering an academic analysis and information on practical legal and diplomatic developments both globally and regionally. It sets a basis for further constructive discourse at both national and international levels. Jonathan L. Black-Branch is Dean of Law and Professor of International and Comparative Law at the University of Manitoba in Canada; a Bencher of the Law Society of Manitoba; JP and Barrister (England & Wales); Barrister & Solicitor (Manitoba); and Chair of the International Law Association (ILA) Committee on Nuclear Weapons, Non-Proliferation & Contemporary International Law. Dieter Fleck is Former Director International Agreements & Policy, Federal Ministry of Defence, Germany; Member of the Advisory Board of the Amsterdam Center for International Law (ACIL); and Rapporteur of the International Law Association (ILA) Committee on Nuclear Weapons, Non-Proliferation & Contemporary International Law.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Volume 134 reports on, amongst others, the decisions on the death penalty from the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, the United Nations Human Rights Committee and the courts of Barbados, Jamaica, Malawi, Singapore and Trinidad and Tobago; the decisions from the International Court of Justice (LaGrand and Avena) and the European Court of Human Rights (Mamatkulov) on the nature and scope of provisional/interim measures; and the decisions from the International Court of Justice (LaGrand and Avena) and the United States of America (Sanchez-Llamas) on consular relations/Article 36 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, 1963.
This new edition provides a critical introduction to the concepts, principles and rules of international law through a consideration of contemporary international events. It examines both the possibilities and limitations of the legal method in resolving international disputes, and notes the actual effects of international law upon international disagreements. Such an approach remains sceptical rather than cynical, and is intended to provide the means by which the role of international law may be evaluated. This entails discussion of the legal quality of international law; the relationship between international law and international relations; the Eurocentricity' of international law; and the connection between political power and the ability to use or abuse (or ignore) international law. The new edition explores the impact of the United States' latest direction in foreign policy (arguably an intensification of pre-existing neo-conservative trends); considers in greater depth the issue of economic self-determination in relation to ex-colonial nations; expands the discussion of jurisdiction to cover immunity from jurisdiction; and covers recent developments at the International Criminal Court. Underlying the book is the assertion that international law is political in content (in the sense of being concerned with the exercise of power) but that it draws much of its effectiveness from its self-portrayal as being apolitical, or at least politically neutral.
The book investigates how an analogy between States and international organizations has influenced and supported the development of the law that applies to intergovernmental institutions on the international plane. That is best illustrated by the work of the International Law Commission on the treaties and responsibility of international organizations, where the Commission for the most part extended to organizations rules that had been originally devised for States. Revisiting those codification projects while also looking into other areas, the book reflects on how techniques of legal reasoning can be - and have been - used by international institutions and the legal profession to tackle situations of uncertainty, and discusses the elusive position that international organizations occupy in the international legal system. By cutting across some foundational topics of the discipline, the book makes a substantive contribution to the literature on subjects and sources of international law.
Antje Wiener examines the involvement of local actors in conflicts over global norms such as fundamental rights and the prohibition of torture and sexual violence. Providing accounts of local interventions made on behalf of those affected by breaches of norms, she identifies the constraints and opportunities for stakeholder participation in a fragmented global society. The book also considers cultural and institutional diversity with regard to the co-constitution of norm change. Proposing a clear framework to operationalize research on contested norms, and illustrating it through three recent cases, this book contributes to the project of global international relations by offering an agency-centred approach. It will interest scholars and advanced students of international relations, international political theory, and international law seeking a principled approach to practice that overcomes the practice-norm gap.
In our post-11 September world, challenges to international peace and security emanate from non-State actors as never before. Under international law States have an obligation to act with due diligence in confronting non-State actors that engage in terrorism. The author of this book examines the grounds and mechanisms through which a State can bear responsibility for breaching its due diligence obligations in this regard. He explores the question whether a comprehensive definition of terrorism exists and reviews the development of the due diligence principle during the last century. After doing so, the author examines how the due diligence principle operates in the counter-terrorism context by analysing international and regional treaties and Security Council Resolutions. Theoretical issues that arise when interpreting the due diligence principle are also studied. The author concludes by critically engaging with the question whether national security should trump human rights in the fight against terrorism. This book fills a significant gap in the literature. It is principally designed for policy makers, academics, and students of international law.
This volume focuses on the everyday social relationships through which international justice is produced. Using case studies from the International Criminal Court, the European Court of Human Rights, the UN Women's Convention Committee and elsewhere, it explores international justice as a process that takes place at the intersection of the often contradictory practices of applicants, lawyers, bureaucrats, victims, accused and others. With a sensitivity to broader institutional and political inequalities, the contributors ask how and why international justice is mobilised, understood and abandoned by concrete social actors, and to what effect. An attention to the different voices that feed into international justice is essential if we are to understand its potentials and limitations in the midst of social conflict or full blown political violence.
In the past twenty years, international criminal law has become one of the main areas of international legal scholarship and practice. Most textbooks in the field describe the evolution of international criminal tribunals, the elements of the core international crimes, the applicable modes of liability and defences, and the role of states in prosecuting international crimes. The Oxford Handbook of International Criminal Law, however, takes a theoretically informed and refreshingly critical look at the most controversial issues in international criminal law, challenging prevailing practices, orthodoxies, and received wisdoms. Some of the contributions to the Handbook come from scholars within the field, but many come from outside of international criminal law, or indeed from outside law itself. The chapters are grounded in history, geography, philosophy, and international relations. The result is a Handbook that expands the discipline and should fundamentally alter how international criminal law is understood.
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