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This highly readable book examines the law of State responsibility, presenting it as a fundamental aspect of public international law. Covering the key aspects of the topic, it combines a clear overview with use of specific case studies in order to provide a deeper understanding. The concise chapters are organized into two parts. Part One provides a structural overview of the law, with up-to-date coverage of practice and case law reflecting the key international law reports. Part Two offers specific case studies, asking probing questions in order to explore how the international legal order deals with breaches of its norms and what rights and faculties are accorded to the aggrieved State. With an approach that is legally analytical yet also practical, this accessible book will provide valuable insights to both scholars and practitioners of international law. Its clear structure and guidance on the latest practice and case law will also make it an ideal choice for students.
The legitimacy and performance of the traditional criminal justice system is the subject of intense scrutiny as the world economic crisis continues to put pressure on governments to cut the costs of the criminal justice system. This volume brings together the leading work on restorative justice to achieve two objectives: to construct a comprehensive and up-to-date conceptual framework for restorative justice suitable even for newcomers; and to challenge the barriers of restorative justice in the hope of taking its theory and practice a step further. The selected articles start by answering some fundamental questions about restorative justice regarding its historical and philosophical origins, and challenge the concept by bringing into the debate the human rights and equality discourses. Also included is material based on empirical testing of restorative justice claims especially those impacting on reoffending rates, victim satisfaction and reintegration. The volume concludes with a critique of restorative justice as well as with analytical thinking that aims to push its barriers. It is hoped that the investigations offered by this volume not only offer hope for a better system for abolitionists and reformists, but also new and convincing evidence to persuade the sceptics in the debate over restorative justice.
This two-volume set gathers together some of the most significant contributions to the study of global health law. Global health law is a recent field of research in its own right, encompassing the relatively narrow core of international rules and institutions devoted to health protection and promotion, as well as the complex interactions between health and multiple areas of international law. By bringing such diverse perspectives into a single collection, together with an original introduction by the editor, this book will be an important resource for scholars and practitioners both in public health as well as in legal and policy fields such as trade and investment, human rights and the environment.
The EU is faced with the perpetual challenge of guaranteeing effective enforcement of its law and policies. This book brings together leading EU scholars in law, politics and regulation, to explore the wealth of new legal and regulatory strategies, practices, and actors that are emerging to complement the classic avenues of central and decentralized enforcement. The contributors evaluate the traditional 'dual vigilance' framework of enforcement before examining network(ed) enforcement from theoretical, empirical and legal perspectives. They assess innovations in key EU policy fields such as the environment, consumer protection, competition, freedom, security and justice, and economic governance. This multi-disciplinary book will be of use to students and academics in law, political science, regulation and public policy. It will also interest policy-makers in EU institutions, national administrations and courts engaged in the implementation and enforcement of EU law and policy.
The history of international adjudication is all too often presented as a triumphalist narrative of normative and institutional progress that casts aside its uncomfortable memories, its darker legacies and its historical failures. In this narrative, the bulk of 'trials' and 'errors' is left in the dark, confined to oblivion or left for erudition to recall as a curiosity. Written by an interdisciplinary group of lawyers, historians and social scientists, this volume relies on the rich and largely unexplored archive of institutional and legal experimentation since the late nineteenth century to shed new light on the history of international adjudication. It combines contextual accounts of failed, or aborted, as well as of 'successful' experiments to clarify our understanding of the past and present of international adjudication.
The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the world's largest regional security organisation, possesses most of the attributes traditionally ascribed to an international organisation, but lacks a constitutive treaty and an established international legal personality. Moreover, OSCE decisions are considered mere political commitments and thus not legally binding. As such, it seems to correspond to the general zeitgeist, in which new, less formal actors and forms of international cooperation gain prominence, while traditional actors and instruments of international law are in stagnation. However, an increasing number of voices - including the OSCE participating states - have been advocating for more formal and autonomous OSCE institutional structures, for international legal personality, or even for the adoption of a constitutive treaty. The book analyses why and how these demands have emerged, critically analyses the reform proposals and provides new arguments for revisiting the OSCE legal framework.
Brownlie's Principles of Public International Law has been shaping the study and application of international law for over 50 years. Serving as a single-volume introduction to the field as a whole, the book is one of the classic treatises on international law, now fully updated to order to take account of recent developments. It includes extensive references in order to provide a solid foundation for further research. Authored by James Crawford, the ninth edition further secures the work as the essential international law text for students and practitioners.
The responsiveness to societal demands is both the key virtue and the key problem of modern democracies. On the one hand, responsiveness is a central cornerstone of democratic legitimacy. On the other hand, responsiveness inevitably entails policy accumulation. While policy accumulation often positively reflects modernisation and human progress, it also undermines democratic government in three main ways. First, policy accumulation renders policy content increasingly complex, which crowds out policy substance from public debates and leads to an increasingly unhealthy discursive prioritisation of politics over policy. Secondly, policy accumulation comes with aggravating implementation deficits, as it produces administrative backlogs and incentivises selective implementation. Finally, policy accumulation undermines the pursuit of evidence-based public policy, because it threatens our ability to evaluate the increasingly complex interactions within growing policy mixes. The authors argue that the stability of democratic systems will crucially depend on their ability to make policy accumulation more sustainable.
It is often argued that the nuclear non-proliferation order divides the world into nuclear-weapon-haves and have-nots, creating a nuclear apartheid. Employing a careful and nuanced discussion of this claim, Elli Louka examines the architecture of the nuclear non-proliferation order, the fairness and effectiveness of international and regional institutions and scenarios for the future of nuclear weapons. A sophisticated study of a complex issue, this book is a must-read for policymakers and those who wish to understand the intricacies and challenges of developing institutions to address the nuclear weapon threat.
International Law provides a fresh, student-focused approach and European perspective on the central issues in public international law. Providing ideal coverage for short foundational courses, this engaging textbook introduces all the essential topics in a concise and manageable way. Dedicated chapters on environmental law, economic law, and human rights are included, ensuring that appropriate coverage is given to the various areas affected by international law. The core topics are fully explained in plain terms and the principles and key terminology outlined in an accessible style. Taking a critical perspective throughout, Henriksen introduces the areas of debate and builds students' confidence in understanding the complexities of the international legal system and its operation across borders. Particular emphasis is placed on the key issues in civil law jurisdictions, making this text perfectly suited for students based in mainland Europe. A range of learning features highlight the important areas of debate and encourage students to engage critically with important disputes. Central issues boxes introduce each chapter, highlighting the controversies and key principles explored; chapter summaries provide an overview for students to review their understanding of a particular topic; discussion questions encourage students to apply their knowledge to addressing specific problems within the context of the subject; and carefully selected recommended reading lists guide students' wider research and enable them to broaden and consolidate their learning. Online Resources International Law offers a range of freely available materials to support lecturers and students in their studies. These resources include: - Short podcasts introducing the core topics covered - Advice on answering the Questions for Discussion at the end of each chapter - Links to other international law resources
This carefully edited text collects the major documents on International Criminal Law, through the early practice after the First World War, the Nuremberg and Tokyo International Military Tribunals up to the present. It includes the statutes of the ad hoc Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, as well as the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and its associated documents, including the elements of crimes that were adopted to assist the Court, and its Rules of Procedure and Evidence. The book also includes the main treaty provisions that provide the basis of the subject. Edited by a specialist in the field with more than twenty years' experience of teaching international criminal law, this book is designed for practical use by students and practitioners. For students it is ideal as a companion for both study and examination.
Epistemic Forces in International Law presents a comprehensive examination of the methodological choices made by international lawyers and provides a discerning insight into the ways in which lawyers shape their arguments to secure validation within the international legal community. International law is defined in this book as an argumentative practice, articulated around a set of foundational doctrines and deployed through rhetorical techniques. Taking an original approach, Jean d'Aspremont focuses on five key foundational doctrines of international legal theory and five key techniques deployed in international legal argumentation. He argues that mastering these foundational principles and argumentative procedures shapes the discourse of international lawyers as much as these discourses shape these foundational doctrines and techniques of legal argumentation. This book is a pertinent contribution to the methodology and theory of international law, illustrating the rationale of the choices made by lawyers in the doctrines of statehood, sources, law-making, international organisations and effectivity. This accessible reflection on the conceptual, theoretical and methodological perspectives of international law will be a salient point of reference for legal academics, researchers and practitioners alike.
Russian interference in the 2016 US presidential election produced the biggest political scandal in a generation, marking the beginning of an ongoing attack on democracy. In the run-up to the 2020 election, Russia was found to have engaged in more "information operations," a practice that has been increasingly adopted by other countries. In Election Interference, Jens David Ohlin makes the case that these operations violate international law, not as a cyberwar or a violation of sovereignty, but as a profound assault on democratic values protected by the international legal order under the rubric of self-determination. He argues that, in order to confront this new threat to democracy, countries must prohibit outsiders from participating in elections, enhance transparency on social media platforms, and punish domestic actors who solicit foreign interference. This important book should be read by anyone interested in protecting election integrity in our age of social media disinformation.
The system of optional clause declarations is a unique regime of compulsory jurisdiction based on the two World Courts' Statutes. This timely book offers a wide-ranging academic survey of the developments of that system, the theoretical and procedural aspects of the unilateral declarations of acceptance and the reservations added to these declarations. The author critically examines those reservations which undermine the system of compulsory jurisdiction and discusses the major controversies. She considers the various aspects of compulsory jurisdiction giving special attention to the States' practice, the Courts' jurisprudence and both Courts' relevant case law. The book contains a unique comparative analysis of all the declarations of acceptance made since the establishment of the Permanent Court of International Justice while also debating the shortcomings and the future of the system. This comprehensive study will strongly appeal to international law academics and advanced students as well as to practitioners involved with international judicial fora.
What does it mean to be resilient in a societal or in an international context? Where does resilience come from? From which discipline was it 'imported' into international relations (IR)? If a particular government employs the meaning of resilience to its own benefit, should scholars reject the analytical purchase of the concept of resilience as a whole? Does a government have the monopoly of understanding how resilience is defined and applied? This book addresses these questions. Even though resilience in global politics is not new, a major shift is currently happening in how we understand and apply resilience in world politics. Resilience is indeed increasingly theorised, rather than simply employed as a noun; it has left the realm of vocabulary and entered the terrain of concept. This book demonstrates the multiple origins of resilience, traces the diverse expressions of resilience in IR to various historical markers, and propose a theory of resilience in world politics.
The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies, industry professionals, as well as the service sectors, researchers and scientists and the interested public.
The standard account of the First Amendment presupposes that the Supreme Court has consistently expanded the scope of free speech rights over time. This account holds true in some areas, but not in others. In this illuminating work, Ronald J. Krotoszynski, Jr acknowledges that the contemporary Supreme Court rigorously enforces the rules against content and viewpoint discrimination for those who possess the wherewithal to speak but when citizens need the government's assistance to speak - for example, access to public property for protest - free speech rights have declined. Instead of using open-ended balancing tests, the Roberts and Rehnquist Courts have opted for bright line, categorical rules that minimize judicial discretion. Opportunities for democratic engagement could be enhanced, however, if the federal courts returned to the Warren Court's balancing approach and vested federal judges with discretionary authority to require government to assist would-be speakers. This book should be read by anyone concerned with free speech and its place in democratic self-government.
This timely Research Handbook provides a critical conceptualization and definition of the growing field of global health law. The Research Handbook forms the first comprehensive study on the treatment of health issues in international legal regimes and explores the role of international law in addressing the most prominent global health challenges. The editors have consciously adopted a holistic approach by including 'soft' norms and informal law-making processes in the Research Handbook's scope to give a realistic account of the normative framework that shapes contemporary global health. Despite following a predominantly legal perspective, the Research Handbook also adopts an interdisciplinary approach by looking at health from a governance perspective and using insights from international relations scholarship in forecasting possible future developments surrounding health law. The Research Handbook features contributions from a team of leading international legal scholars who have experience of approaching the issue of global health from multiple angles. International law scholars who are seeking information on the growing role of health in governance trends will find this Research Handbook to be of great interest. Public health scholars who are researching international legal perspectives on health practice and policy will also find it to be a valuable resource.
Socio-centric societies have vibrant - albeit different - concepts of human flourishing than is typical in the individualistic West. These concepts influence the promotion of human rights, both in domestic contexts with religious minorities and in international contexts where Western ideals may clash with local norms. Human Rights in Thick and Thin Societies uncovers the original intentions of the drafters of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, finds inspiration from early leaders in the field like Eleanor Roosevelt, and examines the implications of recent advances in cultural psychology for understanding difference. The case studies included illustrate the need to vary the application of human rights in differing cultural environments, and the book suggests a new framework: a flexible universalism that returns to basics - focusing on the great evils of the human condition. This approach will help the human rights movement succeed in a multipolar era.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 172 is devoted to the 2014 judgment of International Court of Justice in Maritime Dispute (Peru v. Chile), the judgment of South African Constitutional Court in National Commissioner of the South African Police Service v. Southern Africa Human Rights Litigation Centre and the 2016 judgment of the English High Court in R (Freedom and Justice Party) v. Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs.
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) is one of the central institutions of the EU and has played a decisive role in European integration. As one of the most powerful international courts, at a time when political systems around the world are becoming more judicialized, it is a key actor to understand in world affairs. Yet it is not without controversy. As both an interpreter of law and as a political power influencing policy-making through its bold case law, it has become increasingly criticized in recent years for its perceived activism and distance from the European people. Combining the perspectives of a legal scholar and a political scientist, this important new text gives a uniquely broad-ranging account of the CJEU. It introduces readers to the role and function of the Court and explains how it fits into the broader political system and historical evolution of the European Union. It examines the constitutional contributions made by the Court and the part it plays in policy-making, in areas such as the environment, gender equality and human rights. Drawing on the latest research, the book takes full account of recent changes to the place of the Court in the European political system, and shows how new forms of governance, such as the open method of coordination, have had a significant impact on the role the Court is able to play.
Using case studies ranging from cross-border bank resolution to sovereign debt, the author analyzes the role of international law in protecting financial sovereignty, and the risks for the global financial system posed by the lack of international cooperation. Despite the post-crisis reforms, the global financial system is still mainly based on a logic of financial nationalism. International financial law plays a major role in this regard as it still focuses more on the protection of national interests rather than the promotion of global objectives. This is an inefficient approach because it encourages bad domestic governance and reduces capital mobility. In this analysis, Lupo-Pasini discusses some of the alternatives (such as the European Banking Union, Regulatory Passports, and international financial courts), and offers a new vision for the role of international law in maintaining and fostering global financial stability. In doing so, he fills a void in the law and economics literature, and puts forward a solution to tackle the problems of international cooperation in finance based on the use of international law.
The 2010 Kampala Amendments to the Rome Statute empowered the International Criminal Court to prosecute the 'supreme crime' under international law: the crime of aggression. This landmark commentary provides the first analysis of the history, theory, legal interpretation and future of the crime of aggression. As well as explaining the positions of the main actors in the negotiations, the authoritative team of leading scholars and practitioners set out exactly how countries have themselves criminalized illegal war-making in domestic law and practice. In light of the anticipated activation of the Court's jurisdiction over this crime in 2017, this work offers, over two volumes, a comprehensive legal analysis of how to understand the material and mental elements of the crime of aggression as defined at Kampala. Alongside The Travaux Preparatoires of the Crime of Aggression (Cambridge, 2011), this commentary provides the definitive resource for anyone concerned with the illegal use of force.
The European Union has established relationships with other international organizations and institutions, mainly as a result of its increasingly active role as a global actor and the transfer of competences from the Member States to the EU. Containing chapters by leading scholars, this Research Handbook presents a comprehensive and critical assessment of these relationships, examining both the EU's representation and cooperation as well as the influence of these external bodies on the development of EU law and policy. Insightful and analytical, the Research Handbook explores the interaction of the EU with both formal and informal international institutions as it seeks to become more visible and active within these. The many challenges associated with the limits set by the EU and by international law and politics in relation to EU participation and the 'state-centred' international legal system are assessed. This unique Research Handbook will be a key resource for scholars and students of international and European law and political science, providing a unique overview of the less well-known international organizations in addition to the large institutions. The examination of the development of law and policy will also be of interest to the practitioners of these organizations and those at national ministries.
Offering a more accessible alternative to casebooks and historical commentaries, Law Among Nations explains issues of international law by tracing the field's development and stressing key principles, processes, and landmark cases. This comprehensive text eliminates the need for multiple books by combining discussions of theory and state practice with excerpts from landmark cases. The book has been updated in light of the continuing revolution in communication technology, the dense web of linkages between countries that involve individuals and bodies both formal and informal; and covers important and controversial areas such as human rights, the environment, and issues associated with the use of force. Renowned for its rigorous approach and clear explanations, Law Among Nations remains the gold standard for undergraduate introductions to international law. New to the Eleventh Edition Added or expanded coverage of timely issues in international law: Drones and their use in the air and in space Immigration Islamic views of international law Inviolability and the difference between diplomatic immunity and sovereignty, in light of the Benghazi attack Thoroughly rewritten chapters in areas of great change: International criminal law Just war and war crime law New cases, statutes, and treaties on many subjects
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